Digital Economy refers to an economy that is based on digital technologies. The growth, integration and sophistication of information technology and communications is changing our society and economy. Digital technology in the form of the Personal Computer and the Internet has already transformed work,education, government, entertainment, generating new market opportunities and having a major economic impact across a broad range of sectors. In the ICT of the digital economy, India appears to have comparative advantage to grow to global stature. No doubt, the digital economy has the risks and problems of Security and Privacy which are more in the case of India subject to internal and external risk. The roll out of e-Government services in India is currently lightly well, but policies of digital inclusion should play an advanced role in this development, in order to encourage the bridging of the ‘digital divide’. Limited availability of Internet infrastructure, High cost of access and usage, Lack of awareness and low digital literacy, Narrow range of applications and services and unfavorable business environment.
Comparative Analysis of Proactive and Reactive Routing Protocols with respect to Quality of Service in MANET
Umara Urooj, Nafees Ayub, Ramzan Talib, M. Umer Sarwar, M. Yahya Saeed
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a system set up by collection of collection nodes/communication devices that can freely move in any direction without following any predefined infrastructure or topology while communicating with each other. As nodes moves freely so continuously links established and break. Each node receives data and forwards this data to neighbouring nodes. In such type of networks routing becomes a challenge. The routing protocols used in MANET are different from the traditionally used wired routing protocols. MANET routing protocols are broadly categorized as Proactive routing protocols (Table Driven), Reactive routing protocols (On-Demand) and Hybrid Routing Protocols. In this research work one Proactive routing protocol Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) and two Reactive routing protocols, Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Temporary Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) are considered for comparative analysis with respect to Quality of Service (QoS). For scenario designing OPNET is used as a simulator. In this work comparison is performed with respect to increasing number of nodes and varying network traffic. Evaluation parameters include Throughput, Network Load, Media Access Delay and End to End Delay. Conclusion presented at the end describes which protocol performed well and which protocol would not be a good choice.
Mahak Sharma, Khushal Thakur
The world of wireless communications is quickly progressing. Technologies under research and development promise to deliver more services to more users in less time. Emerging wireless technologies: Wireless Local Area Networks (WiFi-802.11n) and Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WiMAX). In this paper physical layer parameters are tuned to study the characteristics of Wi-Fi and WiMAX technologies independently and propose a study and comparison of two of most advancing communication technologies (Wi-Fi and WiMax). Both of these technologies are breakthrough in communication and both of them have their own positive and negative points. In some situations, in a near future highly advanced and area specific application of WSN will be required. We will analyse these two technologies, which would be appropriate for those applications.