Structural Feature and Chemical Durability of Sodium Aluminium Iron Phosphate Glasses

S. Aqdim, A. Albizane, J.M. Greneche


The relationship between the composition and the structure of(40-y)Na2OyFe2O3-5Al2O3-55P2O5 (5≤y≤20) glasses has been studied. The structure and valencestates of the iron ions in the glasses were investigated using differential thermalanalysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), 57Fe Mössbauerspectrometry,potentiometric analysis and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The DTA results exhibited a glass transition temperature in the 435–535 °C range and a crystallisation temperature in the 543–578°C range. The XRD pattern indicates that the local structure of iron phosphate glasses is related to the short-range structures of NaFeP2O7,  Na7Fe3  (P2O7)4,  Na7Fe4(P2O7)4, Na3.12Fe2.44 (P2O7), Fe(PO3)3, Al(PO3) and NaAlP2O7. Both Mössbauer spectrometry and potentiometric analysis allowed us to estimate Fe2+ and Fe3+ contents in all of these glasses. IR spectroscopy confirmed the structural tendency change from metaphosphate (Q2) to pyrophosphate structural units (Q1) as the Fe2O3 content increased in the glass from y=5 to y=20. This change indicates the formation of P–O–Fe bonds in the pyrophosphate glasses that replace hydrated P–O–Na bonds. Thepresence of a small amount of Al2O3 in the glass seems to play a role as a network modifier. The chemical durability and density of these glasses increase with increasing Fe2O3 content. The dissolution rate (DR), calculated from the weight loss in distilled water at 90°C for up to 20 days, was approximately 3.10-9g cm-2 mn-1, which is 30 times lower than that of window glass. With increasing Fe2O3 content and molar O/P ratio, there is a corresponding reduction in the length of the phosphate units and an increase in the P–O–Fe resistant bands, which cause a high tendency for crystallisation. This latter point seems to be the origin of high chemical durability.

Carbon Nanotubes and Its Environmental Applications

Ms. Sana Attar and Mr. Anil Ranveer


Recent developments in nanotechnologies have helped to benchmark carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as one of the most studied nanomaterial. By taking advantages of CNTs extraordinary physical, chemical and electronic properties, a wide variety of applications has been proposed in various engineering fields. In this short review, the contribution of CNTs is addressed in terms of sustainable environment and green technologies perspective, such as waste water treatment, air pollution monitoring, biotechnologies, renewable energy technologies, super capacitors and green Nano composites. Consideration of CNTs for large scale application from the aspect of cost and potential hazards are also discussed. Based on the literature studied, CNTs pose a great potential as a promising material for application in various environmental fields.

Comparison between Sections of the Faculty of Sciences at the Lebanese University

A.Hayek and H. Abdallah


We established a significant difference between the grades of first-year university students in the five sections of the Faculty of Science at the Lebanese University. A factor analysis of multiple correspondences to gather students of each branch to their general averages and their mentions and make the comparison between the five sections of Hadath, Fanar, Tripoli, Zahle and Nabatieh.

Speech Recognition Using MFCC& VQLBG

Dr. M.Suman, S.Samrajyam, K.Manoj Kumar, K.Harish


Speaker Recognition is the computing task of confirmatory a user’s claimed identity mistreatment characteristics extracted from their voices. This technique is one of the most helpful and in style biometric recognition techniques in the world particularly connected to areas in that security could be a major concern. It are often used for authentication, police work, rhetorical speaker recognition and variety of connected activities. The method of Speaker recognition consists oftwo modulesparticularly feature extraction and has matching. Feature extraction is that the method during which we have a tendency to extract a tiny low quantity of knowledge from the voice signal that will later be used to represent every speaker. Feature matching involves identification of the unknown speaker by scrutiny the extracted options from his/her voice input with those from a collection of identified speakers. Our projected work consists of truncating a recorded voice signal, framing it, passing it through a window perform, conniving the Short Term FFT, extracting its options and Matching it with a hold on guide. Cepstral constant Calculation and Mel frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) area unit applied for feature extraction purpose. VQLBG (Vector Quantization via Linde-Buzo-Gray) algorithmic rule is used for generating guide and feature matching purpose.

Environmental Degradation in Uttarakhand: Need For Proper Management

Kavita Tariyal


With utter disregard for the State‘s mountain character and its delicate ecosystems, successive people have blindly pushed roads, dams, tunnels, bridges and unsafe buildings even in the most fragile regions. In the process, denuded mountains have remained deforested, roads designed to minimize expenditure rather than enhance safety have endangered human lives, tunnels blasted into mountainsides have further weakened the fragile slopes and dried up springs, ill-conceived hydropower projects have destroyed rivers and their ecosystems, and hotels and land developers have encroached on river banks. Very few have benefitted from these projects— mainly in the towns and cities of the southern terai plains and valleys where production investments have concentrated. In the mountain villages, agricultural production has shriveled, women still trudge the mountain slopes in search of fodder, fuel wood and water, and entire families wait longingly for an opportunity to escape to the plains. The unpredictable weather in Uttarakhand coupled with landslides is hindering the provision of relief materials to the villagers. For this we have to look forward for strong environmental management system for our state. For this, Forest cover has to be expanded, river flows and ecologies have to be sustained and wildlife has to be protected in a manner that enables livelihoods to grow. For protecting existing forests, village women should receive free cooking gas cylindersat their homes in payment for providing ecological services to the rest of India. Such payments can generate revenues for Himalayan states that pursue green development policies.

Inter-vehicle communication for smart traffic environment

Ferdicliff Syndor


In a busy traffic, the concern is the one with higher priorities should be allow to go first i.e., emergency vehicles like ambulance or fire brigade. Imagine the situation like the ambulance receiving the patient from remote area will have to travel through a busy traffic till hospital and after reaching, the patient’s condition have to be checked and make many specific arrangements. Since in medical field saving of very short period of time can change the situation of a patient. Here the ambulance carries a Raspberry pi interfaced with GPS, data card, RF transmitter, camera and Graphical Interface keyboard in which by the mean time the patient is brought to the hospital all the required information, conditions and images of the patient will be filled to a database and software designed using PHP and server in Raspberry Pi, so as arrangements of equipments and specialist can be made at the hospital before hand by accessing the same database. The Ambulance can transmit RF signals to the nearest traffic signal so as to make way in a specific direction. And in future when each vehicle will be in-built with raspberry pi interfaced with GPS, GSM and receiver for many purposes like security, accident alert, etc., they will be receiving alert message via RF or other wireless means when they are been approached by any emergency vehicle. And location with a message will be send to the authority if met with major accidents.

Smart Illumination Cum Communication via Li-Fi with Power-line Cables using Raspberry Pi

Mr. G. Hemanth Reddy, Mrs. R.Manohari


This paper presents an application to transfer information from one system to another system through LED. This design of system is accomplished using a raspberry pi microcontroller as a system of on chip, along with a Li-Fi transmitter, Li-Fi receiver and LED panel can be used as a communication source by modulating the LED light with the data signal. In order to transfer information from one system to another system we use LED to transmit signals and photo detector to receive signals. The main purpose of design of this particular system is to transmit information under security basis. The light waves cannot penetrate walls which makes a much shorter range, though more secure from hacking, relative to Wi-Fi.

Tracking of Moving Object Using Background Subtraction Technique and its Parametric Evaluation

Pourush Awasthi, Shrikant Ahiwar


The project proposes efficient motion detection based on background subtraction using dynamic threshold approach with mathematical morphology. Here these different methods are used effectively for object detection and compare these performance based on accurate detection. Here the techniques frame differences, dynamic threshold based detection will be used. After the object foreground detection, the parameters like speed, velocity motion will be determined. For this, most of previous methods depend on the assumption that the background is static over short time periods. In dynamic threshold based object detection, morphological process and filtering also used effectively for unwanted pixel removal from the background. The background frame will be updated by comparing the current frame intensities with reference frame. Along with this dynamic threshold, mathematical morphology also used which has an ability of greatly attenuating color variations generated by background motions while still highlighting moving objects. Finally the simulated results will be shown that used approximate median with mathematical morphology approach is effective rather than prior background subtraction methods in dynamic texture scenes and performance parameters of moving object such sensitivity, speed and velocity will be evaluated.

Phase Change Heat Storage Potentials for Domestic Water Heating Energy Demand Manipulation

Agbanigo, Andrew Olubunmi


In this work demand side management method of manipulating on/start and off/stop time of a heat pump heating system employed for space and water heating from the peak energy demand period to off peak period is employed to investigate energy and cost savings with the aid of phase change heat storage materials (PCM). Models of a 2-storey detached building were simulated for cases with and without PCM in domestic water storage tank using ESP-r software. Results show actual heat pump, energy consumption and energy cost increasing with back-shifting and with increasing percentage of PCM and, at the same time, reducing with reducing operating/running time/duration as peak period operation is reduced by back shifting on/start time into the off peak demand period. This gives heat pump actual operating/running time, energy consumption and energy cost reduction of 53.19%, 52.83% and 77.02%, respectively, showing possibility of running system entirely in the off peak energy demand period with little negative impact on hot water requirements.

Performance Analysis of POLY Protocol 

Shimrose S.Mulla, S.V.Sankpal


This paper presents Performance Analysis of Energy Efficient POLY Protocol.WSN plays an important role in today’s world of Data distribution and data acquisition.The mission critical WSN applications requires certain amount of reliability & Energy efficiency.CDS based TC protocols are useful in such cases. This paper show that the proposed protocol works better than some of CDS protocols (CDS Rule-k, A3).For the performance analysis some metrics are considered & also the reliability of Poly is modeled and compared with CDS protocols.

Investigative Study of Secured Data Transfer Mechanism for Smart Grid Metering System

A. Akshaya, C. Sethuraman, G. Rajalakshmi, Kota Srinivas


This paper investigates the development of network coding in NS2 platform for smart grid data logging from the nodal points in the network. It incorporates a sense of privacy, security and originality to be verified during the process of transmitting the data from different metering nodes to the service center. The network coding procedures involves Advanced Metering Infrastructures (AMI) for data gathering by using vector based Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector routing (DSDV) and broadcasting the same by encryption and decryption of the transmitted data with appropriate cryptographic keys based on Enhanced Security (ES) to ensure the originality of the transmitted secured data in the chosen architecture. This investigative study emphasizes the importance of wireless network in NS2 platform to be adopted to work out the performance of the indices to exhibit its suitability for use in the real world secured data transmission in power grid environment.

Intelligent Electronic voting Machine with Image Processing

Mr. S. Gowri Shankar and Ms. D. Vijayalakshmi


Electronic voting machine has already been developed and widely used in many developed countries. But most of them use Radio Frequency ID. In developing countries RFID for each person does not exist. And using RFID is still a costly solution. Some of the developing countries use image processing technique to detect citizens. But the problem is not solved yet due to high price of host device (e.g. computer) to run. Implementation of image processed toll systems are only limited in some places. Keeping these problems in mind we have developed this project where raspberry pi will be used as host. This minicomputer has the ability of image processing and control complete voting machine system. A camera will be used to take picture of citizens and identify that this user is valid voter for that region. If the citizen is valid and also didn’t vote then the person will be allowed to submit his/her vote. Each voting machine is locked by finger vein recognition module. As the user is identified his/her finger vein will be sent to a specific machine for voting. Each voting machine is networked with the central raspberry pi voting identification system.

Lean Six Sigma: A Holistic Approach to Improve the Productivity

Darshana K. Dave


Typically companies have a combination of efficiency and effectiveness issues. Six sigma focuses on effectiveness and lean focuses on efficiency. The integration of Lean and Six sigma provides organizations a broader set of tools. Lean six sigma is a methodology to improve productivity in manufacturing, service industry as well as in healthcare .This is a newer technique so we can do lots of work in this area. In this paper we gave a brief introduction to lean manufacturing, six sigma and lean six sigma. End of this paper we gave a global views of lean six sigma.

Construction of Ternary Simplex Codes from Complex Hadamard Matrices

Chandradeo Prasad


In this paper, simplex codes are constructed from Hadamard Matrices bycompromising on the length of code words. Ternary simplex codes with 2n + 1 wordseach of length (2n+1) is constructed from certain complex Hadamard matrices. Asimplex code of Max type with (4n+1) words each of length 4n is constructed from aHadamard matrix of order 4n and a discrete Fourier transform matrix of order (4n+1).

Comparitive Study on Internet Radio using Raspberry Pi

Anna Varghese, Roshmy George, Swathi Anil, Shaiju Paul.


Internet Radio expansion is not a new thing. Its services are usuallyaccessible from anywhere in the world and the quality of these services do notdegrade over distance. These features have made Internet radio service popularamong radio providers. Various techniques are used to implement internet radio.Some of the techniques used to implement internet radio are discussed in this paper.This paper highlights the internet radio using Raspberry pi.