Land Use Land Cover Classification Analysis in Chamarajanagara Taluk, Southern Tip of Karnataka State, India using Geo-informatics

H.T. Basavarajappa, K.N. Pushpavathi and M.C. Manjunatha, JECET; June 2017- August 2017; Sec. A; Vol.6. No.3, 209-224., [DOI:10.24214/jecet.A.6.3.20924]

Abstract

Earth’s land pattern is one of the natural resources which being pressurized across the globe due to various factors. Rapid increase in population, its rises agricultural activities, urbanization, significant mining for growing economic minerals were the major anthropogenic factors impacting the Land Use/ Land Cover (LU/LC) patterns. The present aim is to map the LU/LC classification on LISS-III Satellite images in conjunction with Google Earth image through GIS software’s. An attempt have been made to delineate the level-I, level-II and level-III LU/LC classification system through NRSC guidelines (1995) using both Digital Image Processing (DIP) and Visual Image Interpretation Techniques (VIIT) with limited Ground Truth Checks (GTC). Level-III classification has been carried out in detail on agricultural to study the cropping pattern. More accurate classifications were observed in case of DIP as compared to that of VIIT in terms of area statistics. The final results highlight the capability of geo-informatics in classifying the LU/LC patterns around Chamarajanagara taluk of Karnataka, in Natural Resource Mapping (NRM) and its sustainability.

Production of Penicillin in Corn Steep Media with Continuous Glucose, Sucrose and Lactose Addition

Nathaniel N. Ngerebara and Lawrence O. Amadi,JECET; June 2017- August 2017; Sec. A; Vol.6. No.3, 203-208., [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.6.3.20308]

Abstract

Investigation into the replacement of conventional lactose fermentation by glucose or sucrose fermentation in corn steep liquor (CSL) medium using Penicillin chrysogenum in the production of penicillin antibiotic was carried out. The work was done in 30-litre stirred and aerated stainless fermentors. The sugars were fed into the fermentors at rate chosen so as to restrict utilization for optimum penicillin production. For the three sugars studied, the optimum feed rates were: for glucose, 0.052% per hour (3.0% total); lactose, 0.042% per hour (2.3% total); and sucrose, 0.060% per hour (5% total). The optimum yields of penicillin obtained with regard to these feed rates were: for glucose, 1,620 mg/ml, lactose, 1,500 mg/ml, and sucrose 1,570 mg/ml. Thus, the use of glucose and sucrose in CSL medium for the production of penicillin antibiotic resulted in more yield of the product at a slow feeding technique than the conventional lactose fermentation.

Production of Penicillin in Corn Steep Media with Continuous Glucose, Sucrose and Lactose Addition

Nathaniel N. Ngerebara and Lawrence O. Amadi,JECET; June 2017- August 2017; Sec. A; Vol.6. No.3, 203-208., [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.6.3.20308]

Abstract

Investigation into the replacement of conventional lactose fermentation by glucose or sucrose fermentation in corn steep liquor (CSL) medium using Penicillin chrysogenum in the production of penicillin antibiotic was carried out. The work was done in 30-litre stirred and aerated stainless fermentors. The sugars were fed into the fermentors at rate chosen so as to restrict utilization for optimum penicillin production. For the three sugars studied, the optimum feed rates were: for glucose, 0.052% per hour (3.0% total); lactose, 0.042% per hour (2.3% total); and sucrose, 0.060% per hour (5% total). The optimum yields of penicillin obtained with regard to these feed rates were: for glucose, 1,620 mg/ml, lactose, 1,500 mg/ml, and sucrose 1,570 mg/ml. Thus, the use of glucose and sucrose in CSL medium for the production of penicillin antibiotic resulted in more yield of the product at a slow feeding technique than the conventional lactose fermentation.

Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies of Cr (VI) Removal from Tannery Effluent using Green Adsorbents

Ekta Khosla*, Riddhi Salotra and Priya Kumari, JECET; June 2017- August 2017; Sec. A; Vol.6. No.3, 187-202.,[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.6.3.18702]

Abstract

Green Adsorbents were derived from Neem bark for the removal of Cr (VI) from leather industry effluent. The carcinogenicity of Cr (VI) in tannery effluent is a serious threat to human health.. In the present study Neem Bark modified with solvents and after carbonization structures have been evaluated for their adsorption efficiency evaluation for the removal of heavy metal Cr (VI). The equilibrium and kinetic experiments were performed in batch mode. The equilibrium data was fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich models. Several operation variables such as adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial pH, and temperature on the removal of Cr (VI) were investigated. The removal efficiency increased with increase in adsorbent dosage. The adsorption process followed pseudo second order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters like ∇Hº, ∇Sº and ∇Gº were analysed. The processes were spontaneous for the removal of Cr (VI). These results suggest that adsorbents used are potential and green adsorbents for tannery industry waste water treatment.

Impacts of Tanning Process on Surface Water Quality of Hazaribagh Tanning Area Dhaka, Bangladesh

Md. Nur-E-Alam, Md. Abu Sayid Mia, Md. Lutfor Rahman and Md. Mafizur Rahman;JECET; June 2017- August 2017; Sec. A; Vol.6. No.3, 176-186.;[DOI: https://doi.org/10.24214/jecet.A.6.3.17686]

Abstract

Leather sector has been playing an important role in the development of country’s economy. But the effluents and solid wastes from the tannery pollute all the spheres of the environment badly such as air, water and land. The developed countries are aware about this issue and transferred most of their tannery and other hazardous industries to the developing and under developing countries like Bangladesh. This study focuses on the surface water quality of Hazaribagh Tanning area to evaluate the present situation arising from the tanning processes. The study has found high levels of pollutions of surface water at several points in the study area. The degree of pollution of surface water is evaluated in terms of DO, BOD, COD, Chromium, Chloride content values.