A brief summery on voltage Sag & effects of Voltage Sag on Industrial Power Plant equipment

Virendra Kumar Maurya, Rituraj Jalan, Dharmendra Pal, Abhishek Miliand Siddrath, Bhupendra Singh, Kitti Tripathi, Manju Singh Lodhi and Pradeep Kumar


With The Increasing Use Of Electronic Equipment's In Industrial Areas, Power Quality Issues Have Received More And More Attention From Utilities Building Owners And Manufacturing During The Last Years .Recently, Several Topologies Of Active Power Filters Have Been Proposed As A Solution To Minimize Power Quality Problems. Voltage Dips Are One Of The Major Quality Problems, Requiring Solutions At Both Utility And Customer Level, Indeed The Equipment Usually Used In Conventional Industrial Processes, Such As Contactors, Ground Fault Relays, Adjustable Speed Drives, Computer Or Motor Contactors Are Highly Sensitive To Voltage Dips.

Correlation between Selected Ambient Air Pollutants and Total Hydrocarbon Content in Plants Leaves along Roadsides in an Industrialized City in Niger Delta, Nigeria

T.J.K. Ideriah, S.A Abere and W.Trinya


The contributions of VOC, CH4 and TSP to the concentrations of Total Hydrocarbon in plant leaves along selected roadsides in Port Harcourt were investigated. Air and plant samples were collected from roads during the dry and rainy seasons. Hydrocarbon content in plants leaves was determined using a 21D spectrophotometer while gaseous air pollutants were determined using portable hand held air monitors which include an Industrial Scientific Corporation ITX Multi Gas Monitor and Aerosol Mass Monitor by Met One Instrument INC. The results showed highest concentrations of TSP (0.946 mg/m3), VOC (4.2ppm), CH(5.0ppm) and HC (8,844.71mg/kg) in the dry season and TSP (0.129 mg/m3), VOC (1.2ppm), CH4 (1.5ppm) and HC (58,220.0mg/kg) in the rainy season. The concentrations of VOC recorded at the study stations exceeded permissible limit recommended by the Federal Ministry of Environment and therefore call for serious environmental concern. The mean concentrations of hydrocarbons in plants leaves and the gaseous pollutants measured during the dry season were generally higher than the mean concentrations measured during the rainy season. The differences between the dry and rainy season values were significantly different at P≥0.05. The levels of gaseous pollutants and hydrocarbons in plants leaves are influenced by seasonal variations. The correlation between TSP in air and THC in leaves (TSP/THC) showed higher coefficient (0.5192) in dry season than (0.2687) in the rainy season while VOC/THC was higher in the rainy season (0.1623) than in the dry season (-0.1340) and CH4/THC (0.0607) in the rainy season and (0.0601) in the dry season. The trend of the squar d correlation coefficients was TSP/THC > VOC/THC > CH4/THC in both seasons. The volatile organic carbon in the air is not the major contributor of total hydrocarbon in plants leaves in the study area.

Studies on the Water Quality of Wetlands and Their Economic Prospects in District Mainpuri (U.P.) India

Amita Sarkar and Bhavna Upadhyay


In view of the significant importance of wetlands in the ecosystem and regional economy of wetland birds, an attempt has been made to analyze the physico-chemical characters of wetland waters in Mainpuri district. Physiochemical studies of wetlands of Mainpuri was conducted six times in an year, during April 2011 to Feb 2012 to estimate the water pollution status of wetlands at Mainpuri .The work has been taken up as a comparative study of the five study sites viz- Site-I(Markandeshwar), Site-II (Bhamwat Canal), Site-III (Saman ), Site IV(Sauj) and Site-V(Kirithua). In this paper we discuss temperature, pH, DO, BOD, COD, TDS, TSS and Hardness of water from these wetlands. The results indicate that the water is hard .These wetlands at Mainpuri requires attention and concern for their conservation. They support the rich fauna found there including habitat for many local and migratory birds. Saman and Sauj(Site-III and IV) are IBAs(Important bird areas) under Important Bird Areas Programmes of BNHS and Bird Life International. 

Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) based Technique for Detection of Blood Group

Jinan F. Mahdi, S. N. Helambe and Nazneen Akhter


Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) based techniques are known to be very useful for studying dielectric properties of liquids over a wide range of frequencies. Dielectric properties of liquids cover a vast area of interest for scientists from a variety of disciplines of science and technology including medical physics and bio sciences. Human Blood consist of complex biological molecule and exhibit different characteristics based on the constituents and their relative proportion. We present TDR technique for determination of human blood group. This method of determination of blood relies on dielectric properties of blood and makes use of the lag time introduced by blood sample in the reflected waveform. The approach works well and can be further refinements by designing  different sample cells with impedance matching and improved waveform analysis techniques using sophisticated instrumentation for higher time resolution. The blood group of the sample is found from the reflected waveform from the TDR setup by measuring the lag time introduced. The system is tested for its reproducibility and accuracy by conducting series of experiments. The resulting waveforms are analyzed manually and using computer program, from graphs using the TDR data file. There is excellent agreement between blood group determination using this technique and the conventional pathological laboratory methods. The relation between the lag time and the blood group of the sample is presented and details discussed.

The Importance of Natural Preservation for Kampung Livability

Erinda D. Aryanti, Fakhurin K. Noviabahari, Kartika D. Paramitha, and Happy R. Santosa


Natural preservation of a settlement is very important for a sustainable life. Especially when the livelihood of inhabitants in the  settlement depends on the surrounding natural resources. As happened in kampung wonorejo, some of the inhabitants work as fishermen, fishpond farmers, and catfish farmers. Kampung is a typical dense urban settlement and inhabited by the lower middle income people, formed without planning and the infrastructures tend to inadequate. The aim of this research was to examine the state of the settlement and the importance of preservation in relation to life support in coastal village. The method used was explorative survey and observation to find the actual field condition. The result showed that the inhabitants of kampung wonorejo have utilized the nature as well as did natural preservation. With the potential of existing natural and awareness of the community to improve their quality of life, kampung wonorejo will be a livable kampung.

A general overview of Solar Thermal Applications and Solar Photovoltaics Applications

Virendra Kumar Maurya, Rituraj Jalan Jangalwa Sandeep Soni, Hanuman Prasad Agarwal, S. H. Abdi, Dhar


This paper represents the modern investigation on incredible solar energy in real World. The Sun is the ultimate source of energy. Here we are focusing on ‘Village Electrification by Photovoltaic Micro Grid Using Solar Energy’ i.e. micro grid using solar/photovoltaic cell as renewable energy source Solar Energy. This Paper also deals with the various utilities of Solar energy and make life comfortable & nature friendly. Model of Solar/Photovoltaic Micro Grid is made using Simulink/MATLAB. Solar energy is an important, clean, cheap and abundantly available renewable energy. This Paper also deals with the various utilities of solar energy and makes life comfortable & nature friendly.

The Unconventional Sources of Oil and Gas: The Fuels for Growth in the 21st Century

Sumeer Kalra and Shantanu Asthana


The energy scenario today is quite challenging. The demand for energy is increasing day by day. As the world progresses in the 21st century, with more and more people rising above poverty throughout the world, the global energy demand has increased exponentially in the past few decades. The cause of concern is that this demand cannot be met by the depleting conventional  reserves, particularly oil and gas. A partial solution to this problem is the unconventional sources of hydrocarbons i.e. Shale, Tight Gas Sands, CBM and Gas Hydrates. Tertiary development through EOR in conventional reserves is very costly. Instead of spending huge sums of money on fields which are in their last stages, we can look to utilize some of that into exploring the unconventional sources of Hydrocarbons. In this paper, we first try to compare the aspects of exploring new unconventional sources against the improving the present conventional reserves. (Example: Schlumberger has pegged the reserves of gas in shale deposits across the country at 300 times higher than Reliance’s Krishna Godavari (D6) basin, by far the largest gas field in the country while the ageing fields are supposed to pull down ONGC's output by 3% in Financial Year 2012). Then we do a detailed analysis of the unconventional sources of Oil and Gas (Shale, CBM, Tight Gas Sands and Gas Hydrates) through 5 strategic management methods (SWOT, BCG MATRIX, 5 Force Model, Involved Threats, Space). On the basis of these analyses, we will derive appropriate conclusions.

Screening of Antibiotic Producing Fungi from Soil

P. A. Mary Helen, Mary Shiny, Shabi Ruskin, S. Jaya Sree and A. M. Nizzy


Fungi were isolated from the soil sample and it was characterized as Aspergillus sp by Lactophenol cotton blue staining. The  antimicrobial activity of fungal extract was tested against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The extract was tested against eight bacteria and five fungi. Then bioactive compounds were purified by silica gel column chromatography and it was identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Eight compounds such as Benzene, 1-fluoro- 4-meth; 3-Benzyl sulfanyl-3-fluor; 1H- ndene,1,3-dimethyl-; 1H-Indole,1,2- dimethyl-; 3Beta-acetoxy-4,4,8,10,1; Benzene,1-fluoro-3-methyl-; 1H-Indole,1,2- dimethyl-; 1,2- denzenedicarboxylic acid were identified. Cytotoxic activity of fungal extract on HepG2 were analysed by Trypan Blue dye exclusion method.Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed on Aspergillus sp isolated from soil sample. Nine primers such as OPA 01, OPA 02, OPA 03, OPA 04, OPA 05, OPA 06, OPA 07, OPA 08, OPA 09 were used for the RAPD analysis. DNA banding patterns generated by RAPD were scored for the presence (1) or for absence (0) of each amplified band. For genetic distance analysis, using NTSYS software Cluster analysis was based on similarity matrices using the unweighted pair group method analysis (UPGMA) program in the software package.

Utility of Sensor Networking at Highways in Hilly Area

Dr. G.S. Bhardwaj, B.L.Salvi, Mayank Mehta and Sourabh Gaur


The power of wireless sensor network technology has provided the capability of developing large scale system for real time monitoring of landslide on highways road side. This paper describes the evolution of a wireless sensor network system for detection landslide. The deployment and data retrieval or collection from geophysical sensor, the design, development and deployment of WSN, and the network requirements of the deplyed landslide detection system has been discussed in this paper. The feasibility of above study is conducted in highs of the Aravalli Mountain, where the region is known for frequently falling of stones in hilly area four lanes nh76.

GIS-Based Proximity Analysis of Schools, An E-Governance Initiative

Vinod Jain and Animesh Pant


Given shape files of a particular region along with shape file of schools, it is possible to get statistical information regarding such regions which might be suitable for opening new schools based on given geographical criterion of school opening planning committee. GNS (Get Nearest School) function can be used in determining such settlements which either do not have schools within ‘n’ KM of region or which have ‘k’ number of schools within ‘n’ KM of region where k>=1. Such type of proximity analysis requires more attention.

Future Trends in Mobile Commerce: Service Offerings, Technological Advances and Security Challenges

Dr. Manish Shrimali


Driven by the ubiquitous deployment of mobile systems, the widespread use of the Internet, the rapid advances in wireless  technologies, the insatiable demand for high-speed interactive multimedia services, and the growing need for secure wireless machine-to-machine communications, mobile commerce is rapidly approaching the business forefront. In this paper, future trends in major aspects of mobile commerce are discussed. In light of the fact that the highlypersonalized, context-aware, location-sensitive, time-critical, pin-point information presentation forms the basis upon which promising applications can be built, mobile commerce services are presented. In order to provide a multitude of attractive applications and ensure their success in future, a plethora of enabling technology is identified. Finally, privacy concerns, rust issues, and security challenges in wireless arena are discussed.