Human health hazard implications of heavy metals in agricultural foodstuff grown around brick kiln areas in Bangladesh

Ram Proshad, Md. Mahfuzur Rahman, Tapan Kumar, Md. Shozibul Islam Niaj Mursheed3 and Rajan Howladar;JECET; March 2017- May 2017; Sec. A; Vol.6. No.2, 138-156.,[DOI: https://doi.org/10.24214/jecet.A.6.2.13856]

Abstract

Heavy metal toxicity has proven to be a major threat to human and have health hazard for consuming agricultural foodstuff grown around brick kiln areas. The hazardous effects of heavy metals are very harmful for the human body. Heavy metals get accumulated in the body and food chain, exhibiting a chronic nature. This research was conducted to evaluate the concentration of six common heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb) in agricultural foodstuff associated health implications in Bangladesh which grown in brick kiln vicinity. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) deterministic approaches were employed to determine the potential health risk of heavy metals in foodstuff. Estimated daily intake (EDI), noncarcinogenic risk and carcinogenic risk were assessed to explore human health hazard specially children. Heavy metals concentration for all foodstuffs exceed maximum allowable concentration causing potential health risk to consumer of present study areas. The EDI of Cr, Ni, As, Cd and Pb were found higher than maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI).Total THQ for all metals were more than 1 explaining consumers would face severe health hazard if they ingest these metals from agricultural foodstuffs. Calculated HI values are higher than 1 cause noncarcinogenic risk to adult and children. Again the estimation described that CR of As (6.10E+00 for adult; 2.60E+00 for children) and Pb (2.60E-01for adult; 2.30E-01 for children) exceeded the USEPA accepted risk level (10-6) clearly revealed that consumption of these foodstuffs definitely poses cancer risks to the Bangladeshi population.

Variations of the toxic potential of drinking water containing propyphenazone before and after chlorine disinfection

Achille Lutumba Suika, Jin Aijie , Feng Li, Zhang Liqiu,JECET; March 2017- May 2017; Sec. A; Vol.6. No.2, 128-137.[DOI: https://doi.org/10.24214/jecet.A.6.2.12837]

Abstract

Quinolones - typical pyrazole in drinking water are often exposed to the Isopropylphenazone (PRP) as the research object, investigated with variation of acute toxicity of water and the genetic toxicity of PRP before and after chlorination of drinking water. The results of acute toxicity test showed that Chlorella, different concentrations of PRP (0, 0.004, 0.009, 0.017, 0.035, 0.069, 0.139 mmol/L) exposure conditions, the Chlorella growth inhibition rate showed obvious dose effect relationship, with the increase in the concentration of PRP exposure, chlorella growth inhibition rate increased in the high dosage of chlorine; (the concentration ratio of PRP and 1:2 and 1:5 Moore chloride), inhibition on the growth of Chlorella water after chlorination rate was higher than that in low chloride before disinfection, chlorine dosage (concentration ratio of PRP and 4:1 and 1:1 Moore chloride), water samples of chlorella growth inhibition rate was below the chlorination, show low chlorine dosage can reduce the risk of acute toxicity of water produced by PRP. The results of genetic toxicity test showed that the SOS/umu, both with and without exogenous metabolic enzymes S9, PRP showed a good dose-response relationship, the induction ratio (IR value) increases with the increasing of PRP concentration, but overall genetic toxicity is relatively small (IR<1.5); PRP in the chlorination process. The IR value increased with the increase of the amount of chlorine and gradually become larger, direct and indirect genotoxicity toxicity equivalent of TEQ4-NQO and TEQBaP etc. were increased, showed that the direct genetic toxicity of PRP containing drinking water after chlorination and indirect genetic toxicity increased with the increasing amount of chlorine.

Esterification of dichloromaleic anhydride with low molecular (C1-C4) aliphatic alcohol in the presence Zeolite catalysts

B.A. Ismayilova, A.C. Efendi, D.B.Tagiyev, E.M. Babayev, A.M. Aliyeva, C.T. Rustamova, N.F. Aykan,JECET; March 2017- May 2017; Sec. A; Vol.6. No.2, 122-127.,[DOI: https:/doi.org/10.24214/jecet.A.6.2.12227]

Abstract

The activities of natural mordenite, clinoptilolite, CaY, NaY, KY-2, Seokar, KMPS, and ZSM were examined during esterification of low molecular aliphatic alcohols (C1–C4) with dichloromaleic anhydride in the presence of vanadium-based catalysts which those anhydrides obtained from the gas phase oxidation chlorobenzene and chlorotoluene. In the same technological condition all used catalysts presented activity in the esterification reaction. H+ forms of examined catalysts were found more active. The better results were during esterification reaction in the presence KMPS, ZSM catalysts. At the same time the reactivity order of aliphatic alcohols determined as, CH3OH > C2H5OH > C3H7OH > C4H9OH.

Chromosome Morphology of African Sharp-tooth Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

Shabeena Yaqoob & Abha Swarup,JECET; March 2017- May 2017; Sec. A; Vol.6. No.2, 117-121.,[DOI: https://doi.org/10.24214/jecet.A.6.2.11721]

Abstract

Cytogenetic studies on fish have been useful in providing information concerning evolutionary and taxonomic studies as well as for the genetic improvement of commercial fish stocks. Although the application of fish karyotype, has received a considerable attention in recent years in many parts of the world, there are still a very limited data on karyotype of the endemic fishes in India. The aim of this study was to determine the karyotype structure of Clarias gariepinus of order Siluiriformes collected from local fish market, was carried out using modified Air dying technique. Clarias gariepinus was found to have standard karyotype and diploid chromosome number of 2n=56. The study further revealed that this catfish consists of ten pairs of metacentric chromosomes, eight pairs of sub metacentric, five pairs of sub telocentric chromosomes. The work documented the karyotypic polymorphism of Clarias gariepinus.

Evaluating Real-Time air monitoring system of PM10 emission from highway construction work zones

Dazhi Sun, Dishant A. Shah, Xiaoyu Liu, Jong-Won Choi, and Joseph O. Sai,JECET; March 2017- May 2017; Sec. A; Vol.6. No.2, 101-116.,[DOI: https://doi.org/10.24214/jecet.A.6.2.10116]

Abstract

The construction of transportation infrastructures involves heavy movement of dirt and chemicals, emission of aerosol from various construction equipment, production of fugitive dust from the excavations, saw cutting, demolitions, and vehicle movements. This results in liberation and offsite migration of the contaminated dust in and around the construction work zone, which effects the natural state of the environment and people around. The major issues are lack of visibility for drivers on the road and health concerns for the construction workers. The main objective of this study is to present a real-time air monitoring system for the highway construction work zones and determine the air quality impact and control measures. The exposure level of the aerosol content in the soil-derived dust are calculated using the DustTrak 8520 by measuring the particle concentrations corresponding to PM10 size fraction. The Trak Pro software is used to extract data file from the Dust Trak 8520 instrument collected during the field experiments. In order to provide the appropriate actions against PM10 emission from the construction work zones, a detailed analysis of the released PM10 concentration during the field test in form of graphical representation is conducted. This research will determine the air quality impact of work zones during peak hours at various locations. Moreover, it will signify the impact of air quality on the local environment due to release of PM10 concentration by various construction activities and equipment. Thus, the detailed analysis and simulation will estimate the major dust emitting source from the construction work zones and thereby determining its impact on the surrounding environment. Furthermore, various control measures and strategies are discussed for controlling the PM10 emission rates from these sources.According to this research, the average amount of PM10 concentration from the construction work zones is obtained by estimating the average amounts of up-wind and down-wind locations of the work site. Thereby, providing awareness to the workers for executing appropriate actions against fugitive dust released from the work zones.