Chromosome Morphology of African Sharp-tooth Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

Shabeena Yaqoob & Abha Swarup

Abstract

Cytogenetic studies on fish have been useful in providing information concerning evolutionary and taxonomic studies as well as for the genetic improvement of commercial fish stocks. Although the application of fish karyotype, has received a considerable attention in recent years in many parts of the world, there are still a very limited data on karyotype of the endemic fishes in India. The aim of this study was to determine the karyotype structure of Clarias gariepinus of order Siluiriformes collected from local fish market, was carried out using modified Air dying technique. Clarias gariepinus was found to have standard karyotype and diploid chromosome number of 2n=56. The study further revealed that this catfish consists of ten pairs of metacentric chromosomes, eight pairs of sub metacentric, five pairs of sub telocentric chromosomes. The work documented the karyotypic polymorphism of Clarias gariepinus.

Evaluating Real-Time air monitoring system of PM10 emission from highway construction work zones

Dazhi Sun, Dishant A. Shah, Xiaoyu Liu, Jong-Won Choi, and Joseph O. Sai

Abstract

The construction of transportation infrastructures involves heavy movement of dirt and chemicals, emission of aerosol from various construction equipment, production of fugitive dust from the excavations, saw cutting, demolitions, and vehicle movements. This results in liberation and offsite migration of the contaminated dust in and around the construction work zone, which effects the natural state of the environment and people around. The major issues are lack of visibility for drivers on the road and health concerns for the construction workers. The main objective of this study is to present a real-time air monitoring system for the highway construction work zones and determine the air quality impact and control measures. The exposure level of the aerosol content in the soil-derived dust are calculated using the DustTrak 8520 by measuring the particle concentrations corresponding to PM10 size fraction. The Trak Pro software is used to extract data file from the Dust Trak 8520 instrument collected during the field experiments. In order to provide the appropriate actions against PM10 emission from the construction work zones, a detailed analysis of the released PM10 concentration during the field test in form of graphical representation is conducted. This research will determine the air quality impact of work zones during peak hours at various locations. Moreover, it will signify the impact of air quality on the local environment due to release of PM10 concentration by various construction activities and equipment. Thus, the detailed analysis and simulation will estimate the major dust emitting source from the construction work zones and thereby determining its impact on the surrounding environment. Furthermore, various control measures and strategies are discussed for controlling the PM10 emission rates from these sources.According to this research, the average amount of PM10 concentration from the construction work zones is obtained by estimating the average amounts of up-wind and down-wind locations of the work site. Thereby, providing awareness to the workers for executing appropriate actions against fugitive dust released from the work zones

Ecofriendly polymers: Influence of Organically Modified Montmorillonite Clay on Thermo-Mechanical and Crystalline Kinetics of Polyurethane-Clay Hybrid Composites

V. Swapna, Kishore K Jena, M. Lakshmi Kantam, Ramanuj Narayan and S. Gangadhar Rao

Abstract

The present work describes development of eco-friendly high performance PU-Urea / Clay hybrid composites based on organically modified MMT clay, using PCL and CTAB as surfactant. Originally modified clay was synthesized by using CTAB modified montmorillonite. Organically MMT clay was synthesized and blended with PCL, which is biodegradable in different weight % (2%, 3% and 5%). The resulting blend was treated with MDI (diisocyanate) in order to prepare biodegradable PU-Urea clay hybrids composites. In order to get fine clay deposition, CTAB modified montmorillonite (MMT) clay was introduced into the diol matrix by ultrasonication method before the reaction with diisocyanate (MDI). The NCO/OH ratio in the coatings was 1.4:1. The excess isocyanates of the NCO terminated prepolymers were reacted with moisture. The synthesized hybrids were well characterized by FTIR, TGA, DSC, XRD and UTM techniques. The effect of clay content on the thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites was described.

Molecular Analysis of Anti-salinity Compounds on Date Palm offshoots (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars using RAPD techniques

Hussein J. Shareef , Abbas M. Jasim; Muayed F. Abbas

Abstract

Date Palm, as one of the important fruit crops, has grown worldwide. The aim of the present study was to analyze the overall growth of the two cultivar growth under salinity after anti- salinity treatments. Both the cultivars analyzed for the growth contributing parameters as compared with their respective control. To study the genetic variability in both cultivars offshoots after anti-salinity treatment, DNA fingerprinting was performed using RAPD technology. The results showed that the application of anti- salinity treatments significantly increased the leaf area and the number of new leaves compared to control. Also, the anti-salinity treatments significantly increased total soluble carbohydrates and proline compared to control. Some of the anti-salinity treatments effect on DNA molecular markers, especially the treatment of Salicylic acid at 1000 ppm offshoot-1 gave the highest percentage of Polymorphism using OPH-6, OPH-12 and OPA-10 primers in Sayer cultivar. Whereas the treatment of Salicylic acid at 1000 ppm offshoot-1 gave the Polymorphism percentage with Berhi cultivar when using an OPA-10 primer only. Overall, the data suggest that anti-salinity treatment has the ability to alter the percentage of offshoots growth, and can be used to improved tolerance of date palm offshoots adaptation to salinity tolerance using RAPD techniques.

Energetics of Wind Driven Surface Waves in Front of Port Said, Egypt

M.S. Elsharkawy, T.M. El-Geziry and S.H. Sharaf El-Din

Abstract

This paper is a preliminary study of the parameters of wind driven surface waves propagating in front of Port Said, Egypt, particularly wave frequency and wave energy. The temporal distribution and inter-relations of nine wave parameters: significant wave height (Hs); maximum wave height (Hmax); peak wave period (Tp); zero crossing wave period (Tz); maximum wave period (Tmax); significant wave period (Ts); wave frequency (f); wave energy (E); and wave displacement angle (Θ) have been studied. The investigation revealed that wave frequency in front of Port Said was concentrated between 0.22 - 0.35 Hz, and the bulk of wave energy existed in the interval 100 - 9000 J, which could be considered as a moderate wave energy resource.