Difference and Ratio Operators: Representation of Numerical Data on a Pair of Variables by a Polynomial Curve

Dhritikesh Chakrabarty


The approach of interpolation which consists of the representation of numerical data by a suitable polynomial and then to compute the value of the dependent variable from the polynomial corresponding to any given value of the independent variable leads to the necessity of a method/formula for representing a given set of numerical data on a pair of variables by a suitable polynomial. One method, based on two numerical operations namely finite difference operation and ratio operation, has been constructed for representing a given set of numerical data on a pair of variables by a suitable polynomial. This paper describes the development of the method with numerical example in order to show the application of the method developed to numerical data

The impact of information communication technology (ICT) on the Zimbabwean transport sector

FlorahMwashitaMkundi and Dr Farai Choga


Since early 2000, companies rushed to implement ICT. They diversified into Small Business Units that catered for: freight haulage transport and distribution across the border, contract haulage and distribution strategic business unit, executive and tourism passenger transport, tyre retreading and resale and provision of workshop backup to the group’s fleet of vehicles. The quality of services offered by these companies was vital for them to remain in competition. Given the current economic environment in which these companies compete among themselves for the few customers, coupled with high interest rates and foreign currency shortages which hamper the acquisition of spares and fuel that cannot be obtained locally. The companies used computer systems for the management of human, financial and physical resources. These systems were a milestone in the use as they affected many departments. The systems did not integrate all departments to support key processes such as human resource management, marketing, finance transport and accounts. The disjointed systems used by separate departments did not provide for the integration. This has affected business operations of the companies. A quantitative methodology was used in this study. A sample of 50 participants was selected to take part in the study and a response rate of 80% was realized. Both closed questionnaires and interviews were used as data collection methods. The findings showed that participants agreed that ICT brought positive effects on business operations. Such benefits as increase of processing speed and standardization of customer charges were experienced. Most of the employees were satisfied with the ICT systems in their companies. However challenges such as lack of technical expertise and untrained users were faced. The researchers recommended that customisation of the ERP system should be carried out to meet the needs of companies

Processing and Analysis on Myanmar Traditional Laphet Processing (Fermented Pickled Tea Leaves)

PyiePhyoMaung , KyawNyein Aye and Bo Bo


Laphet, fermented pickled tea leaves is a traditional delicacy and one of the major desserts as an ethnic food. Myanmar people are fond of laphet and had been consumed for a long period as a national favorite. In this study, the traditional laphet processing was modified the steaming period depend on the polyphenol oxidase crude enzyme activity. According to this analysis, the polyphenol oxidase activity decreased after 15 minutes of steaming, this finding provides the information for the changing of steaming period in traditional laphet processing. After changing of steaming time in fermentation process, the end product laphet’s total polyphenol contents, flavonoids contents, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity were analyzed and compared with other market laphet that collect from Kyaukme and Mandalay. According to the analysis, 58.40 mg of GE/g of polyphenol contents, 59.06 mg of CE/g of flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity 77.49% were detected in laphet that modified in steaming process. And also found that this process laphet had higher phenolic composition and antioxidant activity than other kinds of laphet that processed by industrial scale. The antimicrobial activity of both collected and processed laphet had higher activity against Shigella and Staphylococcus aureus; lower activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Therefore, this laphet process that changed steaming periods by polyphenol oxidase crude activity could healthier than other traditional laphet process.

Anfis and Fuzzy Based Reactive Power Compensation in Transmission Line

Anubha Sharma, Sushma Gupta, Preeti


Reactive power control in transmission line is a major issue. The function of reactive power can be understood as it influences voltage stability, power factor and severe losses in a system. To resolve this difficulty many approaches have been used. Recently fuzzy logic controller generates great deal of interest in various applications and have introduced in power-electronic field. The benefit of fuzzy logic control emerge to be the most promising, because of to its lower computational burden and robustness. In fuzzy logic controllers, a mathematical model is not needed to explain the system under study. The main problem in fuzzy controller is that the parameters associated with the membership functions and the rules depend extensively on the intuition of the engineer. This paper proposes a novel idea of using Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System for finding the optimal solution to get the better result. ANFIS based algorithm is designed utilizing neural network and fuzzy logic. The results are found to be quite encouraging and convergence is achieved

Method of embedment of white metal within the centrifugal compressor’s seal rings system (Case study)

Salam S. Nori Kamoona and Mohamed Gazi Farman


This study reveals a new approach to embed white metal tin base alloy within the carbon steel base by using casting method instead of the normal applied welding, which is normally used at Daura Refinery. Particularly, this new approach was performed on the centrifugal compressor’s seal system rings (consists of low and high pressure rings). Besides, this study applies equal pre-heating temperature around the casting die at 154 °C, which allows to give good incorporation between base carbon steel and tin base white metal. Furthermore, 1:50 ratio (new ratio) of Ammonium Chloride powder NH4Cl provides the best penetration of tine base white metal through the carbon steel. The new production is very tough and has good mechanical properties.

Low Temperature Nitriding Heat Treatment Process of Austenitic Stainless Steel Grade 304

Salam S. Nori Kamoona


Low-temperature traditional gas nitriding treatment was conducted by using austenitic stainless steel grade 304. This treatment uses temperature at 520 °C for five hours as a holding time divided into two cycles. This study aims to examine the mechanical properties of the new layer, which is formed on the outer surface of austenitic stainless steel 304 and investigate the ability to form S-phase at this particular temperature. The traditional gas nitriding treatment used a mixture of nitrogen and ammonia gases inside an induction furnace. The new formed layer has high thickness of approximately 47-50 μm, and it consists of ε-Fe(2+x) Nx,γ/γ-Fe4N, Fe4N, ε-N2, (Cr,Fe)2N1-x, Fe3NiN and Fe3NiN components. The new layer has a poor corrosion resistance to hydrochloric and nitric acid as a result of forming (Cr,Fe)2N1-x component, which consumes most of the chromium content and causes chromium depletion. Microhardness of the new layer increased up to 374 HV compared to the untreated material which is 74-100 HV. Finally, the S-phase at these particular conditions was not formed on the outer surface of St. St. 304