Data Integration for Distributed Databases

Ejiofor, V.E., Nwachukwu, E.O. and Enyinnaya, C. V.


This research focuses on data integration for distributed databases. The database represents the integration of the data/information of an organization. The data come from diverse sources which may have diverse formats. Data integration implies a well-organized effort to define and standardize all data elements to conform to a common format acceptable throughout the organization. The framework is implemented in the XML Web Service which does the data integration with minimal external guidance. Any request from any of the distributed databases is sent to the XML web service for harmonization, interpretation and signaling to the appropriate database that will handle the request. The reply is also communicated to the caller platform via the XML web service. The research methodology used is the Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM). Object oriented methodology was also adopted in the design.

Ecological Studies of Vegetation of Sonhat Block, Dist-Koria (Chhattisgarh) India

Mantosh Kumar Sinha and Deepima Sinha


Koria district in Chhattisgarh lies between 22058' and 23051' North Latitude and 81059' and 82045' East Longitude and has a forest area of 81.23%. The district has a sizeable tribal population using enormous range of plants for their basic needs, sustenance and livelihood. The district has very rich plant diversity, including medicinal plants. The vegetation of the block has not comprehensively described.Keeping these points in view the present investigation was planned to enumerated phytosociological bservations of vegetation of medicinal plants belonging to Sonhat block numerated 99 medicinal plants were recorded. . Plants showing maxi-mum frequency were Aloe barbadensis, Jussiaea suffruticosa, Hygrophila augustifolia and Phyllanthus nirurii. In Sonhat, the numerical strength and abundance was also recorded as high in Thysanolaena agrostis, Shorea robusta, Lawsonia inermis, Chloroxylon swietenia and Dodonaea viscosa. Density range is 45.2 to 96.3 and abundance ranged from 90.4 to 151.6. Plant species showing minimum density were Buchanania lanzan, Curcuma amada and Glossogyne pinnatifida in Sonhat (1.6 and 1.5).In Sonhat, exhibited less abundance plant species were Buchanania lanzan, Coleus aromaticus, Grewia tiliaefolia, Embelia ribes. 

Hydrogeochemical Quality Assessment of Ground Waters in Ernakulam District, Kerala, India

K .N Sumangala, P.S Akhil and C. H Sujatha


The present study paves the way to provide the first baseline data on chemical characteristics of ground water with respect to the hydro geo chemical facies highlighting the distribution trend in the levels of trace metal and prominent organochlorine, organophosphorus and commercially available pesticides which are used in the Ernakulam district. The district lies between North latitudes 90 42́’ and 100 18́’ and East longitudes 760 09́’ and 770 02́’, having a geographical area of 2408 sq km. Due to the inherent industrial pollution augmented in the district, an urgent need for conducting water quality monitoring studies is essential. Fifteen roundwater samples were examined and quantified for major ions, trace metals and pesticides during the period of September 2007 to May 2008. Out of the 15 observation stations (12 Open wells and 3 Bore wells) none of them were affected by the influence of pesticides as they are well protected groundwater structures. Concentration of Lead, Zinc, Cadmium and Arsenic were below the BIS permissible limits. 

Role of Heterosis among Yield and Yield Contributing Characters in Yield Maximization in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)

D.A. Shinde, P. B. Patel and S. S. Patil


A line x tester analysis was carried among four lines and ten testers to study heterotic effect of yield contributing characters on yield. Experimental findings revealed that best performance of top ten hybrids was mainly cumulative effect of yield contributing characters. Further, it is also found that yield character is governed by non-additive gene action. 

Intercomparison of Parameters of Gumbel Distribution for Rainfall Frequency Analysis

N. Vivekanandan


Estimation of rainfall for a desired return period is one of the prerequisite for planning, design and management of various hydraulic structures. This paper details a study involving the use of five methods such as method of moments, maximum likelihood method, method of least squares, order statistics approach and Probability Weighted Moments (PWM) for determination of parameters of Gumbel distribution for estimation of rainfall at Bhivpuri, Karjat and Matheran sites. Goodness-of-Fit tests like Anderson-Darling and Kolmogorov-Smirnov are used for checking the adequacy of fitting of the parameter estimation method to the recorded annual maximum rainfall data. Diagnostic analysis involving D-index is used for assessing the adequacy of fitting of method to the recorded data for rainfall estimation in upper tail region. Model performance indicators such as correlation coefficient and root mean square error are used for selection of a suitable method for determination of parameters of Gumbel for rainfall estimation. The study shows that the PWM to be the best suited, amongst the five methods studied, for estimation of rainfall at the sites under study.

A New Approach for Spatial Pattern Analysis

Neethu C V and Subu Surendran


Spatial data mining aims to extract interesting, useful, non-trivial patterns from the spatial datasets. The main challenge in accomplishing this task is the huge amount of data contained in thespatial data bases. In order to tackle this problem, we are proposing a new frame work based on spatialclustering and association rule mining. This is a generalized frame work which can be applied to anyspatial application domains. Here, we are illustrating the working for discovery of co-located pointsof interests in Indian region. This provides an overview of current trend in this region. DBSCAN algorithm is using for spatial clustering. The spatial lusters obtained from this are then given as inputto the FPGrowth algorithm for performing association rule mining. These spatial association rules arethe indicators of current spatial trends. 

An Investigation on Argulus Foliaceus Infection of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) in Artificial Lake Amghass II Province Ifrane Morocco

Aba Mustapha, Belghyti Driss, Elkharrim Khadija, Loukili abdechahid , Benabid Mohammed


Infectious diseases of fish are broadly categorized as parasitic, bacterial, viral, or fungal. The genus Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura), or fish louse, are common parasites of freshwater fish. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of Argulus in rainbow trout at differents part of this fish in middle atlas at city Azrou province of Ifrane Morocco. Investigations on the occurrence of Argulus foliaceus from fish caught in the lake situated at 22 Km to the southwest of Azrou city centre , revealed that on A total of 170 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined for ectoparasites.The parasites collected from the skin and fins of fish and gills were identified as Argulus foliaceus . Obtained results revealed that, the highest infection rate was recorded among the large rainbow trout and the distribution of parasites was not uniform on different parts of body fishes. 

Remote Sensing and Research Aspects in Technological Development of Computer Science

Ishuita Sen Gupta and Mragank Singhal

An Introduction to Security Issues in Wireless Sensor Networks

Vinayak Gupta, Brijesh Kumar Singh, Parmeshwar Lal Bhanwariya

First record of Koegal Ground Gecko (Geckoella collegalensis) Beddome, 1870 Sauria: Gekkonidae) from little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India

Nitin Walmiki, Siddhesh Karangutkar, Bhaskar Yengal, Rishab Pillai, Rushil Bhatt, Anil Gohil, Asif K

Implementation and Analysis of Standalone and Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

Basavaraj Hugar and Smt. Sunita S. Tambakad

Analysis of Variation of Trace Metal Concentration of Soil at Obosi Automobile Junk Market

Ugbebor J. N. and Ntesat B.,

Review on Railway Traction Power Supply System

Jitendra Kumar Srivastava, Vinod Kumar Singh and Ashish Kumar Singhal

Mining Frequent Patterns Based on Agglomerative Clustering and Apriori Algorithm

Suneetha Merugula and Rachitha Sony Krotha

Mineral Uptake in the Leaves of Manihot Esculenta Crantz Harvested in Moanda (Gabon) and Assessment of Potential Health Risks for Populations.

Anguilé J. Jacques, T. Makani , Robert M. NEMBA, A. N. Messi Me Ndong

Analysis of Urban Transport Noise Level – A Case Study of Chidambaram Town, Tamilnadu

Senthil kumar. G and Murugappan.A

The Use of Multivariate and Graphical Methods in Assessing Environmental Disturbance: Temperate versus Tropical Regions

Sapto P. Putro, Agung Sudaryono, Suhartana and Riche Hariyati


This study is aimed to assess the effectiveness of multivariate analyses and distributional/graphical techniques in assessing the response of macrobenthic assemblages to environmental disturbance caused by fish farming, comparing temperate and tropical regions. The biotic datas were used from samples taken under southern bluefin tuna farms in southern Spencer Gulf, South Australia, and under fish impoundment at coastal region of Demak District, Central Java, Indonesia. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Non Metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (NMDS) were used for analysis the abiotic and biotic datas, respectively. Abundance-Biomass Comparison (ABC) curves were employed to detect the level of disturbance. The results showed that the use of multivariate analyses and distributional/graphical techniques are effective to assess the severity of disturbance, owing to sensitive response of macrobenthic assemblages to environmental disturbance that made it possible to detect the effects of farming activities. The ordination of the MDS and ABC curves showed consistently with Wstatistic and H’ index values in assessing the status of the area in both tropical and temperate regions. They clearly separated the disturbed and undisturbed areas, whether in spatial and temporal, thus the methods may be applied for the datas taken from temperate and tropical regions.

An Improved Approach for Connecting the Internet by Extending MANET Routing Protocol with the help of Gateway

Rajesh Shrivastava and Shubhankee dubey


A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an autonomous network. The ad hoc routing protocol AODV is one of the promising routing protocols investigated by the MANET working group. It can be used in a mobile ad hoc network to route packets between mobile nodes. However, it cannot provide access to the mobile nodes outside the MANET because it does not support routing between a fixed network like the Internet and a mobile ad hoc. Existing AODV does not have the ability to get connected to the nodes outside the MANET. This interconnection is achieved by using gateways, which act as bridges between a MANET and the Internet. In this paper our main focus was on evaluating the performance of the three gateway discovery approaches under varying number of nodes. However, to have an in-depth idea of the performance characteristics of these approaches .We need to consider many other issues.

Structural and Dielectric Behaviour of 0.77 Ba(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 -0.23BaTiO3 Ceramics

Avinash Kumar, Pritam Kumar and N. K. Singh


Complex perovskite oxides are widely used in various solid -state devices e.g., optical devices, multilayer capacitors, transducers, actuators, sensors etc. High dielectric constant materials such as barium iron niobate nowadays become more and more important in ceramics materials. However,Pb-based compound are somewhat toxic and therefore, as a substitution for more environment friendly materials in application, attention is being increasing focused on the preparation of Pb-free high–performance piezoelectric materials. Perovskite oxides of 0.77Ba (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3-0.23BaTiO3, (BFN-BT) was synthesized by the tradition solid-state reaction method and performed their preliminary X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) analysis and the temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric measurements of the BFN-BT ceramics. The XRD patterns of the BFN-BT at room temperature show a monoclinic phase. Above compounds are useful for high voltage capacitors and other applications, such as multilayer capacitors, sensors, detectors and actuators. Detailed studies of dielectric and electrical properties of the materials in a wide range of frequency (100Hz–1MHz) and temperatures (30-230°C) showed that these properties are strongly temperature and frequency dependent. 

Study of Galvanizing Plant

Mrs.Rupali S.Tupkar, Mrs. Manisha.S.Lande and Ms.Prerna S. Borkar


This paper describes one of development activities carried out for galvanizing plant. We are focusing towards eliminate the basic problems in processes and also to improve the quality of product and enforcing to make the relevant process more effective and working. In this work, we have visited the galvanizing plant many times and study over the all processes carried out in a plant. We found that there are lots of factors by which the efficiency of plant can be increased the quality of product can also be improved, whereas the cost of production process is decreased.

Study on Sex Ratio of Terapon Puta (Cuvier, 1829) From Puducherry Coast, India

Nandikeswari, R , Sambasivam. M and Anandan, V


Sex ratio of Terapon puta from Puducherry coast has been studied. The overall of sex ratio of male to female is 1.06:1. The male outnumbered the female with chi-square value . The data on sex ratio in relation to various length groups showed that in lowest length group (10-12) only male were recorded. In the highest length group (20-22) 91.67% of female and 8.33% of male were recorded. The length group is directly proportional to number of female.

Fish Diversity of Govindgarh Reservoir, Rewa (Madhya Pradesh)

Vivek Pandey, Tariq Zafar, Ameen Khan and Kamlesh Borana

Assessment of Arsenic Contamination in Ground Water: A Case Study of Bandlaguda Village, Patanchervu Ida, Hyderabad

P. Sekhar


In the present study an attempt was made to assess the extent of Arsenic contamination in the Ground waters of a village Bandlaguda near Patancheruvu IDA, Hyderabad. Ground water contamination of arsenic is confined to a very few pockets in Andhra Pradesh. Patancheruvu IDA and its surrounding areas are one among where very high levels of Arsenic were reported. The present study also confirmed the same trend in the study site Bandlaguda village where Arsenic levels of as high as0.76ppm with an average value of 0.718ppm. The water quality index studies indicated that the ground water in the study sites is completely unsafe for drinking as is evident by high index values of 246.4544. An attempt was also made to reduce the arsenic contamination in ground waters by using suitable naturally available adsrobents. Two adsorbents iron modified rice husk carbon (Fe-RHC) and iron modified saw dust carbon (Fe- SDC) have shown higher removal  efficiencies (88% & 89% respectively) when compared to their unmodified counterparts 

An Implementation of Algorithms of Visual Cryptography in binary and Gray Scale Images

Archana B. Dhole and Nitin J. Janwe


Visual Cryptography is a new Cryptography technique which is used to secure the images. In Visual Cryptography the Image is divided into parts called shares and then they are distributed to the participants. The Decryption side just stacking the share images gets the image. The initial model developed only for the bi-level or binary images or monochrome images. Later it was advanced to suit for the Color Images means Gray Images and RGB/CMY Images. This paper presents a study of implementation of algorithm of visual cryptography, Implementation of security level in Visual Cryptography Sharing Algorithm for Gray Level Images and Comparison with previous approaches show the superior performance of the new method. Experimentation are conducted with standard synthetic and real data set images, which shows better performance of proposed color image visual cryptic scheme measured in terms of PSNR value and time with existing binary method.. The results showed that the PSNR values for proposed scheme is better than the existing scheme and maintains security. 

Assessment of Air Quality in Bidadi Industrial Area, Ramanagaram District, Karnataka, India

Madhukar R And Srikantaswamy S.


With an increased pace of industrialization especially in developing countries, environmental problems have also increased. At the same time, with growing population and economic development, there has been a rapid rise in air pollution sources. Due to this, a number of pollutants are released in the ambient air deteriorating its quality. The health effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions. The ambient air quality of eight selected stations in and around Bidadi industrial area was monitored every fortnight, on an 8 hourly basis in different seasons of the year. Air quality was assayed with respect to the concentration of SPM, SO2 and NOx and the parameters were correlated. The results reveal that the value of SO2 and NOx are within permissible limits in all observed stations, whereas the value of SPM is high in all the stations. Annual Air Quality Indix (AQIs) of selected stations of Bidadi industrial area for the representative year 2012 was calculated to evaluate the level of atmospheric pollution 

Mitigation of a Ripple in a Fuel Cell Single Phase Isolated Converter for a Grid Power System

G. Laxminarayana and Venna Hanumantha Reddy


In this proposed method the content of ripples in current is reduced without requirement of extra switching devices. Due to the current ripples the lifetime of capacitors, fuel cells are decreased. In this proposed circuit the energy buffer capacitor is connected to the centre tap of the isolation transformer so this circuit realizes a dc active filter function without increasing the number of switching devices. Due to the common-mode voltage of the inverter the buffer capacitor voltage is controlled in additionally. The features of the proposed circuit are explained and Simulation results are presented. Simulation result proves the ripple reduction, to approximately 25% that of the conventional circuit. 

Impact of Climate on Faunal Distribution in Garhwal Himalaya along Altitudinal Gradients

Harish Nautiyal


The present investigation on the Altitudinal faunal distribution of Garhwal Himalaya (North-West) is carried out to obtain the distribution of animals in different climatic zones. Based on the survey following brief account represents the silent features of animals in ecological zones. There are several elements restricted to definite habitats or Zones, however, large number of elements have wide adaptability, as to occur in variant altitudinal limits. For study purpose the Garhwal Himalaya is mainly divisible into three major zones on the basis of animal distribution Viz, Submontane, Montane, and Alpine zone. With respect to altitudinal range, topography, edaphic or climatic features, phytosocial affinities, facies, location etc, mountainous fauna have specific preference. In addition to above impacts of biotic or climatic pressures on faunal communities, composition, distribution & change of habitat (Soil & Climate) are obviously pronounced. Occasional aberration in seraphic or climatic cycles such as high wind impacts, thunder storms, cloud burst, continuous drought, floods, excessive hail storms, fog & frost, landslides change in the course of rivers and rivulets, silting of rivers etc influence the fauna to great extent. 

Inventory on Fish Species Diversity from Selected Water Bodies of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi Districts, Karnataka, India.

Sushmitha Rao, K. Bhasker Shenoy and Sreepada K.S.


The inland water resources of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Karnataka are facing major threats due to draining down of wetlands. Hence, a systematic survey was undertaken during May 2011 – June 2012 to record the diversity of fish present in these two districts. Six regionally and geographically important rivers and tanks were selected for the study. 78 fish species belonging 58 genera of 36 families have been recorded from the study area. About 12 species are found only in tanks and 40 species are found only in rivers and 26 species are common in tanks and in rivers. Of these species, as per IUCN status 45 species are least concerned, 3 are vulnerable, 5 are found to be nearthreatened, 3 data deficient, one is found to be of endanger category and nearly 21 species are yet to be evaluated for their conservation status. The species distribution patterns in the study area along with the current status of different water bodies are presented in the paper. 

Industrial Disaster and Disaster Risk Reduction

R.P. Prajapati


India is developing as a key global player in industrial and technology sector. Rapid industrialization has increased the hazard, risk and vulnerability of the industry and the environment. Chemical being at the core of modern industrial and production systems, the risk of accidents involving chemicals has attained a very serious concern for disaster management within the government, corporate sector and the community at large. Major chemical (industrial) disasters are low in frequency but are significant in terms of potential loss of lives, injuries, environmental impacts, property damage and socio-economic implications. Major impacts of chemical disaster has increased in last few years due to rapid development of chemical industries of a wider range - manufacturing & formulation, petro-chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agro-chemicals fertilizers, pesticides, industrial chemicals, and  facilities that store hazardous chemicals - oil depots, exploration/ mining and beneficiation sties, ports, docks, treatment plants, power, etc. Increase in size of plants, storage and carriers specially in densely populous areas has posed the greater risk and vulnerability for such disaster ikeliness. 

Distribution, Utilization and Diversion of Bank Credit in Rajasthan

Basant Kumar Sharma and R.C. Kumawat


Credit is a unique source for adopt the capital intensive production technologies. To fulfill the farm credit requirement, a number of institutional as well non-institutional agencies are engaged. But, the farmers are not utilized whole amount of credit to stipulated purposes because they have insufficient earnings for domestic consumption requirements. The present study was designed to analyze the bank credit utilization pattern by the sample farmer borrowers in two panchayat samitis (Govindgarh and Sambhar Lake) of Jaipur district of Rajasthan. A sample of 221 farmer borrowers was selected for this study. The primary as well as secondary data were required to arrive at the stated objectives. It is concluded that the total utilization of credit was highest (88.09 per cent) for medium-term bank credit followed by long-term (80.93 per cent) and short-term bank credit (51.86 per cent). On the other hand, the diversion of credit was lowest (11.91 per cent) for mediumterm bank credit followed by long-term (19.07 per cent) and short-term bank credit (48.14 per cent). The diversion of short-term credit was about four times higher as compared to medium-term credit and it was about two and half times higher as compared to long-term credit. 

Water Auditing of Chikmagalur Water Supply Scheme

Shruthi.C.G,Sathisha.N.S and Jeevitha.P


Water audit is the most effective tool for water management. Water audit can tell you how efficiently your system is operating and where some of your losses may be occurring. The world’s water resources are finite but exist on a planet with a constantly growing population. The development of water resources to man’s benefit has been a fundamental factor in the evolution of civilizations throughout history. But, as our populations continue to grow and shift, the availability of quality water resources is in decline. Pollution, climate change and construction of cities in dry regions are some of the factors exacerbating evolving supply/demand imbalances. To account this, it is essential that man utilize existing water resources in the most careful, efficient manner. Water audits provide a rational, scientific framework that categorizes all water use in your system. It is a tool to overcome drought related problem, shortage, leakage and losses. In the present study water auditing was conducted for Chikmagalur water supply scheme. Reservoir Yagachi which is located in Belur around 18 km away from Chikmagalur city is the source. The audit comprises of calculating the system input, authorized use and real losses. In Chikmagalur, no proper leak detecting method is adopted. Leaks are repaired only after getting complaints from the customers, when the water leakage is recognized visually. In the study ultrasonic testing one of the Non-Destructive Testing method was adopted to check the leaks in the water supply pipelines. From the data collected and standard formulation, the performance indicator Infrastructure Leakage Index, ILI value calculated is 0.6 which indicates that the system performance is good as the water supply system is well maintained. The water tariff fixed by the city municipality of Chikmagalur based on flat rate system is Rs.90.00 and it is compared with the proposed water tariff of Rs.270/- which is calculated. Based on the data collected, the results obtained are drafted on American Water Works Association water balance chart. 

Comparative Study of Optimal Canal Design by Various Approaches

Syed Zafar Syed Muzaffar, S. L. Atmapoojya, D. K. Agarwal


This paper deals with the “Comparative study of Optimal Canal design by various approaches”. The approaches are variation in discharge, cost of side, cost of base, cost of curve and value of K  (multiplying constant). We have done the study in two ways, in case I, we have consider r = f (y) and in case II, r = constant. In this investigation in both cases in all above approaches it is seen that we have obtained the minimum optimal cost of the section and effect of other parameters are also seen in the design. The Computer program is developed in C- language and results were also checked by method of ANN. The method suggested is based on numerical trial and error solution. Micro economic theory is use to obtain the dimension of the canal section. This methodology can be used very conveniently by the designer to design the optimal canal section. 

System Description and Modelling of the Photovoltaic System

Rituraj Jalan, H. P. Agarwal


The main aim of this manuscript is to analyze the interface of photovoltaic system to the load, the power electronics and the method to track the maximum power point (MPP) of the solar panel. Then main emphasis is to be placed on the photovoltaic system, the modeling and simulation photovoltaic array, the MPP control and the DC/DC converter will be analyzed and evaluated. The step of modeling with MATLAB and Simulink of the photovoltaic system is shown respectively and simulation results are provided. 

Review on Power Electronics in Systems for the Production of Renewable Energy

Virendra Kumar Maurya, H. P. Agarwal


In this paper Multi-Source Renewable Distributed Energy Generation (MRDEG), where different renewable energy generation (non-conventional) schemes and their interconnections for the future are discussed. The main purpose of MRDEG is to connect the energy sources to generate & fulfill power requirement other than the present fashion. Due to increased attention towards clean and sustainable energy, distributed energy systems are gaining popularity all over the world. Power electronics are an integral part of these energy systems being able to convert generated electricity into consumer usable and utility compatible forms. Power electronics is having blended use in renewable energy in wind and photovoltaic system. Power electronics is now developing in the area of efficiency and reduction of installation cost. Wind turbine now uses inverter with improved efficiency and regulation. The PV modules are divided into strings each generating sufficiently high voltage for avoiding amplification. String are connected in parallel through diodes initially line commutated inverter using thyristors were used but has poor harmonics performance. So one or two string of crystalline module are connected to each inverter which has own MPP tracker controller and power losses are reduced. 

Response of Three Bottomland Hardwood Forest Tree Species to Root-Zone Exogenous Ethanol

D. R. Baud and S. R. Pezeshki

Horizontal Aggregation with secondary indexes to prepare datasets from databases

Arla.Sravanthi and Rambabu Pemula


Internet search engines have popularized the keyword- based mostly search paradigm. Whereas ancient management systems provide powerful question languages, they are doing not enable keyword-based search. During this paper, we tend to discuss Hierarchical Indexer, a system that permits keywordbased mostly search in relative databases. Hierarchical Indexer has been enforced employing an industrial on-line database and net server and permits users to act via a browser front-end. We tend to define the challenges and discuss the implementation of our system as well as results of intensive experimental analysis. 

A Study on Learning Techniques in Artificial Neural Network

P.Baby, P.Bhuvaneswari and K.Sasirekha


An artificial neural network, often just called a neural network, is a mathematical model inspired by biological neural networks. A neural network consists of an interconnected group of artificial neurons, and it processes information using a connectionist approach to computation. In most cases a neural network is an adaptive system that changes its structure during a learning phase. Neural networks are used to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs or to find patterns in data.An artificial neural network is an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in the human brain.