Secured Ofdm System Using Chaotic Interleaving For Wireless Standards

Ankita Shrivastava, Nidhi Singh, Deepak Sharma, Aakash Thakur and Nitesh Garodia


Multimedia transmission with their security has emerging rapidly and received a lot attention by the researcher working in the communication area in a last decade. In this paper, a new scheme is proposed for transmission of encrypted images based on chaotic interleaving over the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) a multi carrier modulation system for the wireless standards. In this proposed scheme, from image size the keys are generated with the help of three constants and performing XOR operation between generated keys and selected pixels of image. OFDM system is used for proposed technique due to its use in wireless communication and having capability of high rate data transmission with efficient bandwidth utilization and immunity to the frequency selective fading channels. The simulation results show that proposed schemes reduces the PAPR as compared to conventional schemes and maintains the bit error rate performance and high PSNR of the system especially at low signal to noise ratio. Moreover, our proposed encryption algorithm especially provides better security over advanced encryption standard (AES) and data encryption standard (DES) algorithms with larger key space and smaller encryption decryption time.

gu-Closed Sets in Generalized Topological Spaces

Dhanadeepa P and Jayanthi D


In this paper we have introduced a new class of sets in generalized topological spaces called gu-closed sets. Also we have investigated some of their basic properties and obtained some interesting theorems.

A study on eliminating HFCs dependence of Refrigeration System by Solar Aided VA Refrigeration

Dr. Suwarna Torgal


Rise in Earth’s average temperature over the past century necessitate the use of cooling system for domestic and commercial purposes mandatory, Small changes in the average temperature of the planet can translate to large and potentially dangerous shifts in climate and weather. Thus realizing the seriousness of the situation an attempt is made to discuss the option to stop the use of Hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) as a refrigerant by commercial refrigeration systems through adapting Solar Aided vapor absorption (VA) refrigeration systems using solar energy. Energy efficiency of the same is discussed.

A Study on Variations in Biological Treatment Methods under Different Temperature on Hybrid Anaerobic Reactor for Treating Dairy Wastewater

R.Lavanya, Dr. C.Jodhi


Dairy industries have shown us great growth in size and number in most countries of the world. In recent times, the dairy industries have started incorporating sophisticated processing equipment with CIP cleaning systems and PLC based process automation systems. The dairy mill effluent is characteristically biodegradable with BOD5, of 2500-3500 mg/l and COD restricted to 4000-5000 mg/l and pH from 5.6-8.6 .The biodegradability range of dairy effluent is from 0.63 to 0.72 .The hybrid anaerobic reactor is assessed with a pilot model (8 litres) for the treatment of dairy effluent .The present study evaluates the performance of hybrid anaerobic reactor under different operational temperatures viz 26 0C, 18 0C, and 12 0C.The model was made run under varying operating conditions , viz ,influent flow rate(2.083,2.500,3.571,5.000,8.330 lit/hr)and influent COD (1599.88,2091.98,2564 46,3091.26,3556.94 mg/l),OLR at 12 0C (0.025,0.031,0.036,0.031, 0.034 kg/ COD / m2day)at 18 0C (0.018, 0.026,0.0320.035,0.037, kg/COD/m2 day), at 26 0C (0.016,0.022,0.025,0.028, 0.030kg/COD/ m2day) and HRT (6.00,10.00,14.00,20.00, 24.00hrs)are interpreted for the respective conditions . The higher in temperature was also followed by an Increase in the COD removal efficiency reactors. The COD Removals were observed for hybrid reactor at 26 °C and 18 °C, 85.56 % and 82.65 % respectively. However, And 12 °C the UASB reactor showed a lower COD removal (81.08 %, respectively).

Harmonics Mitigation Techniques Using Shunt Active Power Filters

Nitesh Agrawal, Monika Vardia


The control of a shunt active power filter (APF) designed for harmonic and reactive current mitigation. This paper briefly describes harmonic mitigation methods for low voltage and medium voltage power distribution systems. It presents the progress in harmonic mitigation methods starting from passive filtering, active filtering to hybrid filtering and control techniques for shunt active filter (SAF) for low voltage power distribution system.

Resolving Heteroscedasticity with Kurtosis Based Transformation

Agunbiade D.A and Omosanya K.O


The existence of heteroscedasticity is a major concern in the application of regression analysis, including the analysis of variance, as it can invalidate statistical tests of significance that assume that the modelling errors are uncorrelated and uniform hence that their variances do not vary with the effects being modelled. Several attempts have been made in the past to address this but with little improved precision. Therefore this paper focused on estimating parameters in the presence of heteroscedasticity using kurtosis based transformation. Parameters estimation of the models was obtained by Maximum likelihood estimation. The data under focus was generated from a true heteroscedastic model and estimation of parameters was made using the conventional ordinary least square, OLS, white robust method and the proposed kurtosis model. The performances of these models are investigated using the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Therefore in all cases considered from the small to large sample sizes, the proposed Kurtosis based transformation had the minimum AIC and outperformed other models in resolving heteroscedasticity.

Study of the Factors of a Market by Modeling on Entities-Relational Databases



This study is to simulate the evolutions of the market of a product manufactured by a limited number of companies. The characteristics of this market allow, with some restrictive assumptions, to use the economic model of the oligopoly. By methods of linearization we have developed recurrent formulas converging toward the reasonable values. We will carry out programs to exploit the formulas in concrete applications, then, to extrapolate and test a number of scenarios. This application allows you to combine a description of the data in the form of a relational model with functions of management of a databases.

External individual monitoring of radiation workers in Kosovo

Gezim Hodolli, Sehad Kadiri, Gazmend Nafezi, Meleq Bahtijari and Kostandin Dollani


Individual monitoring of external exposure for all medical, industrial and research radiation workers in Republic of Kosovo is performed and still is being performed by Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM). First, film badges dosemeters were used from 1978 to 1982; afterwards individually dosimetry was done based on thermoluminescence detectors (TLD). Nowadays, the service is based on the worldwide known standard thermoluminescence detectors MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti), processed in automatic reader Rados RE-2000S. The dosimetry service currently provides individual monitoring of 450 occupational workers in terms of personal dose equivalent Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) for photon fields based in two elements dosimeter. The average dose for occupational worker during last year was 1.73 mSv. Forty-five percent of all individual doses in Kosovo are on the level of natural radiation background and only 6.3 % of Kosovo radiation workers are categorized like exposed workers of category A. 

Magnifying Small Image Areas by Using an Image Zooming Technique

Baki Koyuncu, Emmanuel Labranche, Hakan Koyuncu


An image processing method is introduced to zoom small image segments across the large image areas to make them more visible. The method includes several image processing techniques such as gray scaling, cropping, resizing and sharpening. Bilinear Interpolation algorithm is introduced to increase the number of image pixels during the transitions from small to large image areas. A minute size image area is enlarged into a larger image area. This technique enables to see details in small image areas which is not possible under normal circumstances.

A View on Secure Digital Media through Steganography

Biswajita Datta, Prof. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay


Steganography is an emerging area which is used for secured data transmission over any public media. Steganography is a process that involves hiding a message in an appropriate carrier like image or audio. This paper reviews different ways for securing information.

A Generalized PV Model and Array Developed with Matlab/Simulink

Deep Chandra Rastogi and Virendra Kumar Maurya


A generalized PV model which is representative of the all PV cell, module, and array has been developed with Matlab/Simulink and been verified with a PV cell and a commercial module. The proposed model takes sunlight irradiance and cell temperature as input parameters and outputs the I-V and P-V characteristics under various conditions. This model has also been designed in the form of Simulink block libraries. The masked icon makes the block model more user-friendly and a dialog box lets the users easily configure the PV model. Such a generalized PV model is easy to be used for the implementation on Matlab / Simulink modeling and simulation platform. Especially, in the context of the Sim Power System tool, there is now a generalized PV model which can be used for the model and analysis in the filled of solar PV power conversion system. 

Analysis on Micro Grid of Photovoltaic & Fuel Cell for Energy Supply in Remote Area

Deep Chand Rastogi and V.K Maurya


In this paper; a new approach is projected for Analysis on Micro Grid using Solar Cell / Photovoltaic-Fuel Cell Simultaneous operation of PV & FV Hybrid system. This technique offers continuous supply without any pollution and failure. In the discussed model we are studying the Simultaneous operation of Hybrid System. Energy is obtained at grid by Photovoltaic cell with parallel operation of Fuel cells. The technology of photovoltaic’s (PV) is essentially concerned with the conversion of this energy into usable electrical form. The basic element of a PV system is the solar cell. Solar cells can convert the energy of sunlight directly into electricity. On the other hand PEM fuel cell, H2 and O2 are the fuel and oxidant respectively. The product is pure water H2O and electricity. The operation is based according to the Look up table. In this operation some other devices are also used, like dc-dc converter, DC bus, Inverter (An Inverter is a device which converts DC into AC), Electrical Load (Three phase). Energy at grid is used to provide services such as lighting, water pumping, refrigeration, telecommunications, and electrification at remote areas. The proposed method topology & its operation with analysis explained and analyzed in details. The proposed topology has been implemented and investigated in the MATLAB/Simulink and the various results are provided to verify the proposed concepts. 

Subclasses of Multivalent Functions and Some Properties

Dr. Rajkumar Anandrao Sukne


In this chapter we have investigated and derived two Subclasses  of monomorphic multivalent functions The properties like Distortion Theorems, convolution of functions, the radii of star likeness, coefficient inequalities, and convexity closure theorems etc. which are in these classes has been obtained. In this chapter we investigated few more new Subclasses.

Extreme Energy Densities of Quark-Gluon Plasma at RHIC

Rakesh Kumar, Sunil Kumar Pandey, G.L. Sawhney


Ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) form a hot system at energy density far above where normal hadrons can exist. A large amount of collective flow is observed at zero viscosity. The gluonic jets indicate a slightly too large suppression in the form of mach cones. Thermal fluctuations in strongly coupled plasma characterize the high energy density of the medium. This results in color confinement phase of the quark gluon plasma. The suppression of both light (u, d, s) and heavy (c, b) hadrons is observed at large transverse momenta. 

About The Augmented Eccentric Connectivity Index of Linear Polycene Parallelogram Benzenoid

Mohammad Reza Farahani, M.R. Rajesh Kanna, Hafiz Mutee ur Rehman, Muhammad Kamran Jamil


graph G is called a molecular graph if the set of vertices represents the atoms and the set of edges corresponds to the chemical bonds. For a graph G=(V, E), the Augmented eccentric connectivity index , where  (v) is defined as the length of a maximal path connecting a vertex v to another vertex of G and M (v) denotes the product of degrees of all neighborhood of vertex v. In this paper, we compute the Augmented eccentric connectivity index for an infinite family of linear Polycene parallelogram Benzenoid P(n,n) (∀n≥1).

A Perception of Multi Perspective ERP Model

Kailash Chandra Totla, Manju Mandot and Sanjay Gaur


As we know that, in normal practice, at the very first stage theoretical framework is used to add the research process to identify the different components of the ERP system like the system quality, usage, impact, benefits and challenges in maintaining the systems along with the key factors and the relationship between them. The framework lists the various factors that have been derived from the current study and then they have been conceptually examined. The framework is tool that assists us in organizing and integrating the different elements of a given problem in a simple and dependable way to ensure the attainment of the desired outcomes. A framework is used to explain the main issues under investigation. From time to time it is found that there is a need to develop a framework that can assist the data collection process and assess the specific factors under investigation of the ERP system in an organization. The present study tries to design an ERP framework which can satisfied the three basic aspects of package namely Organizational, Technical and Personal or User Perspective. Therefore this framework may be assumed as multiperspective ERP framework for organization.

Analytical Investigation of the Dynamics of Cracked Rotors

Adnan Naji Jameel Al Tamimi and Jassim Farij Thijeel Al Draji


Cracked rotors have an important practical problems and offer interesting dynamics. In this paper has investigated the hinged model method for the cracked rotors, then get the resulting dynamics for model of breathing cracks, the crack opens and closes because of tension and compression sides and the self-weight of the rotor. This investigation estimated the crack depth and its effect on response and critical speed, the response increases while critical speed decreases with increasing the crack depth, the investigation has been done for many crack depths from 0.2R to 0.8R step 0.2R by finding response, critical speed, orbit and whirl response of the cracked region by two methods, analytical and Fast Fourier Transform FFT method then the comparison has been done for both two methods, the results found in good agreements.

Rate of Absorption of Heavy Metals on Green Vegetable (Amaranthus Hybridus) and Its Effects on Human Consumption in Selected Dunghills in Owo, Ondo State. Nigeria

Aladekoyi, G. Olalumade B.B. and Adesina J.M.


Soil sample were obtained from different dunghills (Folahanmi, Imaran and Ikare Express way sites in Owo in Owo Local Government, Ondo State). Green vegetable were planted on a portion of different soil samples for three weeks and harvested. Both the dry soil and green vegetable were analyzed for levels of the Heavy metal contamination in soil and the rate of absorption in green vegetables (Amaranthus Hybridus using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Lead from Folahanmi, Imaran and Ikare Express way had 5,00±0.01,6.00±0.01 and 1.00±0.01 in mg/kg respectively. Cadmium had values of l.00±0.01mg/kg from each soil samples respectively. Copper had values of 46.00±0.01, 44.00±0.01 and 59.00±0.02 in mg/kg. Nickel had 1.00±0.01each forFolahanmi and Imaran dung hill and 6.00±0.01for Ikare Express way in mg/kg, Cromium had 11.00±0.01, 3.00±0.01 and 14.00±0.01 in mg/kg, Zinc had 66.00±0.02, 71.00±0.02 and 8.00±0.01 in mg/kg and Iron had 566.00±0.02, 634.00±0.02 and 696.00±0.02 in mg/kg respectively. Manganese had 30.00±0.01, 46.00±0.01 and 59.00±0.01 in mg/kg for Folahanmi, Imaran and Ikare Express way respectively. The rate of Absorption for lead in green vegetable (Amarathus Hybridus).1.00±0.01,2.00±0.01 and 1.00±0.01 in mg/kg, cadmium not detected from the three vegetable samples from the soil samples. Copper had 34.00±0.01,37.00±0.01 and 35.00±0.01, Nickel not detected in all the harvested vegetables, Cromium had 1.00±0.01 mg/kg in all vegetable samples, Zinc had 44.00±0.01, 59.00±0.01 and 57.00±0.01 in mg/kg while Manganesse had 18.00±0.01, 21.00±0.01 and 19.00±0.01 in mg/kg and fe had 208.00±0.01,287.00±0.02,396.00±0.02 jn mglkg for vegetables from Folahanmi, Imaran and Ikare Express way respectively.fe. The results obtained indicated that soil from Imaran had highest value of heavy metals contaminants and high level of absorption in green vegetable under examination.

Wind Turbine Emulator For Wecs Using Inverter-Controlled Induction Motor

Haroon Ashfaq, Mohammad Ishaq


Now a days the conventional synchronous generators used in Wind Energy Conversion System are being replaced by variable speed induction generators for extracting maximum power. To assess challenging wind energy conversion technologies, a real-time Wind Turbine Emulator is developed, which emulates the dynamic torque produced by an actual wind turbine. This emulator is capable of replicating both the static and dynamic torque of an actual wind turbine. For the variable wind speeds this paper presents a variable speed induction motor drive using V/f control interfaced with the wind energy conversion system.

Energy and Exergy Efficiency of Organic Rankine Cycle for Saturated Cycle

A.F. Sherwani


Existing ORC power cycle system still tend to use refrigerant with relatively high global warming potential and ozone layer depletion because of limited options for the working fluid. Recently, several studies have been carried out on a new refrigerant called HFO-1234yf. This refrigerant /working fluid exhibits more desirable properties than the present refrigerant/working fluid such HFC, HCFC, CFC.

On the Second Zagreb Eccentricity Index of Linear Polycene Parallelogram of Benzenoid P(N,N)

Mohammad Reza Farahani, M.R. Rajesh Kanna and Sunil kumar M. Hosamani


Let G=(V,E) be a molecular graph, where V(G) is a non-empty set of vertices and E(G) is a set of edges. The Eccentric Connectivity index ξ(G) is defined as where dv denotes the degree of a vertex v in G and the Second Zagreb eccentricity index of a molecular graph G is defined as ε(v)×ε(u) , where ε(u) is defined as the length of a maximal path connecting u to another vertex of the molecular graph G. In this paper, we computing this new index for an infinite family of Linear Polycene Parallelogram of Benzenoid P(n,n) nℕ.