The Effects of Semi-Automated Production Systems on the Manufacturing Sector: The Zimbabwean Case (1997 – 2013)



Between 1997 and 2013, Zimbabwe experienced serious economic problems. The production had gone down in the manufacturing sector. Multicurrency was introduced in 2009 and a positive economic growth was expected. This study sought to find out the impact of semi-automated means of production in the manufacturing sector during this period. A qualitative paradigm was employed. Interviews, observations, documentations and open-ended questionnaire were used as data generation methods. Purposive sampling was done and 19 companies identified, but only 12 agreed to participate in the study. The findings showed that there were weak links between the semi-automated production systems and the usage of the systems, user satisfaction and company benefits. The systems operated independently and the use of paperwork between departments was a common feature. Technologically, Zimbabwe was far behind the Asian countries that used integrated systems.

Influence of Shaft Configuration and Method of Installation on Load Carrying Capacity of Pile Foundations

T. W. Adejumo and I. L. Boiko


The load carrying capacity, otherwise known as the bearing capacity of pile foundations has been reported to be influenced by many factors. Theoretically and from empirical pile baring capacity equations, the shape or configuration of the piles as well as method of installation employed during construction affect its bearing capacity. This article presents the results of laboratory and field investigations on the influence of shaft configuration and method of installation on the bearing capacity of modeled piles carried out on soils in the metropolis of Minsk, Belarus. Conical piles, with tapered cross section have higher bearing capacity in fairly homogenous soils, (either soft or stiff). In sandy and silty sand soils, especially where fine sand overlaid a stronger coarse sand layers, driven piles (installed by hammer or vibrator) have higher bearing capacity than bored piles, whereas the latter have higher bearing capacity where soft soil layers sandwiched between stronger strata. Cylindrical piles installed by boring method have higher bearing capacity in sandy soils than prismatic pile installed by driven, but the latter gave higher bearing values in layered soil with thicker stiff silty clay above sandy layers. In addition to this, the results, show bearing capacity increments of 10% in bored piles, 21% in hammered driven piles, and 26% in vibrated driven piles. The bearing capacity of conical piles with tapered cross section is 2-3 times higher than cylindrical piles and 1.5 – 2 times higher than prismatic piles respectively. Pile driving (by hammer or vibrator) yielded higher result in sandy soils, boring is better in cohesive clay and silty clay soil.

Alterations in the levels of catecholamines and inhibition of MAO in Rat Brain: Reversal Effect of Alpha – tocopherol

K. Kiran Kumari, G. Indravathi, C. Bhuvaneswari Devi


Central nervous system is an important target for manganese (Mn) poisoning and accumulation of Mn in the CNS triggers neurotoxicity resulting in a neurological brain disorder, referred to as manganism. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of neurotransmitters (i.e. epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine) and Monoamine oxidase (MAO) in rats exposed to Manganese. The young albino rats (both 2 months and 4 months old) were exposed to low dose (2.5mg/kg body weight) and high dose (5mg/kg body weight) of Mn through intraperitoneal injection for a period of 3 weeks and left for a period of one week for supplementation with α-tocopherol at a dose of 5mg/kg body weight through intraperitoneal injection. After the period of dosage, the animals were sacrificed through cervical dislocation and the tissues were stored at -800C for the further biochemical analysis. In the present study, it was observed that the epinephrine, norepinephrine levels were increased in synaptosomal fraction of low dose and the epinephrine, norepinephrine levels were decreased in high dose at both the ages (2 months and 4 months) when compared to control. However, the administration of alpha tocopherol along with Mn showed decrease in epinephrine, norepinephrine levels at low dose and increase in epinephrine, norepinephrine levels at high dose respectively. In addition to epinephrine and norepinephrine the dopamine levels were increased in synaptosomal fraction of low dose and high dose of Mn at both the ages (2 months and 4months) when compared to control. However, the administration of alpha tocopherol along with Mn showed decrease in dopamine levels at both low dose and high doses respectively. Maximal decrease in MAO was observed in two months old rats treated with low dose as well as high dose of Mn. In four months old rats also, similar decreasein MAO was observed. However, the administration of α-tocopherol along with Mnshowed recovery from MAO.

Estimation of Errors in Newton’s Divided Difference Formula for Polynomial Interpolation of

Functions x1/2, x1/3 and x1/4

Azizul Hasan and R. B. Srivastava


Polynomial interpolation of functions f(x)=x1/2 , f(x)=x1/3 and f(x)=x1/4 in the interval [1, 2] using Newton’s Divided Difference Formula by dividing the interval into 10 equal parts have been done to find the Newton’s interpolating polynomials in the forms f(x) = c0 + c1 x + c2 x2 + ….. + c10 x10. Actual values, calculated value by Newton’s interpolating polynomials, difference between actual and calculated values by Newton’s interpolating polynomial, percentage error in the values calculated by Newton’s interpolating polynomials at x=1.00, 1.01, 1.02, …, 2.00 have been computed. Average percentage errors in the interpolation of functions x1/2, x1/3 and x1/4 using Newton’s divided difference formula show that x1/3 is better interpolated as compared to x1/2 and x1/4.

Design of Small Power Stand Alone Solar Photovoltaic Energy System

Shikha Yadav and Rituraj Jalan


This paper represents the analysis, ‘DESIGN OF SMALL POWER STAND ALONE SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEM’. A PV array of 33V-43.2V is taken as an input and its output voltage is achieved as 360V dc using a dc-dc converter. Here we charged a battery by this voltage with the help of a single-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) it is converted into a single phase ac of 220Vac, 50 Hz. A closed loop control for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and a PI (Proportional Integral) controller for output voltage control of VSI are used to optimize the system. Perturbation and observation methods are applied for maximum power point tracking. The simulation of the developed model of the designed system is performed in MATLAB. Simulation results are presented with linear & nonlinear loads to demonstrate its satisfactory performance.

The Semi-Automated Machines Software Service Quality’s Impact on Usage, User Satisfaction and Company Benefits in the Zimbabwean Manufacturing Sector (1997-2013)

Dr. Farai Choga


Zimbabwe is an agricultural country and its industry is agricultural based. From 1997 the Zimbabwean economy started to decline. The country experienced a number of droughts and the government economic policies all led to currency crisis from the same year. The Zimbabwean dollar was overvalued and business relied on the parallel market in sourcing foreign currency. This heavily affected the manufacturing sector. The impact of software quality on the manufacturing sector has not been measured. This study sought to determine this impact using data generated from the companies that had semi-automated machines. Of the 12, in the purposively sampled companies, 6 were found to use semi-automated production machines. The findings showed negligible software impact on usage, user satisfaction and company benefits. As a result, the Zimbabwean companies faced problems in the production of quality exportable products and this had a negative bearing on the country’s economic growth.

Studies on Strength Properties of Artificial Light Weight (GSA) Aggregate Concrete

P. Lakshmaiahchowdary


In This experimental investigation the strength of GSA used (as pellets using Pilletazation process) concrete is evaluated for the Grade of M20 (mix design) at various replacements levels of GSA Aggregate (0 % to 100%). The results obtained are compared with concrete. From this study it was observed that cube compressive strength, split strength, young’s modulus, density, Ultimate load in Mode-II fracture decreased continuously with the increase in % age of GSA Aggregate i.e., from 0 to 100% replacement of Granite aggregate by GSA Aggregate . It was observed that In-plane shear stress at ultimate load decreases continuously. The KIIc values calculated from the fracture energy approach are found to be lesser than those values arrived from Finite element analysis. In both the approaches studied, the KIIc values are found to decrease continuously with the % age increase in GSA Aggregate content. The modulus of elasticity values calculated from experimentation and theoretical formulae are found to be in satisfactory agreement. Ratio of cylinder compressive strength to cube compressive strength ranges from 0.52 to 0.68 for 28 days and 0.59 to 0.62 for 90 days curing period. The flexural strength is found to decrease continuously with the percentage increase in GSA aggregate content. The flexural strength increases continuously with that of age i.e. 28 to 90 days

Effect of Tip Clearance on the Casing over the Impeller on a Low Speed Centrifugal Compressor

S. M. Swamy, V.Pandurangadu


The centrifugal compressor is to study the effect of tip clearance on the performance characteristics and the wall static pressure for a different flow co-efficient. The tip clearance is varied by using spacers. The volume flow rate is varied with the help of throttling device to conduct the performance test. Obtaining the performance characteristics showing the variation of discharge pressure with volume flow rate for different tip clearance, viz. τ =2.2%, 4%, 6.1% and 7.9%. Measurement of periodic pressure at various tip clearance viz. τ =2.2%, 4%, 6.1% and 7.9%. For each tip clearance pressure measured in radial location of impeller at 6 positions for five flow coefficients viz., ф =0.40, =0.34 (both the above design flow), =0.28 (near design flow), =0.21=0.18 (both below design flow) and four values of non dimensional tip clearance viz., τ =2.2%, 4%, 6.1% and 7.9%, are chosen for experimental work. The objective of the research work is to measure the periodic variation static pressure on the casing over the rotor at different values of tip clearance and flow coefficients. The periodic pressure data is acquired employing the technique called PLEAT. Experiment carried out in a low speed centrifugal compressor with un-shrouded rotor. Six holes are provided on the casing in which adapters are attached, where the transducers are inserted. The pressure transducer measures pressure in terms of voltage. The voltage output is very low. The output voltage is amplified and converted to digital values for further processing of data.Sample results are presented and interpreted. From the measured static pressure, tip clearance flows can be easily identified.

Indian Rupees Symbol Slotted Square Type Microstrip Patch Antenna

Yogesh Bhomia, Pradeep Dahiya and Ram Niwas, Dr. S.V.A.V. Prasad


This paper presents a design of square type microstrip antenna of specially designed circular hole with Indian rupees symbol slotted and experimentally studied on IE3D1 by Zeland software Inc.. This design technology is achieved by cutting the slots of Indian currency symbol in square type microstrip antenna and placing a single coaxial feed. Square type microstrip patch antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate of thickness 1.524 mm and relative permittivity of 4.4 and mounted above the ground plane at a height of 6 mm. Bandwidth as high as 39.2% are achieved with stable pattern characteristics, such as gain and cross polarization, within its bandwidth. Impedance bandwidth, antenna gain and return loss are observed for the proposed antenna. This proposed patch antenna is suitable for implementing low cost and high stable pattern. Details of the measured and simulated results are presented and discussed

Investigations on Performance Parameters of Ceramic Coated Diesel Engine with Linseed Oil biodiesel

M.V.S. Murali Krishna and P.V.K. Murthy


The uses of biodiesel are increasingly popular because of their low impact on environment. However, it causes combustion problems in conventional diesel engine [CE]. Hence it is proposed to use the biodiesel in low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engines with its significance characteristics of higher operating temperature, maximum heat release, and ability to handle the lower calorific value (CV) fuel etc,. In this work, biodiesel from linseed was used as sole fuel in both versions of the combustion chamber. Engine with LHR combustion chamber was developed with ceramic coating on inside portion of cylinder head by partially stabilized zirconia of 0.5 mm thickness. The experimental investigations were carried out on a four stroke, single cylinder, DI, 3,68 kW at a speed of 1500 rpm, In this investigation, comparative studies on performance parameters was made on CE and engine with LHR combustion chamber with different operating conditions of biodiesel with varied injector opening pressure and injection timing. CE showed compatible performance while LHR combustion chamber showed improved performance with biodiesel operation in comparison with pure diesel operation on CE.

H-Slotted Truncated Tip Triangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

Dr. Yogesh Bhomia, Ashok Kajla, Sunita Gawria


This paper presents a design of H-Slotted triangular microstrip antenna with truncated tip and experimentally studied on Ansoft Designer v-2.2.0 software. This design technology is achieved by cutting all three tips of the triangular microstrip antenna,one H -Slot and placing a single coaxial feed. Triangular patch antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate of thickness 1.6 mm and relative permittivity of 4.4 and mounted above the ground plane at a height of 6 mm. Bandwidth as high as 11.07% are achieved with stable pattern characteristics, such as gain and cross polarization, within its bandwidth. Impedance bandwidth, antenna gain and return loss are observed for the proposed antenna. Details of the measured and simulated results are presented and discussed.

Application of Artificial Neural Network for Aircraft Identification Based on Air Traffic Control Codes (A Case Study of International and Nigerian Registered Aircraft)

P.B. Osofisan and A.A. Maji


Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has gained enormous popularity over the last one-and half decades owing to its vast applications both in industry and research. Recent mishaps in the aviation industry in Nigeria have necessitated the need for comprehensive research into various technological developments which would reduce to minimum or completely eliminate such problem. This work examines the application of ANN for the Identification of different Aircrafts based on the physical parameters (Tire Pressure and Flexible Pavement Sub-grades) of the Aircraft. A simulation process was carried out on the given historical data supplied by Aircraft Classification Numbers (ACNs) from the Nigerian Civil Avtation Authority (NCAA) based on past identification process that are used in recent months. MATLAB version 7.8 in SIMULINK environment with the aid of M-file (Editor) was used for ANN training and testing of various input/target pairs. Thus a better aircraft identification procedure using the ANN program developed, was achieved.

Village Electrification by Micro Grid Using Photovoltaic Cell and Fuel Cells


This paper represents the modern investigation on incredible solar energy in real World. The Sun is the ultimate source of energy. Here we are focusing on ‘Village Electrification by Micro Grid Using Photovoltaic Cell and Fuel Cells’ i.e. Micro grid using solar/photovoltaic cell as renewable energy source Solar Energy. This Paper also deals with the various utilities of solar energy and makes life comfortable & nature friendly. This paper represents the modern investigation on incredible solar energy in real World. The Sun is the ultimate source of energy. Here we are focusing on the analysis of micro grid using solar/photovoltaic cell as renewable energy source Solar Energy. Model of Solar/Photovoltaic Micro Grid is made using Simulink/MATLAB. Solar energy is an important, clean, cheap and abundantly available renewable energy. This Paper also deals with the various utilities of solar energy and makes life comfortable & nature friendly.

Association Rule for Medical Image Diagnosis

Deepika Kishor Nagthane


Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers for women in developed countries including India. It is the second most common cause of cancer death in women. The high incidence of breast cancer in women has increased significantly in the last years. In this paper various data mining approaches have been discussed that have been utilized for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Breast Cancer Diagnosis is distinguishing of benign from malignant breast lumps and Breast Cancer Prognosis predicts when Breast Cancer is to recur in patients that have had their cancers excised. This study paper summarizes current research being carried out using the data mining techniques to enhance the breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

Performance Evaluation of Click Based Graphical Password Authentication


From various years, authentication process used for security which is a way of determining whether someone or something is, in fact, who or what to be stated. For authentication process tokens and biometric methods are used mostly. Such passwords have the issue to remembrance and attacks. Alternative to traditional password methods, graphical passwords provide much security. It also makes feel comfortable to user. It is easy to remember password in form of images. In this paper, we implemented two-factor authentication method which provide reliability and overcome limitations. However, very little research has been done to analyze graphical passwords.

Data Mining: An Engineering of Mathematical Sciences and Technology

Dr. Sanjay Gaur


Computer Science and Engineering comprises huge innovations which cope up with basic mathematical sciences and latest technologies. In-fact truth is that new innovations in technologies are always based on the basic science and management technologies. Innovation is development of new knowledge and artifacts is of interest to engineering, Technology, Business, Social/Behavioral sciences, economics and many more streams. Data mining is one of the innovative areas of computer science /engineering which are strongly associated with mathematical sciences and Management technologies.In general Data mining refers to a set of several different techniques which offers idea and patterns that exploit information that can be used for future decisions. In practical or real world newly introduced technology, product or service becomes an innovation after it has been proven in real world. There is prerequisite to introduces new thing in the real world, so some innovative methods and techniques are requires to introduce innovation in engineering and technologies with reference of management technology. The ideas introduced in this paper are applicable towards the planned introductions of data mining technologies and applications for evaluation of the innovativeness. The most important for engineering of innovativeness is the generation of new ideas forevaluation and invention with proper management of technology. In fact, the most promising way to bring about and validate innovations is related to data mining.