Five Dimensional Bianchi Type-I String Cosmological Models in Barber’s Second Self Creation Theory

Mayank Karan Singh Ranawat, Ajit Kumar Bhabor* and Ghanshyam Singh Rathore

Abstract

Five dimensional Bianchi type-I string cosmological model is investigated in Barber’s second self-creation theory of gravitation. Exact solution is obtained by assuming that ρ+λ=0, where ρ is energy density and λ is tension density for a cloud of strings. Some physical and kinematical properties of solution are also discussed


Five Dimensional Bianchi Type-I String Cosmological Models in Barber’s Second Self Creation Theory

Mayank Karan Singh Ranawat, Ajit Kumar Bhabor and Ghanshyam Singh Rathore

Abstract

Five dimensional Bianchi type-I string cosmological model is investigated in Barber’s second self-creation theory of gravitation. Exact solution is obtained by assuming that ρ+λ=0, where ρ is energy density and λ is tension density for a cloud of strings. Some physical and kinematical properties of solution are also discussed.


Study of Chip Morphology in Turning Hardened AISI D2 Steel

Shambhu Choubisa, B.P.Nandawana, M.A.SAloda, M.S.Khediya

Abstract

In machining process the study of material removal is to be studied carefully. Indeed, the cutting mechanisms are to be studied to mastery the surface generated after cutting. If steel is to be machined with high mechanical properties with the help of cutting tool is called "hard turning. This is a technique which is somewhat new and hence it is need to be studied carefully. The subject of the study is steel type EN X160CrMoV12 having 62 HRC (cold work tool steel: AISI D2 with a marten site matrix and distribution). In this work hard turning test were carried out at different cutting parameters. The chips were examined at various cutting conditions under a scanning electron microscope and the observation proved that the chips were influenced by different cutting conditions. The white layer formation is also studied which varies with various cutting conditions. The ANOVA method was used to know the effect of various cutting parameters on cutting force individually as well as combined.


The Study of Fluctuation of Secondary X-Ray in Lower Atmosphere Due to X-Rays of Mars during its Close Approach to the Earth

Shubhra Tiwari, Nidhi Jain, Sushil Kumar Gandhi & S.N.A. Jaaffrey

Abstract

Since high energy Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) spectra have been well characterized for the production of consequent secondary radiation in the planetary atmosphere, it is realized recently that the current active research of secondary radiation would contribute large information and required data for the absorbed dose in mars atmosphere. In the context of radiation interaction with the atmosphere and shielding materials of the Mars, a large number of studies are required to obtain new measurements (data), and predictive models for the impact of Galactic Cosmic rays (GCRs) and Solar energetic particles (SEPs). Hence there has been a major current motive of NASA exploration to gather knowledge regarding the radiation environment on the mars for the quest of long term human precursor mission. We took advantage of recent close approach of the mars to the earth in the month of August 2003 and observed temporal variability of secondary radiation flux aiming ground based scintillation detector towards mars. We obtained regular observation from 29th Aug. to 29th Sept. 2003. We here report interesting observation of secondary radiation fields in the range of soft and hard X-rays as a result of interaction of GCRs & SEPs with the atmosphere of the mars. Analysis showed variation in X-rays flux, which might have concern with system and human safety for successful mission to mars.


Applications of AAC in Construction Industry

Khandve P. V.

Abstract

Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC), also known as cellular concrete or autoclave lightweight concrete. It was invented in mid 1920s by the Swedish architect and inventor Johan Axel Eriksson. Today AAC is becoming a popular building material. It is light weight, precast building material that simultaneously provides structural insulation, fire resistance, construction economy and speed. Now days Blocks, wall panels and roof panels are very common applications of AAC in building construction industry. Throughout its existence AAC has gained a considerable share in international construction market and today gaining its reputation of popular building material of the future. Construction of Shelving, Fireplaces, HAVAC ducting systems, kitchen platform, different U forms elements for underground piping and cable ducting, insulating / isolation fills, light weight engineering fills and such many more new applications of AAC are there. In this paper various new application of AAC product in construction industry are elaborated in order to utilize most advantages of AAC. Different AAC manufacturing industries should take initiative to make these new applications more popular so as to increase the share of AAC in construction industry contributing to green initiatives for sustainable development of nation as well.


The Synergistic Effect of Anatase and Rutile Phases on the Photocatalytic Activity of Nano Crystal TiO2 Thin Films

Sousan Rasouli* and Fatemeh Oshani

Abstract

In this work, TiO2 and TiO2 nano composite thin films with 4% (film A) and 6% (film B) rutile phase were produced to analyze the synergetic effect of anatase and rutile form of TiO2 nanoparticles in the field of photocatalytical activity. A sol-gel method using PTA (peroxo titanic acid) sol was employed to be used as the precursor in the preparation of thin films. PTA solution was produced from tetra isopropyl orthotitanate, isopropanol and hydrogen peroxide. The obtained films were characterized by applying scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The percentage of additional rutile form in film A and film B was calculated by XRD technique. The synergetic effect of films photocatalytic performance was examined by photodegradation of Reactive Red 222.  The results showed that composite thin films have higher photodegradability than TiO2 thin films.  The comparison between film A and film B revealed that film A with lower rutile form content has remarkable photocatalytic performance than film B. It is obtained that the efficient content of rutile phase to cooperate with anatase phase in photocatalytic process is 4%.


New Interaction Soliton-Like Solutions for Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

Fangxi Chen1, Huaitang Chen2

Abstract

An improved Riccati equation method is presented for constructing interaction wave solutions for nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) in a unified way. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the Riccati equation which has more new solutions including trigonometric function, hyperbolic function, exponential function and other functions. As an example, we obtain more interaction soliton-like solutions of the KP-B equation by using this method.


In vitro and In vivo studies on effect of Trichoderma species, to control the rice sheath blight disease Rhizoctonia solani

Dr. P. Krishna kumari

Abstract

Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important cereal food crop of India. It occupies about 23.3% of gross cropped area of the country. It plays vital role in the national food grain supply. Rice contributes 43% of total food grain production and 46% of the total cereal production of the country. Rice is the staple food of more than 60% of the world's population especially for most of the people of South-East Asia. Rice sheath blight, one of the most serious fungal diseases of rice, is caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn [teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris Donk], a ubiquitous pathogen. It was widespread in the East and South-East Asian Countries and therefore, was popularly known as ‘oriental sheath and leaf blight’. In view of the importance of the pathogen suppression laid foundation to study the In vitro and In vivo studies on effect of Trichoderma species, to control the rice sheath blight disease Rhizoctonia solani. Nine isolates of Trichoderma viridae and two isolates of T. harzianum were assessed for their biocontrol efficiency against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of sheath blight of rice In vitro and In vivo. Three isolates T. viride 4, T. viride 33 and T. viride 12 were potent to inhibit the mycelial growth of R. solani in dual culture. Th12, Tv5, Tv2 and Tv16 were selected based on the results of in vitro evaluation and were assessed for their biocontrol potentiality against R. solani causing sheath blight in rice cultivar MTU 1010 very susceptible to sheath blight In vivo. T. harzianum12 and T. viride 2 were found elite in control of the sheath blight pathogen.


Modelling and Simulation of a Reactive Distillation Process for Fuel Additive Production

Abdulwahab GIWA, Saidat Olanipekun GIWA

Abstract

This research work has been carried out to model and simulate a reactive distillation process producing fuel additives. The fuel additives considered were isopropyl alcohol and diisopropyl ether. To simulate the process, Aspen HYSYS was employed to develop the model of the process using Distillation Column Sub- Flowsheet having 21 stages apart from the condenser and the reboiler. The column was divided into five (condenser, rectifying, reaction, stripping and reboiler) sections. The feeds into the column were passed at the same room temperature but different pressures. After simulating the developed model of the process, the fluid package of which was Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL), using Sparse Continuation Solver, the results obtained revealed that the novel technology (that is, reactive distillation) was able to suppress the secondary reaction of the process because the ratios of the mole fraction, the mass fraction and the volume fraction of isopropyl alcohol to diisopropyl ether obtained from the condenser section of the column as the top product of the process were approximately 185, 108 and 101, respectively. This has, therefore, demonstrated the ability of reactive distillation process in suppressing a secondary reaction because very large quantity of the primary product, which was isopropyl alcohol, of the process was given compared to the secondary one (diisopropyl ether).


Semi-Analytical Solution for the MHD Three Dimensional Stagnation-Point Flow of a Newtonian Fluid towards a Uniformly Heated and Moving Vertical Plate

M. Ş. Demir, S. Barış and M. S. Dokuz

Abstract

We investigate the applicability of a new Mathematica package BVPh 2.0 based on the homotopy analysis method (HAM) in solving the three dimensional stagnation-point flow of an electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid towards a moving vertical plate in the presence of a transverse uniform magnetic field. The partial differential equations governing flow and heat transfer are reduced to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using the appropriate transformations. The BVPh 2.0 is successfully applied to solve these nonlinear ordinary differential equations and the results are compared to results of the MATLAB routine BVP4c. The results reveal that the BVPh 2.0 can easily achieve good results in predicting the solutions of such problems.


Thermoelastic Analysis of Disc Brake using Ansys Software

Hemraj Nimhal, Chitranjan Agarwal, S. Jindal and M. A. Saloda

Abstract

Reliable and effective braking is an important prerequisite of safe transportation. The disk brake usually has a high braking ratio and alleviates the thermal load of the wheels so effectively that it has been widely used in vehicles. Disk brakes are constantly exposed to large thermal stresses during routine braking and are subject to extraordinary thermal stress during hard braking. In this project solid type disc brake rotor of a vehicle was taken in investigation into the usage of martensitic stainless steel and ceramic material has done to improve the braking efficiency and to provide greater stability to the vehicle. The modelling of disc brake rotor is done using solid works, which facilitates collaborative engineering across various disciplines. The thermal and structure analysis of disc brake rotor has done using ANSYS 15, is a dedicated finite element package used for determining the variation of the stress and deformation across the disc brake profile. A comparison is made between two different materials used for solid type disc brake and the best material for making disc brake have been suggested on the basis of magnitude of vonmises stress, strain and deformation.


Five Dimensional Bianchi Type I String Cosmological Model in General Relativity

Mayank Karan Singh Ranawat, Ajit Kumar Bhabor and Ghanshyam Singh Rathore

Abstract

Five dimensional Bianchi type-I string cosmological model is investigated in General theory of Relativity. A deterministic cosmological model is obtained in which the sum of energy density ρ of cloud of strings and tension density λ of the cosmic string dust becomes zero. Some physical and kinematical implications of model are also discussed.


Smart Light Translucent Concrete By Using Optical Fiber

Urmila M Bhanuse, Abhijeet B Babar and Anil C Ranveer

Abstract

Transparent concrete is a concrete based building material with light-Tranmissive properties due to embedded light optical elements usually Optical fibers. Light is conducted through the stone from one end to the other. Therefore the fibers have to go through the whole object. Transparent concrete is also known as the translucent concrete and light transmitting concrete because of its properties. It is used in fine architecture as a facade material and for cladding of interior walls. In this paper, to integrate the merits of concrete and optical fiber, for developing transparent concrete by arranging the high numerical aperture Plastic Optical Fibers (POF) or big diameter glass optical fiber into concrete. The main purpose is to use sunlight as a light source to reduce the power consumption of illumination and to use the optical fiber to sense the stress of structures and also use this concrete as an architectural purpose for good aesthetical view of the building.


A Method of Isomorphism Detection among the Planar Kinematic Chains using Invariant of Weighted Squared Shortest Path Distance [WSSPD] Matrix

Mohd. Shadab Alam, Mohd. Suhaib and Aas Mohd.

Abstract

A weighted squared shortest path distance [WSSPD] matrix is used to identify the isomorphism among the kinematic chains (KCs). In this method the given KC’s are represented in the form of weighted squared shortest path distance matrix [WSSPD]. The sum of all elements of [WSSPD] matrix is considered as an invariant of a kinematic chain which may use to detect isomorphism. With the help of these invariant/identification code the isomorphism among the kinematic chains are identified. No counterexample has been found. The proposed method is efficient and accurate and only one [WSSPD] matrix for a given kinematic chain is sufficient to identify isomorphism. This method is examined for one degree of freedom (1-DOF), 6, 8, 10 links planar kinematic chains and 9 links 2-DOF planar kinematic chains.


Modelling and Simulation of a Reactive DistillationProcess for Fuel Additive Production

Abdulwahab GIWA1, Saidat Olanipekun GIWA2

Abstract

This research work has been carried out to model and simulate a reactive distillation process producing fuel additives. The fuel additives considered were isopropyl alcohol and diisopropyl ether. To simulate the process, Aspen HYSYS was employed to develop the model of the process using Distillation Column Sub- Flowsheet having 21 stages apart from the condenser and the reboiler. The column was divided into five (condenser, rectifying, reaction, stripping and reboiler) sections. The feeds into the column were passed at the same room temperature but different pressures. After simulating the developed model of the process, the fluid package of which was Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL), using Sparse Continuation Solver, the results obtained revealed that the novel technology (that is, reactive distillation) was able to suppress the secondary reaction of the process because the ratios of the mole fraction, the mass fraction and the volume fraction of isopropyl alcohol to diisopropyl ether obtained from the condenser section of the column as the top product of the process were approximately 185, 108 and 101, respectively. This has, therefore, mdemonstrated the ability of reactive distillation process in suppressing a secondary reaction because very large quantity of the primary product, which was isopropyl alcohol, of the process was given compared to the secondary one (diisopropyl ether).