Design & Analysis of Wilkinson Power Divider Using Different Approach

Shivani Soni, Kundan Singh Rathore and Kiran P. Singh

Abstract

 This paper presents modified patch antenna for 3 GHz operating frequency. Here different approaches are studied by varying slot sizes, defected ground size and also changing feed position. Simulation is done using IE3D software for various parameters. Return loss of final design was -11.75 dB for 3 GHz frequency and VSWR of 1.68 and -17.86dB and VSWR of 1.28 for 5GHz frequency. Proposed antenna gives dual band operation and shows good simulated results for two frequency bands.


Dual Band Slotted Antenna with DGS

Monika Tanwani, Ravindra Singh Chauhan and Kiran P. Singh

Abstract

This paper presents modified patch antenna for 3 GHz operating frequency. Here different approaches are studied by varying slot sizes, defected ground size and also changing feed position. Simulation is done using IE3D software for various parameters. Return loss of final design was -11.75 dB for 3 GHz frequency and VSWR of 1.68 and -17.86dB and VSWR of 1.28 for 5GHz frequency. Proposed antenna gives dual band operation and shows good simulated results for two frequency bands.


Novel Design of Patch Antenna for C Band Applications

Shivani Soni, Kundan Singh Rathore, Kiran P. Singh

Abstract

This paper presents the design of optimized dual frequency patch antenna for C band focusing on 5 and 8 GHz frequency band. Inclusion of slots with near about symmetrical distribution on conducting plane and notches in both plane and defected ground structure and also changing feed position for impedance matching. Simulation is done using IE3D software for various parameters. Return loss of the final design was -16.34 dB for 5 GHz frequency and VSWR of 1.37 and -15.49dB and VSWR of 1.43 for 8GHz frequency. Proposed antenna gives dual band operation and shows good bandwidth and simulated results for two frequency bands.


Slotted Antenna for Mobile Communication

Monika Tanwani, Ravindra Singh Chauhan, Kiran P. Singh

Abstract

This paper presents modified patch antenna for 3 GHz operating frequency.Here different approaches are studied by varying slot sizes, defected ground size and also changing feed position. Simulation is done using IE3D software for various parameters. Return loss of the final design was -12.17 dB for 3 GHz frequency and VSWR of 1.65. Proposed antenna was fabricated giving different details. The paper gives good agreement between measured and simulated results.


Comparison of Noise Pressure Level from Flow Station, Multiple Noise Sources with Federal Ministry of Environment Standard

Godwin, G.; Agunwamba, J.C.and Ugbebor, J.N

Abstract

Noise variation of multiple noise sources with distance to a receiver location (worker's ear) was selected for investigation. Here the effect of multiple noise sources operating under simultaneous conditions in flow stations and production facilities on the workforce and nearby residents will analyze and derived from acquiring field data. The equations for several cases were solved and verified using field data. The coefficients of correlation between measured and predicted values range is 0.7576 (75.76%). Correlation, π‘Ÿ, between 𝐿𝑃1π‘˜ to 𝐿𝑃5π‘˜ and distance, 𝑑1π‘˜ to 𝑑5π‘˜ are 0.9545, 0.9833, 0.9834, 0.9813 and 0.9631 respectively, meaning there exist a statistically significant linear relationship (π‘Ÿ, 𝑃 < .001) that yielded coefficient of determination, π‘Ÿ2, about 91.10%, 96.68%, 96.70%, 96.29% and 92.79%. This implied that variations noted in the πΏπ‘ƒ1π‘˜ to 𝐿𝑃5π‘˜ could be accounted for by the distance, 𝑑1π‘˜ to 𝑑5π‘˜, respectively. The results indicated that comparable error limits for measured and predicted noise pressure level are within 4.62% - 13.81% (on the lower side). The study concludes that modelling of noise variations from multiple noise sources would enable Environmental Engineers to evaluate noise in flow station and Associated Gas gathering plants (AGGP).


Performance Test of CI Engine fueled with Undi Oil Biodiesel under Variation in Injection Pressure, Blend Proportion & Engine Load

Rahul Krishnaji Bawane, Nilima Baliram Gadge, Dinesh Krishnaji Bawane

Abstract

An increasing demand of fossil fuels has been a critical problem for us. The natural resources of fossil fuel are dwindling day by day. Biodiesel that may call natural fuel may be a good source or substitute for fossil fuel in the future. An experiment is conducted to obtain the operating and emission characteristics of Undi Oil Biodiesel on Diesel Engine run on various Blends of biodiesel, Load Conditions and Injection Pressure. From the comparison of results, it is inferred that the engine performance is improved with significant reduction in emissions for the chosen oils without any engine modification. The effective injection pressure can be fixed based on the experimental results obtained with the engine since the findings of the present research work infer that the biodiesel obtained from Undi oil is a promising alternative fuel for direct-injection four-stroke VCR diesel engine.


Examination of Interior Lighting Categories in terms of Energy Consumption and Ergonomic of Buildings

Mustafa ŞAHİN, Yüksel OĞUZ, Fuat BÜYÜKTÜMTÜRK

Abstract

In this study, how the selection of a lighting type might contribute to the lighting economy and lighting ergonomic is mentioned. For purposes of making the measurement of lighting levels, two identical environments having different wall colors were selected. While making the measurements, only lighting categories of both environments were changed on condition that all the physical environmental conditions would remain the same. For the purpose of measurements, common lighting categories, mostly used in our daily life, such as semi direct, diffused and semi indirect lighting categories were preferred. For each of these lighting categories, lighting level measurements at many points in constant working height of 90 cm from the ground were made. The measured values were recorded on a paper in matrix form. Then, lighting level values recorded in these three lighting categories were modeled as three dimensional and compared. As a result of this comparison, decreases in energy demand depending on the selected lighting type were observed. Consequently, in this study, relation of interior lighting type, interior wall color and lighting level distribution were compared numerically with the measurements made. It was concluded that the selection of a right lighting type and interior wall color has a positive contribution in lighting systems, both in terms of energy consumption of building and utilizing.


Renewable Energy Technology the Fasted Growing Eco Friendly Power Source

Sushil Phadke

Abstract

Wind power technology dates back many centuries. There are historical claims that wind machines which harness the power of the wind date back beyond the time of the ancient Egyptians. Hero of Alexandria used a simple windmill to power an organ whilst the Babylonian emperor, Hammurabi, used windmills for an ambitious irrigation project as early as the 17th century BC. The Persians built windmills in the 7th century AD for milling and irrigation and rustic mills similar to these early vertical axis designs can still be found in the region today. Wind energy is a highly preferred alternative as compared to conventional sources of power. India has made a significant progress in the power generation in the country. Since the availability of fossil fuel is on the decline, therefore, in this backdrop the norms for conventional or renewable sources of energy (RSE) is given importance not only in India but has attracted the global attention. Evolution of power transformer technology in the country during the past five decades is quite impressive. There are manufacturers in the country with full access to the latest technology at the global level. Some of the manufacturers have impressive R&D set up to support the technology. So far an excessive reliance was preferred to the use of fossil fuel resources like coal, oil and natural gas to meet the power requirement of the country which was not suitable in the long run due to limited availability of the fossil fuel as well as the adverse impact on the environment and ecology. There have been cases of farmers committing suicides due to poverty and failure of crops in some parts of India. A World Bank study released has found a correlation between climate change and farmer suicides. It says poor farmers who are unable to adapt to changing climates fall into debt and later, death traps. It can be surmised that energydevelopment should be preferable by adopting measures which does not give rise to greenhouse gasses as it would effect change in climate leading to overall difficulties to the people who are accustomed to the climate as prevailing on the earth. It has been felt that there is rising demand for energy, food and raw materials by a population of 125 Crores Indians. India has large coal dominated energy systems in the world and the use of fossil fuels such as coal and oil releases carbon dioxide (CO2) into the air which adds to the greenhouse gases which lead to global warming. As demand for energy increases, wind is seen as one of the key future sources of electricity generation. The installed capacity of wind power is growing rapidly. Electricity produced by wind turbines is generated with significantly lower lifetime CO2 emissions than the global average for electricity production. This helps to mitigate our impact on climate change. The unit size of wind turbine generators which were earlier in the range of 55-100 kW are now preferred in the range of 750-1000 kW. It has been observed that the productivity of the larger machine is higher as compared to the smaller machine. The formula used for calculating the power in the wind is P = ½.ρ.A.V3 Where, P, ρ, A, V is power in watts (W), air density in (kg/m3), A swept rotor area in (m2) and V wind speed in (m/s). ‘Power in the wind’ we can say that the power produced by the wind machine is PM = ½.Cp.ρ.A.V3 Where, PM is power (in watts) available from the machine and Cp is the coefficient of performance of the wind machine.


Status of Solar Energy Extraction in India

Sahil and Vijay Kumar Garg

Β 

Abstract

India has the enormous potential in the area of clean and green electricity from renewable energy source especially in solar energy. So, solar energy will become a crucial component of India’s energy portfolio in the next few years. Hence, there is greater opportunity for extension of solar energy system in the Indian scenario along with enough future scope. Government of India is running so many programs to tap the potential of solar power in India. This paper is going to describe the present status of solar energy in India, barriers & challenges and policy for promotion implemented by Government of India.


A Perception of Churn Prediction Model Development for Data Mining

 

Namrata S Gupta, Bijendra S.Agrawal, Sanjay Gaur

Abstract

The term churn means movement of customer from existing company for services also we can say that the migration of customer from one service provider to another. It is general practice that customers are straightforward to switch from a service provider to another for a better rate or price. In the present context in the Telecommunication Company or market, struggle is on their extreme and the products and offerings are more and more analogous. This activity is direct loss to company at present and major loss in their future scenario both in the financial terms and competitive terms. The necessary action and step can take to prevent them from leaving for the reason. Although, lots of models are in the market to deal this problem but they are very complex. So there is need to understand and simplify the model to deal with churn problem. This paper tries to design a simple methodology to overcome from the problem using simple data mining tools and process.


A Price Dependent Inventory Model for Deteriorating Items with Permissible Delay in Payments

Vandana Malviya and Dr. Vijay Kr. Agarwal

Abstract

An inventory model developed in this paper considers the delay in payments provided to the purchaser by the supplier. The demand in selling price dependent and the items in the inventory deteriorate with time. Shortages are not allowed and effect of the inflation rate is considered. The optimal solution is deals with the optimization of the net profit. An easy-to-use algorithm is given to find the optimal selling price, the optimal order quantity and replenishment cycle time to maximize the net profit. The theoretical results and sensitivity analysis of parameters on the optimal solutions are illustrated with a numerical example. This model can be extended in several ways. For instance, we may extend the constant deterioration rate to a two parameter waybill distribution. In addition, we could consider the demand as a function of time, product quantity, stock others. Finally, we could generalize this model to allow for shortages, quantity discounts, and others.


Obstruction in Energy Theft and Improving Voltage Profile by Restructuring of Distribution System

Pankaj Jood and Vijay Kumar Garg

Abstract

The paper focuses on the restructuring of existing low voltage distribution system (LVDS) in high voltage distribution system (HVDS). Power requirement in agriculture, urban and metro is very high with an exponential growth. In India electricity losses at very high extant on distribution side. The main reason behind this is the usage of long length of low voltage distribution system. That encourage contamination of line conductor, theft of electricity using kundi i.e. tapping, low tail end voltage, short life time of appliances. In this paper LVDS is replaced by HVDS using MATLAB software which show the benefits to consumer has to use the HVDS. This depicts that LVDS can be replaced by number of small rated distribution transformers in HVDS. Adequate investment in efficient working distribution system in developing economies with high growth of electricity behind is an important object.


Performance Comparison of P&O and IC Maximum Power Point Algorithms for Grid Connected PV System

Monika Vardia and Uday Kumar

Abstract

This paper presents the comparative study of Perturb & Observe (P&O) and Incremental conductance (IC), maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system. For this comparative study, boost converter is used. The simulation results verify that compared to the IC MPPT technique, Perturb and Observe technique shows fast and dynamic performance.The simulation results are verified using MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.


Fabrication of Water Lifting Pump through Merry go round

Manish .S. Lande, Rupali Tupkar and Mr. Shubham Sneh

Abstract

Water shortage from the beginning has been one of the greatest challenges that mankind is facing, still there are thousands of region throughout the globe where water is still a big issue because rivers are losing its purity and quantity and in coming ten years ground water is going to be the only source of fresh water in remote areas. Further there are many ways to extract water from ground; this paper is also showing the aspect of how economically we can hoist water from mother earth without the use of electricity at a small scale. The paper proposes to solve the problem of water shortage in remote areas as well as to supply fresh ground water for the use of children’s in the playgrounds or park. The procedure is very simple it’s the basic example of use of mechanical energy to extract waterfrom ground level. The system involves one reciprocating pump mechanismattached to the lower tank and proper gear arrangements will provide the necessary motion. The ultimate outcome is that more the children will play the more they get fresh water