Effects of Flooding on Soil Quality in Abakaliki Agro-ecological Zone of South-Eastern State, Nigeria

Ubuoh, E. A, Uka, A. and Egbe, C.


The study focused on the Effects of Flooding on Soil Quality in Abakaliki Agro-ecological Zone of South-Eastern State, Nigeria, for proper soil and flood management to avert soil l degradation. Soil samples were collected from three different floodplains and from arable land at the middle of the stream as control at the depth of 0-30cm, and were used for the determination of the selected soil quality. The treatments were replicated five times and data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance for complete randomized (CRD). All the soil properties assessed were significantly different (p<0.05) among the study locations. The results further showed that apart from sand, BD, gravimetric moisture that were higher in control, silt, clay and porosity were recorded highest mean values than control. Mean pH in floodplains recorded mean value of 5.9 being acidic than control with the mean of pH5.38. Also apart from Avail.P(38.50ppm),OC(1.89cmol/kg), Nitrogen (0.15cmol/kg), ECEC(18.16%) and BS(89.65%) being higher in control than floodplains, the mean of OM (2.5cmol/kg), Ca (10.5cmol/kg), Mg(4.7cmol/kg),K(0.14cmol/kg), Na(1.06cmol/kg) and EA(2.07) were higher in floodplains than control, which could support farming during flood cessation for increased food productions. Based on the results, it is recommended that flood best management practice should be encouraged in order to retain soil nutrients, reduce soil and water pollutions for ecosystem sustainability

Warm Water influence in lowering the level of Fatigue

Imam Thohari and Rachmaniyah


Active recovery is one method to reduce post-exercise blood lactic acid concentration. Active recovery performed in warm water has not been well-recognized. The objective of this study was to find the effect of active recovery in warm water on the reduction of post-exercise blood lactic acid concentration. This study employed separate sample pre-test post-test group design using 28 male healthy white Rattusnorvegicus rats aged 3-4 weeks, with body weight of 150-200 grams, they were selected randomly. Samples were divided into four groups, K0, K1, K2 and K3, to be subjected to blood lactic acid concentration measurement. The four groups received different treatment. K0 (control group) received no treatment, while the K1 group received momentary exercise program. K1 and K2 groups received treatments of momentary physical exercise and warm water recovery. The temperature for K1 was of 35-37 oC and K2 was 33-35 oC. Momentary physical exercise in this study was swimming activity in fresh water, which achieving 80% of maximum working capacity and a load of 9% of body weight. Recovery program, comprising swimming exercise without load for 5 minutes, was performed immediately after physical exercise. Result revealed that after active recovery in 35-37 oC water, the concentration of lactic acid became 1,60 mMol/l and reach 2,1 mMol/l at 33-35 oC water temperature. Data were processed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (normality test, homogeneity test, anacova test, LSD (least significant difference) test, and independent t test), with significance level of 5%. Independent T test revealed reduction of lactic acid concentration of 4,5 mMol/l in group receiving recovery treatment in warm water 35-37 oC . Both group showed significant difference (p = 0.00) in that treatment. So the treatment of active recovery in warm water can be alternative way to reduce levels of blood lactic acid and it need to develop further research in humans or by the method of applying warm compresses on the active muscle. The further research may applicate in environments with a wide range of temperature variation to find the optimal temperature in the recovery

Practical and Strategic Gender Needs in Management of Forest Resources, Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya

Serem Magrine, Cheserek Grace Jerotich, Kiptui Mark


Gender divisions of labor, roles and responsibilities influence the access, use and management of natural resources especially among rural communities. Forests are the key components of biodiversity and main source of livelihood in Kenya. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the practical and strategic needs of different gender groups in relation to access, use and management of forest resources in Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya. The total sample size for this study was 167 respondents, three focus group discussion involving community forest associations and five key informants. The study utilized descriptive analysis techniques where quantitative data was analyzed and presented using frequencies and percentages while qualitative data were summarized and interpreted in line with the research objective. Results are presented in form of figures and tables. The findings shows that 28.4% of the male obtained poles; 23.0% of obtained timber whereas 35.6% of the women obtained firewood and 23.5% obtained medicine from the forest. Further, 12.8% of the females and 7.1% of the males depended on the forest for food. Results shows 37.0% women and 31.0% men reported that food security was an important factor in the access, use and management of forest resources. Some 28.4% male and 23.3% female reported the utilization of forest is aimed at protecting land and watersheds, whereas, 21.8% male cited conservation of biodiversity as compared to 18.5% of the female respondents. The findings show that women livelihoods were engaged more with food and other food related forest resources such as fruits and vegetables; whereas men were more engaged with construction and furniture making. The study findings shows that involvement of men and women in decision making on matters concerning the use of forest resources was a key element in achieving sustainable forest resource management. For effective and sustainable management of forest resources there is need for participatory management where the government departments and community work together to co-manage forest resources especially involving County governments.

Interface of Community Livelihoods and Environmental Management in Cherangany Forest, Elgeiyo Marakwet County, Kenya

Cheserek Grace Jerotich


The research was conducted in Cherangany forest in Elgeyo Marakwet County that is one of the five water catchment areas serving as a source of many rivers that drain intor Lake Turkana and Lake Victoria. The study adopted a baseline survey with a sample of 310 household heads representing 10% of target population. Primary data was collected in six locations namely: Lelan, Kipteber, Kamoi, Rogor, Kapterit and Sengwer. Data was analysed using statistical package for social scientist. Results show most of the respondents are farmers and derived their livelihoods from framing. The mean monthly income was less than Kshs 5000 per month. Irrigation was practiced by 11.61% of the total respondents and the major source of water is from streams. Majority 92.6% of the respondents are aware of environmental conservation and their main source of information was through the media and community leaders with each having 24%. Most 83.7% are aware of climate change but more than 80% were not well informed on adaptation measures to climate change. Firewood is the major source of fuel used by 77.7% while biogas was the least used by 2.6%. Firewood from farms was 50.2% and 85.8% had exotic trees on their farms. Half of the respondents 57.1% are aware of water resource users association and 69.7% on community forestry associations. The study recommends nature based enterprises projects should be highly encouraged so that it can help increase the income levels of the residents. Projects such mushroom growing, bee keeping and creation of nature trails for nature walks, eco-camps and eco-tourism related activities.

Entrepreneurial Behavior of Orange Growers in Vidarbha

Tekale V.S. and Mano Sandesh V.V.


The present study entitled “Entrepreneurial Behavior of Orange Growers in Vidarbha” was undertaken in Kalmeshwar, Katol and Narkhed talukas of Nagpur district and Warud and Morshi talukas Amravati districts with sample size of the 120 respondent orange growers. Majority of the respondents were belonged to middle age group with education up to higher secondary school level, nearly half of them had farming occupation with a medium family size, belonged to medium land holding with annual income between Rs. 3,00,001 to 4,00,000. Nearly half of the respondents had medium social participation and mass media participation, one by third of the respondents had not received any training and more than two third of respondents had well/ tube well as their source of irrigation. Further, it was observed that, nearly two third of orange growers belonged to medium entrepreneurial behaviour. Whereas, in case of entrepreneurial behaviour components majority of respondents had medium level of innovativeness, achievement motivation and economic motivation, risk orientation. More than two third of the respondents had medium level of decision making ability, management orientation and leadership ability. Entrepreneurial behavior index range shows nearly two third (63.34%) of orange growers belonged to medium category. Regarding correlation analysis three out of ten independent variables namely, social participation, mass media participation and training received had positive and highly significant relationship with entrepreneurial behavior. The independent variables like family size and sources of irrigation were non-significantly related with entrepreneurial behavior.

Chemical Treatment Method for Reducing Water Pollution on Polluted Cherlapally Lake Water, Hyderabad, Telangana State

R. Amruthakalyani, S. Gangadhar Rao, C. Venkateshwar, B. Nageshwarao and B. Thirupathi


The study was conducted on polluted Cherlapally lake water for reducing water pollution by introducing new chemical treatment method by Patent No.290/RQCHE/ 2011.The Lake was constructed 1970’s, located in Cherlapally village, Ranga Reddy district. Two samples are collected from the lake that are control and treated during the year 2014. The parameters like physical, chemical and heavy metals were examined and reduced water pollution in treated Lake Water sample. The results indicated that all physico, chemical and heavy metal concentrations were reduced in treated water sample compare to control water sample by introducing chemical treatment method. Then the treated water is use for various purposes and also for potable.

Evaluation of the Influence of Heavy Metals Contamination in Abiotic and Biotic Environments of the Lower Reaches of Kura River

1R.F. Abbasova, D.R. Abbasova, S.N. Nadirov, N.F. Akhmedova ,S.E. Humbatova ,S.M.Veyisova and A.M.Tagiyeva


Waters of Kura River are main sources for drinking water in Azerbaijan. Therefore, any decrease of quality of water creates danger for environmental protection issues of the whole region. Heavy metals (HM) are one of the main pollutants of the water. Diluted and highly-dispersed forms of HMs forming various complexes with the components of natural environment, then can be transferred by the water flows as well as they can be accumulated in the bottom sediments (BS) and water organisms. For efficient assessment of ecological state of the environment, it is necessary to have sustainable control of HMs content in all links of the following  hain: abiotic environment (water, bottom sediment) - biotic environment (benthophage, plankton, phytophages euryphage predator). Present study is devoted to detection of general tendency of content and distribution of HMs in waters, bottom sediment of lower reaches of Kura River and bioaccumulation of toxic metals in organs and tissues of fishes of various ecological groups.

Potential Harmful Elements (Cu, Zn, As and Pb) enrichment in the Ebrié lagoon, South of Côte d’Ivoire

Y.M. N’guessan, K. G. Kouadio, T.E. Wango, Y.A. N’guessan, A.S. Coulibaly and S. Monde


En Côte d’Ivoire le point le plus sensible, en ce qui concerne la pression anthropique sur les écosystèmes, est certainement la zone lagunaire d'Ebrié, au niveau de laquelle s’est développée la ville d’Abidjan. Pour évaluer le niveau de contamination de certains éléments potentiellement toxiques ou PHE (Potential Harmful Elements) dans les eaux de ce système aquatique, 32 échantillons de sédiments de fond ont été prélevés. Les concentrations en PHE (Cu, Zn, As et Pb) ont été mesurées dans la fraction fine (<63μm) de ces sédiments. Aussi, les facteurs d’enrichissement (EF) et la contribution anthropique dans les concentrations déterminées, ont été calculés. Les résultats obtenus montrent des concentrations en PHE, évoluant de 31,7 μg.g-1 (Cu) à 515,14 μg.g-1 (Zn). Plus de 70% des échantillons analysés présentent des valeurs de concentrations en PHE comprises entre les valeurs seuils ERL (Effects Range-Low) et ERM (Effects Range-Median), qui sont des références internationales pour évaluer la qualité des sédiments. Ces résultats traduisent ainsi la mauvaise qualité environnementale des sédiments de la lagune Ebrié. La contribution anthropique en PHE dans les concentrations totales mesurées, est supérieure à 50%, excepté le Cu (38,51%). Sur l’ensemble de la zone étudiée l’enrichissement en PHE est modéré, voir significatif notamment pour la zone nord (baies de Cocody et du Banco) et la zone sud (baie de Biétry), avec des EF compris entre 2 et 10. Ces trois zones peuvent donc présenter des risques sanitaires pour les activités de pêche et d’aquaculture, vu le niveau de contamination. Cette contamination en PHE dans ces trois zones provient majoritairement des activités industrielles, mais également des dépôts atmosphériques et des activités domestiques


Summary: In the Ivory Coast the point with the most sensitive as regards the anthropogenic pressure on ecosystems, is certainly the lagoon area of Ebrié, at the level of which has developed the city of Abidjan. To assess the level of contamination of some potentially toxic elements or PHE (potential harmful elements) in the waters of this aquatic system, 32 samples of bottom sediments were collected. The concentrations in PHE (Cu, Zn, As, and Pb) have been measured in the fine fraction (<63μm) of these sediments. Also, enrichment factors (EF), and the anthropogenic contribution in the concentrations determined, have been calculated. The results obtained show concentrations of PHE, evolving from 31.7 μg.g-1 (Cu) to 515,14 μg.g-1 (Zn). More than 70% of the samples analyzed have values of concentrations in PHE understood between the threshold values ERL (Effects Range-Low) and ERM ( Range-Median effects), which are international references to assess the quality of the sediments. These results thus reflect the poor environmental quality of the sediments of the Ebrié lagoon. The anthropogenic contribution in PHE in the total concentrations measured, is greater than 50%, except Cu (38.51%). On the whole of the area studied the enrichment in PHE is moderate, see especially significant for the Northern Zone (bays of Cocody and the banco) and the Southern Zone (Bay of Biétry), with EF between 2 and 10. These three areas can therefore present health risks for fisheries and aquaculture activities, given the level of contamination. This contamination in PHE in these three areas is dominated by industrial activities, but also of atmospheric deposition and domestic activities.

Assessment of Water Quality Index of River Mandakini at Chitrakoot, India

Sadhana Chaurasia, Rupa Gupta and Archana Chaturvedi


The present study aimed to calculate water quality index (WQI) by the analysis of different physico-chemical parameters on the basis of Weighted Arithmetic Index in order to assess the suitability of water for drinking, irrigation purposes and other human uses. The different Physico-chemical parameters like Temperature, Transparency, Turbidity, Total Dissolve Solid, Total Suspended Solid, Total Solid, pH, EC, Chloride, Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Ca as Ca Hardness, Ca as CaCO3 Hardness, DO, BOD, COD, Nitrate, Nitrite and Total Phosphate (TP) were measured periodically at 7 sampling sites during March to May 2016. The WQI values in the present investigation were reported to be less than 53 (52, 48, 50, 47, 42, 44 and 48) at all the sampling site i.e. Sphatikshila, Arogyadham, Jankikund, Pramodvan, Ramghat, Karwi bridge and Surajkund Stations respectively. It indicates that the water quality is bad and not totally safe for human consumption. In the present study an attempt has been made to apply the WQI as useful method in assessing the suitability of water for various uses.

PCA on Lineament Enhancement for Groundwater Significance in Parts of Upper Cauvery Basin, Southern Tip of Karnataka, India, using IRS-1D, LISS-III Satellite Image

Basavarajappa H.T, Dinakar S and Manjunatha M.C


Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analyzing the patterns in high resolution on satellite data is an Advent Statistical Technique (AST) that shows its application in enhancement of linear features. PCA works on basic assumptions such as, linearity, pattern recognition, large existing variances & extraction of linear relationship among a set of variables. The present aim is to enhance the linear features using PCA technique on IRS-1D LISS-III image. PCA plays an important role in Remote Sensing for geological information extraction of fault, fissures, joints etc. Efforts have been made to evaluate the PCA analysis on all bands of Visible and Near-Infrared and Short-Wave Infrared of Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite image using GIS software’s. The results show the ability to enhance the lineaments focusing on groundwater investigations in Southern tip of Karnataka State.

Comparative Study between three Seasons of the Cherlapally Lake Water, Telangana State

R. Amruthakalyani, S. Gangadhar Rao, B. Nageshwarao, and B. Thirupathi


A comparative study was conducted between three seasons in the water samples collected from, Cherlapally Lake. The Lake was located in Cherlapally village, Ranga Reddy district, Telangana state, India. The parameters like physical, chemical and heavy metals were analysed during the year 2013. The results indicated that pH, EC, TDS, nitrates, alkalinity and hardness were higher in summer season; chlorides, sulphates, DO were higher in winter; COD, BOD were higher in rainy season. The heavy metals like Mg, Co, Cd, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ca, As, Fe and Ni were higher in rainy season; Pb, Na and K were higher in summer season; The Cr concentrations was higher in winter season.