Theobromine as a Copper Corrosion Inhibitor in 1M HNO3 Solution: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

V. Kouakou, P.M. Niamien and A. Trokourey

Abstract

The performance of Theobromine as a copper corrosion inhibitor in 1M HNO3 was investigated by employing mass loss and DFT calculations. The experimentation was carried out at different concentrations (0.1 to 5 mM) of the studied molecule at 1 hour immersion time for temperatures ranging from 308K to 328 K. The corrosion inhibition effects were found to be concentration and temperature dependent. The inhibiting action of Theobromine was attributed to its adsorption to the copper’s surface mainly by chemisorption mechanism which grows in effectiveness with increasing exposure time. The adsorption obeys modified Langmuir adsorption isotherm. A quantum chemical calculation method based on DFT, with B3LYP exchange correlation functional and 6-31G (d) basis set was used to compute molecular parameters such as the highest occupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO), the energy gap (Δ E ) and the dipole moment µ. Global reactivity parameters such as electronegativity (χ), hardness (η), softness (S), electrophilicity index (w) and the fraction (∇Ν ) of electron transferred were calculated and analysed. The local reactivity parameters, including Fukui functions ƒ(r )  and local softness s(r )  were also determined and discussed. The adsorptive nature of the studied molecule was validated by carrying UV-visible spectroscopy studies. Experimental and theoretical data are in good agreement.


Banana Fibre Potential Use as Building thermal Insulation

Manohar K.

Abstract

Loose fill fibrous building thermal insulation is commonly used as a passive means of reducing heat gain and lowering the energy bill to achieve thermal comfort. A cheap, reliable and abundant supply of banana fibre can be obtained as waste by-products from the commercial agricultural industries. If managed effectively, banana fibres can serve as a renewable biodegradable thermal insulation with a net reduction in CO2 emissions over the life cycle. The thermal conductivity variation of the loose fill banana fibre with density showed the characteristic hooked shape graph associated with loose fill thermal insulation materials. Steady state thermal conductivity measurements on 38 mm thick banana fiber insulation indicated that the optimum density for minimum thermal conductivity is about 80 kg/m3. Variation of thermal conductivity with mean test temperature showed an average increase in thermal conductivity of 1.95% for an increase in mean test temperature of 5oC. The thermal conductivity of banana fiber is within the range for use as building thermal insulation.


Synthesis of Carbon Nanorods and Study of Its Structural, Electronic Properties

K. Jagadish , S. Srikantaswamy, D. Shivakumar , M. R. Abhilash , M. B. Nayana, S. Rajendraprasad

Abstract

The carbon nanorods (CNRs) were synthesized by using mustard oil as a carbon source. The mustard oil was boiled for above 350 oC on the surface of stainless steel in the insufficient air to get black color soot as a material. Then the continuous purification of material was carried out by using different solvents, which was the important process for the purification of CNRs. The obtained material was distilled with nitric acid and ultrasonicated. The CNRs were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for morphology study, X-ray diffraction (XRD) study for crystalinity measurements, Raman spectroscopy to find out the defects and graphitization of CNR’s, Fourier Transfer Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) to confirm the presence of alkene group and particle size distribution respectively. In addition the carbon nanorods were analyzed for the electrical properties in frequency domain.


Interpolation: One Method of Representation of NumericalData on a Pair of Variables by a Polynomial Curve Expressed In the Simplest Form

Dhritikesh Chakrabarty

Abstract

Abstract: One method has been developed for representing a set of numerical data on a pair of variables by a polynomial expressed in the simplest form namely the form

y = +   x +  x2 +  x3 ……………..  +  xn

where x & y are variables and

, , ,  , …………… ,

are constants, due to its necessity in the approach of interpolation namely the approach which consists of the representation of numerical data by a polynomial of the above form first and then to compute the value of the dependent variable corresponding to any given value of the independent variable. This paper describes the development of this method with numerical example as its application.


Experimental Investigation of a Recycled Plastic Bottle Bladderless Pressure Tank

Manohar K.

Abstract

A bladderless pressure tank built with recycled plastic bottles for use with water pumps for household applications was designed and tested. The test results were compared with a 7.57L and 16.65L commercially available pressure tank. For comparable capacity plastic bottle pressure tank, test results indicated a 169% and 164% more drainage volume compared to the 7.57L and 16.65L commercially available pressure tanks, respectively. This difference may be due to the bladder in the commercial tanks and the pre-charge air pressure that resulted in the amount of water filling the tank to reach the pump cut-off pressure being less than the bladderless system. The drawdown time results were within 6% for all three pressure tanks at respective test conditions. The pump cycle per minute results were within ± 1 for the three pressure tanks at respective test conditions. The experimental results indicated that the bladderless recycled plastic bottle pressure tank was performing as good as the commercially available pressure tank of similar capacity.


Contention Avoidance Methods in Optical Burst Switching Network- A Survey

S.Sarala, Dr. K. Krishnamoorthi

Abstract

Optical Burst Switching (OBS) has been proposed as a promising technique tosupport high-bandwidth, burst data traffic in the next-generation optical Internet.Nevertheless, there are still some challenging issues that need to be solved to achieve an effective implementation of OBS. Contention problem occurs when two or more bursts are destined for the same wavelength. In this paper we examine the various contention avoidance methods. A comparison amongst the contention avoidance methods is made in terms of Packet Loss Probability, Wavelength Utilization and end to end delay.


PCR Based Molecular Screening for Virulence and Antibiotic Resistant Genes in MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus)

V. Pushpa Rani, Louis M.R. Lima Mirabel, K. Shanmuga Priya, A. Anitha Nancy, G. Meena Kumari

Abstract

The study was conducted to identify the virulence & antibiotic resistant genes in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using PCR technique. The clinical specimen was water sample obtained from Royapettah hospital, Chennai. The pure cultures of the isolates were inoculated in Nutrient broth and Mannitol salt agar and identified using Gram stain. The susceptibility test to several antimicrobial agents was performed by disk diffusion agar according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards for all the clinical isolates. The genomic DNA was extracted and PCR was carried out to amplify the DNA of the resistant and virulent gene. The present study revealed the presence of MRSA from the sample collected from Royapettah. MRSA is now one of the most important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. From the samples around five bacterial strains showed positive result on Staphylococcus aureus. Two bacterial strains were selected, the DNA was isolated and pure DNA band was visualized. Clear band was visible and confirm that genes like mec A, pvl, rpob, van A, van X were the reasons for antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.


Development of Ultrasonic Nondestructive Procedure for Testing of Welded Components

M. Srinivasulu, Dr. Venkata Ramesh Mamilla, Dr. G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao

Abstract

Each of the manufacturing process steps has to include reliable quality control and Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) is a tool for inspecting the homogeneity and fitness of materials that undergo stresses in their applications. As the components are made of steel, ultrasonic based NDE techniques are most suitable for high sensitivity defect detection in the welds. In this context, a prototype structure of steel, serving as a mock-up to resemble the welded component was fabricated by welding. Ultrasonic inspection of the welds has been carried out using 4 MHz transducers, by scanning the weld with transducer away from the weld region. This inspection showed high amplitude reflection signal from the weld defect, by using this technique, a reference reflector (side drilled hole) were detected with good amplitude and energy of beam has set with respect to reference reflector. The study shows that by scanning the weld region by to & fro movement of the probe parallel to the weld line, from the optimized distance, all reference reflectors can be detected with good signal to noise ratio. The methodology is also demonstrated for the detection of natural defects in welds of steel. The methodology developed can be reliably adopted for detection of natural defects in welded component. 


Design and Fabrication of Double Effecting Solar Cooker

Balasubramanian.G and Balashanmugam P.

Abstract

No being can live without food. To cook the food heat energy is required. Now a day to get heat energy, liquefied petroleum gas, Kerosene etc. are being used as fuel. These fuels are costly. Solar energy can be used to cook food. Solar energy is available almost everywhere and very cheap also. Double reflector box type solar cooker is used to cook food efficiently. This type of cooker is very much useful in rural areas where LPG or kerosene is hardly available and wood is the fuel. The double reflector box type solar cooker is designed and fabricated in such a way that it can be used for cooking as well as storing heat energy. This type of solar cooker can be used every provided sun light is available. This cooker can be used for a long time and the cost involved in manufacturing this cooker is low.


Analysis of the Response of Nigerian 330kv Long Transmission Line

Onyegbadue Ikenna A, Ukagu Stephen Nwachukwu, Ugada Chukwuemeka Martin, Guiawa Mathurine

Abstract

This research work analyses the behaviour of the Nigerian 330kV long transmission network to controlled signals. To carry out this work successfully, the network was modelled using Laplace transform in the S-domain. The state space equations for the long transmission lines in the network were also obtained. The network was tested for stability using the Eigen values for the state variables. The Unit-step signals and the Impulse signal were injected into the long transmission line network. The response of the network was obtained. The work was based on the effect of varying shunt capacitance on the long transmission line. The long transmission lines did not record a steady state time and were also observed to be unstable. 


Airfoil Section Analysis to Find Lift and Drag Coefficient at Different Angle of Attack

Mohit Sharma, Dr. Mahendra Singh Khidiya, Naresh Singh and Virendra Singh Ranawat

Abstract

In the research work, the process of modeling and simulation of an airfoil section has been done on ANSYS using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). While performing the analysis, pre-processing and post processing sections and evaluation is being done. An effort has been made to do a detailed study of the airflow through the airfoil cross section to find the pressure and velocity distributions around it. The preprocessing method including the creation and type of the surface mesh in ANSYS and the 3-D volume grid generation is also described. In result, coefficient of lift and drag for the section is also calculated. Airfoil is the most important part of any airplane structure whether it may be commercial planes or fighter planes or helicopters. The airfoils decide if the lift force is sufficient to balance the weight of the aircraft and how much drag is being acting on the aircraft. An attempt has been made to plot the lift and drag coefficient variation with different angles of attack and to find the stall angle of attack to get the maximum lift during take-off. These values were also compared by changing the inlet velocity. CFD results are compared with wind tunnel test data.


Computing Edge Co-Padmakar-Ivan Index of Titania Nanotubes TiO2 (m,n)

Mohammad R. Farahani, Muhammad K. Jamil, M.R. Rajesh Kanna, R. Pradeep Kumar

Abstract

Let G(V,E) be a simple connected graph. Agarwal proposed the edge Padmakar-Ivan index, PIe(G), of a graph G as: PIe(G)= SE(G)(mu (e|G)+mv (e/G) ) Recently, Farahani introduced the edge Co-Padmakar-Ivan index, Co-PIe(G), of a graph G as Co - PIe(G) = SE |mu (e|G)+mv (e/G)|. In this paper, we compute this new introduced edge Co-PI index of Titania Nanotubes TiO2 [m,n].


Stress and Strain Analysis of a Tyre under Static Conditions

Kapil Gahlot, M.S. Khidiya, Divya Guatam, Ankur Singhal and Sukhdeep Meena

Abstract

This present research focused on Stress and Strain analysis of a tyre under static condition. A finite element (FE) model for analysis of tire, based on a constant contact surface, is presented in this paper. All the changes performed on the geometry in solid works model are automatically propagated to FE model. This makes the FE model very suitable for studying, which help tire designer to quickly find the ideal values of pressure, size and shape in this way the tire design process is condensed and the quality of consequential tires improved. The Finite Element software Ansys is used for the present analysis of the tyre and optimizing the loads acting on it considering the normal environmental conditions. In this deformation characteristics of a tyre is studied which will be useful in deciding the behavior, stresses and strains on tyre and its parts. The regular shape/geometry has common behavior and distinguished variation in the analysis when exposed to certain harsh environment. The static stiffness and deformed shape was analyzed in this study and it has a major effect in tyre design. The analysis of tyre geometric shape would be vital in tread pattern optimization as well as to know various failures in a tyre. 


Applications of MeroMorphic Univalent Functions Associated with Differential Sub Ordination

Rajkumar Anandrao Sukne

Abstract

In this chapter authors introduced Sub classes DP* (α,β) of meromorphic Univalent functions in D*={z: 0<|z|<1}=D\{0}. Where D* is punctured unit disk. By applying the methods of Differential sub ordinates, we obtain some particular properties of Meromorphic Univalent functions.


Statistical Model for the Prediction of Metal Prices

Haliti R.

Abstract

This paper examines the long-terms trends of metals prices .The probabilistic approach is used to predict the price of metals .The metal prices is widely more and more being set by global supply and demand .The revenue over a mine’s life is the largest category of money, it has to pay for everything, including repayment of the original investment money. Because revenue is the biggest base, measures of the mine’s economic merit are more sensitive to changes in revenue than to changes of similar ratio in any of the expenditure items. The market departments of major metal mining corporations are well informed on supply/demand relationships and metal price movements .They can usually provide forecast of average metal in present value dollars, both probable and conservative ,the latter being with 80% probability or better. Ideally, even at the conservative product price, the proposed project should still display at least the lowest acceptable level of profitability.


Characterization and Treatment of Slaughter Wastewater Using an Up-Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor

A.Thangam Jasintha Marry and Dr.S.SyedEnayathali

Abstract

The wastewater discharged by slaughterhouse is characterized mainly by high biochemical oxygen demand, high suspended solids and complex mixture of fats, proteins and fibers requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. This study was carried out to examine a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor performance for treatment of slaughter wastewater under varying operating conditions. (pH) 7.1-7.8, total suspended solids (TSS) 900-1500 mg/l, total dissolved solids (TDS) 1600-3000 mg/l, chemical oxygen demand (COD) 3000-5000 mg/l). The reactor was run at varying OLR (0.025) and HRT (7.00, 11.00, 15.00, 19.00, 23.00hrs) at temperature of (29-35°C).The maximum total chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 82.68% was achieved at an organic loading rate of 0.013 kg/COD/m2/day and at a hydraulic retention time of 23hrs.At an HRT of 11 hrs, the reactor achieved a biogas yield of 0.31m3/kg of COD removed. A post treatment of the effluent was however found necessary to achieve land or inland water discharge standard. 


Implementation of SVPWAM Method for A VSI Fed BLDC Motor Drive

Swetha C and Surasmi N L

Abstract

Global warming and fuel depletion are the main reasons which demand sustainable development in transportation. The adaption of electric vehicle/ hybrid electric vehicle would have been a significant environment benefit. The main objective of this paper is to reduce the switching losses in the inverter used in electric vehicle or hybrid electric vehicle by using space vector pulse width amplitude modulation (SVPWAM). The switching losses can be reduced by 87% and is analyzed theoretically. Also BLDC motors are commonly used in such vehicles because of its benefits like low maintenance, high efficiency, high operating speed and compact size. THD analysis is also done for the system.


Concrete Mix Proportioning: A Short Note

Bhuvanesh Gawad

Abstract

It is very important to know that the concrete which is use in construction work has the proper bearing properties or not. In order to avoid the structural failure in harsh weathering conditions or any other factor this may affect the structural formation of the construction. So, to achieve the proper concrete strength and its bearing and other properties like setting time Workability and many more it is necessary that the manufacturing of concrete is done as per the requirement of the construction method and type of construction considering all the factors which can affect the quality of concrete and thus degrade the construction. During the manufacturing of the concrete some factors are taken into consideration to achieve the best workable concrete to the construction site to avoid the structural failure.


Direct Torque Control of Induction Machine Using a Simplified Switching Scheme with Flux Optimization

Shilpa Susan Peter and Sandhya P

Abstract

With the advent of power electronic technologies, Induction Motors (IM) has become the major power horse of industries. Among the various control techniques developed, Direct Torque Control (DTC) is much popular in industries. The existing scheme uses hysteresis control of torque and flux. It gives varying switching frequency depending on the bandwidth of hysteresis controller. Implementing Space vector modulation (SVM) in DTC (DTC-SVM) provides constant switching frequency but increases the implementation complexity. The paper presents the simulation results of a simplified method for implementing DTC-SVM using the concept of imaginary switching time. An optimization algorithm for the stator flux is also used which improves the performance of the scheme and reduces the torque ripples.