Health Risks Associated with PET Bottled Mineral Waters and Beverages: Overview, Analysis and Evaluation
Valentina L. Christova-Bagdassarian, Julieta A. Tishkova, Vesela Georgieva
Abstract: Under the legislation any material or article intended to come into contact directly or indirectly with food must be sufficiently inert to preclude substances from being transferred to food in quantities large enough to endanger human health or to bring about an unacceptable change in the composition of the food or the deterioration in its organoleptic properties. The substances migrating from materials in contact with food are still being discussed, especially in terms of estrogenic activity, and PET is also controversial material in this sense. The various formulations, manufacturing conditions, bottling, storage, type of drink, give contradictory results on the migration of compounds to PET bottled beverages. The studies have implemented a wide range of different methods and different study designs, which creates difficulties in comparing the results. The potential migrants are a wide range of chemical compounds. The change in organoleptic properties, however, is likely to be due to microbiological problems and not to be related to chemical migration. Microbiological contamination of the bottled water is a possible source of health problems, which in contrast to chemical migration, impact in the short term health of people with compromised immune systems. In general, PET is a polymer that uses the least additives among all plastics. However, the guidelines of the World Health Organization to restrict the use of plastics in everyday life are good for the lifestyle of every inhabitant of the planet.
Inhomogeneous Cosmological Models in Presence of Electromagnetic Field Having Viscous Fluid Distribution
Inhomogeneous cosmological models are obtained for viscous fluid distribution having character that shear viscosity coefficient is proportionate to scalar of expansion. A supplementary condition PR = Q between metric potential is used. Some physical parameters are also investigated.
Satyendra Tripathi, Ashutosh Kumar Singh
A discrete wavelet packet transform hardware design based on canonic signed digit (CSD) architecture is presented in this paper. We have proposed based on canonic signed digit (CSD) arithmetic for low complexity and efficient implementation of discrete wavelet packet transform. The canonic signed digit (CSD) technique has been applied to reduce the number of full adders required by 2’s complement based deigns. This architecture is suitable for high speed on-line applications. With this architecture the speed of the wavelet packet transforms is increased with a factor two but the occupied area of the circuit is less than double. It has 100% hardware utilization efficiency.
Virender, Ghanshyam Singh and Umesh Kumar
Orlicz N-frames are studied and their perturbation and stability are discussed. In Section 2, perturbation of Orlicz N-frames F is considered and sufficient conditions are obtained in this regard. Necessary conditions for perturbation of Orlicz N-frames are given in Section 3. A sufficient condition for the stability of Orlicz N-frames is obtained in Section 4. In Section 5, strong Orlicz N-frames are introduced and some equivalent conditions for strong Orlicz N-frames are given.
Rand A. Abid and Ala'a Abdulrazaq Jassem
Equilibrium analysis of natural gas steam reforming is carried out in the present paper. A simulation program based Evaluation of Equilibrium Constant (EEC) method is developed to calculate the equilibrium composition of the five steam reforming species (CH4, H2O, H2, CO, and CO2). Industrial information taken from primary reforming plant of existing ammonia unit in the State Company of Fertilizers South Region in Basra/ Iraq is employed as input data of simulator. The performance of the primary reformer is evaluated relative to results of equilibrium analysis. The influence of operating temperature reforming temperature (400–1000 ◦C), pressure (10-40) bar and steam-to-carbon ratio (S/C = 2–5) on the yield hydrogen and CO is studied. It was established that complete conversion of methane is recorded at 1000 0C. It was also found that it is necessary to work at temperature (700-900) 0C to obtain a significant increasing in the hydrogen yield with reducing the operating pressure and/or increasing steam to carbon mole ratio.
U. B. Singh, S. B. Mishra, R. B. Srivastava, P. C. Yadava
The present communication has mainly been divided into two sections, in the first section studies have been carried out in higher order recurrent normal projective Finsler spaces while in the second section studies have been carried out in a Finsler space equipped with non-symmetric connection with special reference to special birecurrent and generalised birecurrence.
Kirti Mandawat and Ghanshyam Singh Rathore
Five dimensional Bianchi Type-I string cosmological models in the context of Saez-Ballester theory have been investigated under two cases 𝜌𝜌 +𝜆𝜆 = 0 and 𝜌𝜌 − 𝜆𝜆 = 0. For complete determinate solution of Saez –Ballester field equations, it is assumed that the eigen value 𝜎𝜎11 of shear tensor 𝜎𝜎𝑖𝑗 is proportional to the scalar of expansion 𝜃𝜃 .Various subcases are considered under first case. The physical and kinematical parameters of the models are also discussed.
Butheana Sultan Aziz and. Ala'a Abdulrazaq Jassim
The prediction model of naphtha catalytic reforming plant using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is developed. Industrial data from reforming plant in Al-Basrah refinery are collected for the simulation of prediction model. The total number of test cases (504) is used to train and test ANN model based on the various networks and architectures. The input parameters of the model consist of inlet reactors temperature, operating pressure, weight hour space velocity, and hydrogen to hydrocarbon molar ratio. The outputs of the network model include property parameters namely; yield and research octane number (RON) of the gasoline. Multilayered feed forward back propagation neural networks are used for this research. The performances of the six training algorithms are compared to select the most suitable training algorithm for naphtha reforming model. The results show that the optimum topology for reforming model is Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm. The effects of the number of hidden layer (s), number of nodes in the hidden layer(s), the type and arrangement of transfer functions on the behavior of the neural network is investigated. The optimization carried out of ANN model by change architecture to become four input neuron, seven in first hidden, seven in second hidden layer and two neurons in output of network. As well as, the best arrangement of transfer function is (tansig, tansig, purelin). The optimized ANN model reduced prediction error for test sets to be 0.000413 while the regression is 0.99935; the results show that the developed model is capable of predicting the yield and RON of the gasoline for the unseen in training sets.
New Application of Extended (G G )- Expansion Method in the (3+1)-Dimensional Jimbo-Miwa Equation to Find New Exact Traveling Wave Solutions
Purobi Rani Kundu, Md. Hafizur Rahman and Harun-Or-Roshid
Abstract.We used the extended (G G )-expansion method to construct abundant traveling wave solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation. By means of this method, two types of exact traveling wave solutions are obtained, including the hyperbolic functions and trigonometric functions. With the help of Maple-13 computation, we obtain several new and more general traveling wave solutions which successfully recover most of the previously published solutions. Many of these solutions are found for the first time. Furthermore, this method is direct, elementary, effective and can be used for many other NLPDEs.