Population dynamics of helminths parasites in freshwater fishes of River Gomti in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Anita Singh and Suman Mishra


Five freshwater fish species viz. Channa punctatus, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), Mystus vittatus, Mastacembalus pancalus, and Wallago attu were examined for the presence of helminth parasitic infection. A total of 793 fishes examined, 163 (20.5%) were found infected with helminth parasites. These parasites were isolated from body cavity, muscles, Intestine, stomach of the infected fishes. In general species wise prevalence of the parasitic infection was found in Channa punctatus (37.5), Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) (14.7), Mystus vittatus (13.5), M. pancalus (11.6), and Wallago attu (10%). In present study, the highest infection (37.5) was found in Channa punctatus and lowest infection (10%) in Wallago attu species

Climate Change Impacts and Flow Regime Alternation inIndrawati River Affecting the Fish Diversity

Ramesh Prasad Bhatt


The study conducted in central Nepal, intended to examine actual climate change impacts, river flow alternation and changes in fish diversity at the Indrāvati river basin. For flow regime variation and alternation, both parametric and nonparametric tests were used according to the trend detection of hydrologic alteration considering pre and post impact periods. Regional Climate Models including changes in temperature and precipitation patterns were assessed for climate change impacts. To detect changes on fish diversity, analysis of phisico chemical parameters of river water, use of diversity indices and statistical comparison were undertaken. The result showed insignificant changes in flow regime with decreasing annual discharge and increasing ration in temperature and precipitation. There found comparatively less influence on river flow in pre impact period and decreasing trend in flow by 10%, observed in post impact period. The projected change in average temperature of the basin is 1.3 to 3.8°C by 2060 and 1.8 to 5.8°C by 2090 while annual precipitation was decreased by 0.9% , 1.4% and 3% in 2020s, 2050s and 2080s respectively, depicting significant impacts on flow regime and aquatic habitat. The analysis of one way ANOVA, fish species richness and its density showed significant differences between locations (p value is > 0.0492). A significant differences was found in the ration of F (0.8654=12.5, p=4921) and unequal variances of F=0.8538, df =22.49, p=0.5064. The study concluded that the human interventions not only impacted on fish diversity negatively but it also affects the macro climatic condition of the area and altered the flow regime.

Evaluation of physicochemical and antibacterial activity of oil from two varieties of mango seeds (Mangifera indica)

*Aladekoyi, Gbeng. Ogundowole O , Akinnusotu A. and Adesuyi ,A.T.


Physiochemical properties of oil extracted from German and local mango kernel had oil yield of 12.20 ±1.02%and 15.70±1.05%. German and local mango oil have specific gravity of 0.91810±0.02 and 0.91793±0.02 respectively, which are in the same range with reported by FAO/WHO (2009) for edible oil. The viscosity (cP) of both samples were 0.0470±0.01 and 0.0472± 0.01 respectively for German and local mango seeds. Refractive index obtained were1.464 and 1.465 for both local and German mango oil respectively. The temperature range accessibility indicated that German mango seed oil had lower temperature range than local mango seed oil, but low temperatures favored oil from German mango seed oil for biofuel production. The saponification value obtained for both mangoes seed oil were (382.00 mg/g) and (401.30 mg/g. The high saponification values in both seeds’ oil indicates that the oil contains a high degree of triglycerides with high fatty acids and low molecular weight. The peroxide values obtained from German and local mango oil were 30 .00±1.20 and 60 .00±1.25 mg/g. It implies that the rancidity level of local mango is higher than that of German mango. The acid value of German mango oil were 8.415±1.50 (g/100g)  which is low compare to that of local  seed oil that is 14.586±1.70 (g/100g) .The iodine values of 18.274±1.20 and 17.005±1.50(g/100g) were obtained for both German and local mango seed oil respectively. The free fatty acid value in g/100g were 2.373and 4.113 for both mango seeds oil. Both acid value and free fatty acid value are very important in determining the use of oil for Industrial or edible purposes. The antibacterial activity of German and local mango seed oil  shows their susceptibility values by zones of inhibitions displayed for each micro-organisms, klebsiella₌ no zone  and no zone ,staphyllococus₌0.20mm  and 0.25mm ,pseudomonas ₌no zone and 0.10mm, proteus₌0.25mm and 0.30mm,E coli ₌0.10mm and 0.20mm for the two varieties respectively.

Evaluation of Anionic Concentrations in Industrial Area Ground Water of Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India

Ch. Sridhar1, Y. Sunandamma1 Murthy Chavali2


With rapid industrialization, the scarcity and pollution of groundwater are a major threat to the environment. The main purpose of this piece of work is to investigate the chemical contamination of groundwater in the areas which undergo rapid industrialization. Limited fresh water resources available for human consumption are being contaminated by various sources.An attempt has been made to assess the quality of ground water. Sample water was collected from 30 wells which are uniformly distributed in the whole of the study area for analysing the anion concentrations. The ions studied include carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, and nitrate. The paper presents anionic assessment in the groundwater of industrial areas in and around Vijayawada. The results reveal that the anion content is high in the samples correlating to the metal concentrations like lead, cadmium, iron, zinc and copper and above the safety limit in some of the wells. Comparison with WHO and ICMR limits showed that the groundwater is highly contaminated and account for health hazards for human use.

Comparative Assessment of Water Quality of Ground Water And Sujala Pathakam Filter Plants Installed in the Gudibanda and Rolla Mandalam, Madakasira Taluk, A.P. India

Prof. Sripathy. L, Rahul.B.R, Suman.S


The objective of the study was focused on comparison of water from Sujalapathakam plant with the ground water of Madakasira taluk (Gudibanda and Rolla Mandalam) in Andhra Pradesh. The samples were collected from Sujalapathakam plant and ground water of surrounding areas Gudibanda and Rolla Mandalam and were analyzed. The analysis consisted of examination on PH, Conductivity, Alkalinity, Salinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Calcium, Chlorine, Magnesium and Total hardness. But the overall analysis showed that t some water sample is not suitable for the drinking water standards given by ISD (1991).Therefore, we can say that the filtered drinking water is not suitable for drinking.

Behavior of metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Mn) in the sediment of estuarine bays of the Ebrié lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire) In the rainy season

Aka. A. Maurice , Wognin WADA Valérie, Irie Bi. T. J.G, Coulibaly A. Sougo, World s and AKA Kouamé


The evaluation of metal (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Mn) concentrations in surface ediments of the estuarine bays of Ebrié lagoon, collected during the rainy season are much higher than those of continental crust (UCC). The decreasing concentration order of the metals is: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd. The determination of the mobility and bioavailability of metals based on the relative proportions of the exchangeable internship is as following: Zn > CD > Mn > Ni > Cu. Moreover, nickel and copper have a low risk of toxicity. Zinc has from year average to a very high risk of toxicity cadmium has an average risk of toxicity and manganese has from year average risk to a high risk of toxicity.

Résumé : L'évaluation de la teneur des métaux (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd et Mn) dans les sédiments de surface des baies estuariennes de la lagune Ebrié recueillies dans la saison des pluies sont de loin supérieures à celles de la croûte continentale (UCC). L'ordre décroissant de concentration est le suivant : Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd. En outre, la détermination de la mobilité et la biodisponibilité des métaux fondée sur les proportions relatives de la phase échangeable est comme suit : Zn > Cd > Mn > Ni > Cu. Ainsi, le nickel et le cuivre présente un faible risque de toxicité, zinc, un moyen à un risque très élevé de toxicité, cadmium, un risque moyen de la toxicité et le manganèse, un risque moyen à un risque élevé de toxicité.

Nutrient Profile of Vermicompost of Bagasse Mixed With Organic Wastes

R. Manju and M.Maruthi Kalaiselvi


Vermicomposting is a potential technique for sustainable agriculture and for recycling of organic waste by the joint action of earthworms and microorganisms. The end product of vermicomposting is vermicompost that contains plant nutrients. Sugarcane industries produce large amount of waste in the form of bagasse and pressmud. In the present study bagasse is supplemented with various agro industrial residues, waste cotton and leguminous pod residues to produce vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae. The design of the treatments were cowdung vermicompost (T0), cowdung + bagasse vermicompost (T1), cowdung + waste cotton vermicompost (T2), cowdung + bagasse + waste cotton vermicompost (T3), cowdung + bagasse+ green gram pod vermicompost (T4), cowdung + bagasse+ blackgram pod vermicompost (T5) and cowdung + bagasse+ soybean vermicompost (T6). The produced vermicomposts were subjected to analyse the pH, Organic carbon, organic matter and macronutrients- Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, and Sulphur. The result revealed that the maximum nutrient content was found in T6 followed by T5 and T4. Significant difference was noted between baggase mixed with leguminous and non-leguminous crop residues. The experiments were terminated on 60th day and vermicompost were harvested in all treatments. The maximum nutrients Nitrogen- 2.54 %, Phosphorus -1.64 %, Potassium- 3.28 %, Calcium- 2.64 %, Magnesium- 1.95 %, and Sulphur- 0.34% were found in T6 and the minimum nutrientsNitrogen- 1.12 %, Phosphorus -0.81 %, Potassium- 1.54 %, Calcium- 1.89 %,Magnesium- 1.02%, and Sulphur- 0.09 % were analysed in T0 control. Decreasing trend of pH,organic carbon, and organic matter were noted in all treatments. The result concludes that the bagasse mixed with leguminous crop residues shows higher nutrients than other treatments.

Quantification of Heavy Metals in Plants Grown in Industrial Area of Mysuru City, India

Shiva Kumar D, Srikantaswamy S and Abhilash M R


Heavy metals are natural constituents of the environment, but indiscriminate usefor human purposes has altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. These results in excess release of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc etc. intonatural resources like the soil and aquatic environments. Prolonged exposure and higheraccumulation of such heavy metals can have deleterious health effects on human life andaquatic biota. The role of microorganisms and plants in biotransformation of heavy metalsinto nontoxic forms is well-documented, and understanding the molecular mechanism ofmetal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications for bioremediation of metal-contaminated sites. In view of this, the present review investigates the abilities ofmicroorganisms and plants in terms of tolerance and degradation of heavy metals.

Hydrobiological Characteristics of Pond Water at Jamalpur Kalan, Haridwar (Uttarakhand), India

Vinod Kumar, Jogendra Singh, Roushan K. Thakur and Rohit Kumar


The present investigation was conducted to study the hydrobiological characteristics of pond water at Jamalpur Kalan, Haridwar (Uttarakhand). This study was therefore, aimed to provide relevant information to fish farmers in order to help improve the quality of fish farming. The results of the present study showed that the parameters viz., TDS (701 mg/l), turbidity (20.33 NTU), DO (8.56 mg/l) and chloride (64.3 mg/l) was recorded maximum in the month of January, pH (7.6), EC (147.57 μS/cm), alkalinity (24.88 mg/l) free CO2 (48.3 mg/l) and total hardness (243.5 mg/l); were recorded maximum in the month of February while temperature (19.30C), BOD (16.3 mg/l), phosphate (14.33 mg/l) and total nitrogen (9.4 mg/l) were recorded maximum in the month of March. Similarly, pH (7.2), temperature (16.40C), EC (143.15 μS/cm), BOD (14.3mg/l) and phosphate (10.52 mg/l) were observed minimum in the month of January, total nitrogen (7.57 mg/l) in the month of February and TDS (603.45 NTU), turbidity (15.87 mg/l), alkalinity (23.73 mg/l), free CO2 (45.3 mg/l), DO (7.46 mg/l), total hardness (235.27 mg/l) and chloride (59.03 mg/l) was recorded minimum in the month of March). The twenty five species of Phytoplanktons were recorded during the study period. The phytoplankton species were belonging to four (4) taxonomic groups. Bacillariophyceae was represented by 9 species consisting of 36% and this was followed by Euglenophycae (2 species) consisting of 8%, Chlorophyceae (9species) consisting of 35% and Cyanophyceae (6 species) consisting 23% and the current status of Zooplankton species). The three species of Zooplanktons were recorded and belonging to three (3) taxonomic groups. Protozoans were represented by 2 species consisting 40%. This was followed by Rotifera (1 species) consisting 20% and Cladocera (2 species) consisting 40% at Jamalpur pond, Haridwar (Uttarakhand). Therefore, the hydrobiological characteristics of pond water indicated that the water was found suitable for fish farming and have the potential for more fish culture.

Alkylation of Toluene by Ethanole on La-Modified Hzsm-5 Zeolite Catalysts

A.M. Maharramov, T.O. Gakhramanov, D.A. Fedosov, S.E. Eminova, S. E.Mamedov, E.I. Akhmedov


Effect of lanthanum concentration on the adsorptive, acidic and catalytic properties of H-ZSM-5 in the toluene ethylation reaction was investigated. Influence of modifying on catalytic properties of HZSM-5 zeolite are studied in a 300-4000C temperature interval. Under these conditions on H-ZSM-5 selectivity of p-ethyltoluene was made by 40,1-47,3%.It is established that increasing concentration of lanthanum on H-ZSM-5 makes reduction of porous volume, essential decrease in concentration of the strong acid centers that in turn leads to increase selectivity on p-ethyltoluene. By the increase in concentration of lanthanum in H-ZSM-5 to 10, 0 wt. % selectivity on p-ethyltoluene increases from 42, 3 up to 80, 5%.

Urban-Industrial Growth and Environment Condition: An Analysis of Haldia Urban Area in West Bengal

Sayantani Mukhopadhyay, Dr. S N Tripathy


Industrial development plays an important role in urban growth. With the establishment of industries, the demand for industrial workers is generated and the rural agricultural sector is transferred to the industries which lead to the process of urbanization. The process of urbanization of Haldia has a close relation between the condition of development of the port and the industry which in turn leads to further development and the degree of urbanization. The changes in land use, people have lost their houses, fertile agricultural land converted into urban-industrial uses and emissions of hazardous gases from the industries are threatening to human life which decreases the level of human satisfaction and ultimately the livability condition.

Physico-Chemical Study of Yamuna River Water at Agra

Smita Verma and Rajvir Singh


The present investigation was carried out to analyze the physico-chemical properties of Yamuna River water from five different sampling sites from the Yamuna River at Agra. River water samples were collected from five locations (Keetam Jheel (Runakata), Kailash Mandir, Poiea Ghath, Balkeshwar and Etmad-ud-daula) of Agra, during 2014-15 and River water samples were taken to the laboratory and preserved in refrigerator (4°C) prior to processing and analysis. The analysis was done for the parameters like Temperature, Conductivity, Turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, Chloride, Alkalinity and Hardness. pH shows that Yamuna River water is alkaline in nature. Turbidity and Total Dissolved Solids was found above the WHO permissible limits.

Trends for Application of Indigenous Knowledge in Natural Resource Management among Nandi People, Kenya

Mining Pacifica Chepkosgei and Cheserek Grace Jerotich


Indigenous knowledge has been widely reported by researchers and natural resource managers as a valuable contributor to natural resource management and biodiversity conservation. The influences of modernity throughout Africa and the developing world have seriously contributed to the negation of traditional indigenous knowledge in ongoing efforts to ensure sustainable management of natural resources. This study sought to investigate the changing trends in use and application of IK in NRM and establish environmental implications of changes in use and application of indigenous natural resource management. The study adopted a case study design. The target population were officers in charge of environmental management in the county, traditional specialists and household heads. A total of 385 household heads, thirteen traditional specialist and ten Nandi county natural resource management policy officers were selected through systematic, snowball and purposive sampling methods respectively. Quantitative data was collected using questionnaires while qualitative data was collected through key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data was subjected to both descriptive and inferential analysis. Descriptive data were analysed in form of frequencies and percentages. For inferential statistics chi square was computed to test relationships between study variables while qualitative data was analysed thematically. The study established Significant changes in the useand application of IK in NRM- (Chi-square=129, df=1 P<0.05 for land use), (Chi-square= 230.7 df=2, P<0.05 for water resources), (Chi-square=151.3, df=1 P<0.05 for forest cover) and (Chi-square=154.4, df=1 P<0.05 for wildlife). Modern approaches in NRM have taken precedence over traditional ecological knowledge resulting to significant negative environmental implications that ranged from: shrinking of water bodies, reduced vegetation cover and extinction of endemic species in Nandi forest. The study found out that IK and modern NRM are complimentary rather than incommensurable. These findings suggest the need to encourage community-based NRM at grass root levels, and incorporation of rural participatory NRM in Nandi county environmental management plans. This will enhance the integration of indigenous knowledge in modern natural resource management strategies.

Crop Diversification Systems and Factors Influencing Decision Making At Household Levels in Baringo Central District, Baringo County, Kenya

Murgor Benson Kiptoo and Cheserek Grace Jerotich


Food insecurity continues to be a problem in many developing countries including Kenya. This is despite the concerted efforts that have been made in an attempt to eradicate it both at Government and household level. One strategy that is increasingly being promoted to improve food security and alleviate poverty in the arid and semi-arid areas is crop diversification. The objectives of this study are to establish crop diversification systems and identify the factors that influence its adoption at household level in Baringo Central District in Baringo County. The study was guided by sustainable livelihoods approach. A survey design was used to select 384 heads of household who were interviewed from two agro-ecological zones in the district; highlands and lowlands. Seven agricultural officers and five local leaders from the two zones were interviewed as key informants using a guide. Nineteen other stakeholders were interviewed using focused group discussion guide. In total 415 respondents participated in the study. Analysis of data was done using descriptive statistics and the chi-squared test. The findings showed that there are diverse crop diversification systems in the district and crop diversification has increasingly being practiced. The main types of crop diversification practiced are multiple cropping and intercropping. Some heads of household used other innovative strategies such as relay cropping, setting up kitchen gardens and use of irrigation to promote crop diversification. Socioeconomic factors such as education level, religious denomination, age, marital status, annual income and farmer’s perceptions of seasonal weather variability influenced crop diversification. The study revealed that crop relay cropping reduced the number of months that households suffered from food shortages while intercropping and number of crops grown on the farm increased the frequency of eating preferred food in households. The study established only 33% of households had received support from government and other partners to facilitate crop diversification. The study recommends strategies used to promote crop diversification to include provision of extension services, input, credit, extension services and markets for the crops produced. The study recommends stakeholders to assist the residents in the district to practice sustainable agriculture through innovative ways that withstand the climatic conditions on arid and semiarid lands. Financial and technological support is crucial to ensure household food security.

Assessment Safety Factors of Slope Stability in the Open Cast Mine of Siboc Coalfield Using the Point Estimate Method

Haliti R.


All the geotechnical problems such as e g. benches slope stability of an open pit mine are often dominated by uncertainty, such as inherent variability of soil properties or scarcity of representative data. Geotechnical engineers and researches try to solve these problems by deterministic calculation, but there may be so many uncertainties that even advanced deterministic methods become useless. They have found that a single, Factor of Safety” calculated by traditional deterministic analyses method cannot represent the slope stability exactly. Even the relatively gentle factor of safety gave the false impression the slope was safe. Therefore, the probabilistic method has been used to deal with the uncertainty effectively. This paper presents the results of bench slope stability assessment at the Siboc lignite open pit using the probabilistic analysis known as Point Estimates Method, or Rosenblueth Method (PEM-S). This method enables the approximate calculation of the first two statistical moments (mean or expected value and standard deviation or its square the variance) of the factor of safety, F. From those moments, one can then obtain the reliability index and the probability of failure as the measure of slope performance. The stability of the slopes were analyzed in two dimensions using limit equilibrium and Point Estimate Method. Input or the strength parameters for this analysis, namely cohesion (c), friction angle (ϕ) and unit weight (γ)were determined in the laboratory. Computer simulation of bench face angles were carried out using SLOPE/W software to determine the factor of safety for different values of strength parameters.

Pollution Prevention Management of Holy Sapth Sagars in Ujjain City

Parag Dalal


This recent study is been done taking the following objectives: To get a brief and general idea about the status of Sapta Sagar. To know the source of pollution of Sapta Sagar. To get the general view of the people about these religious places. To compare the status of Sapta Sagar from a few year back to the recent status and their conditions. To know the impact of religious and other social activities by human being on Sapta Sagar. To know about the environmental impact of Sapta Sagar pollution on other surroundings.  

Anti-Quorum Sensing Ability of Indian Honey on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Wound Infections

Myrene R. Dsouza, Ayesha Firdose, Ayesha Nisar


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of three Honey samples on pyocyanin production by P. aeruginosa isolated from burn wounds. This was followed by the extraction, purification and antimicrobial response of pyocyanin on the isolated organisms. The antimicrobial response of honey samples on isolates demonstrated that it was dilution and source specific. The production of the pigment pyocyanin was dependent on the source and concentration of the honey. The purified pyocyanin exhibited antimicrobial activity on other burn wound isolates while having no inhibitory effect on Pseudomonas. It may be inferred that pyocyanin possesses antimicrobial activity against common pathogens inhabiting burn wounds. Topical application of honey on wounds could prevent pyocyanin production and thereby possess anti-quorum sensing abilities. Further studies are required to advocate its systemic use in infectious diseases.

A pilot plant study for reclamation of wastewater from final wastewater treatment plant in Iron and Steel
Making Plant

Choi, S. K.*; Yi, H. and Sung, Y


Among the whole iron and steel-making processes, wastewaters from coke-making, blast furnace and steel-making contain relatively high organic contaminants due to direct using of raw materials like coal or iron ore. These waste waters are pre-treated by biological nutrients removal processes. On the other hand, wastewater from rolling-mill processes contains mainly inorganic contaminants. In this study, reuse characteristics of wastewater showing combined characteristics from those two processes with reverse osmosis (RO) membrane were examined through pilot plant research. Raw water under MF and RO operation results were analysed with and without the activated carbon filtration. According to the analysis, the removal of organics with activated carbon filter is very important in stable operation of iron mill wastewater. And economic analysis of total processes showed the cost ratio of depreciation, electricity, membrane replacement is relatively high. Currently, wastewater recycling lacks economic feasibility for the water price in South Korea is lower than the cost. However, the region where the water price is high or the water price is raised in the future, the investment of this recycling facility can be considered and stable wastewater reuse can be possible with the combined process of activated carbon pretreatment,MF and RO.  

Comparison of Pretreatment Methods for Reclamation of the Wastewater from Iron and Steel Industry Using Reverse Osmosis Membrane

Choi, S. K.*; Yi, H. and Sung, Y.


As pretreatment technologies for reverse osmosis (RO) operation, sand filter, fabric filter, backwash filter, multi-media filter (MMF), micro filter (MF), and ultra-filter (UF) were tested for iron and steel making wastewater recycling process in a pilot plant. The test was conducted under the same influent and operating conditions in the pilot plant. Except UF, all other technologies were not satisfactory to be used as pretreatment technologies to generate targeted water quality from iron and steel making wastewater using RO system. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that small pore-sized MF or UF membrane pretreatment technology should be combined in a wastewater recycling system design.

Joint Toxic Effect of NPK and Imidacloprid on Soil Organism

Anindita Bhattacharya and Sanjat Kumar Sahu


Soil fertility increases by fertilizers through providing important nutrient and by earthworm due to breakdown of organic matter by their burrowing and casting activities. Application of agrochemicals no doubt had increased the food grain production but hampers the soil health by decreasing the earthworm population. Many literatures are available regarding the effect of agrochemicals on earthworm alone, but joint effects of agrochemicals (pesticide +fertilizer) on earthworm are few. So this present investigation was carried out to know the joint effect of NPK and imidacloprid (I) on tropical earthworm, Drawida willsi. Soil and earthworm were collected from an upland which had no record of input of agrochemical. Different concentration of agrochemicals were prepared and mixed with the soil. Then ten numbers of juvenile, immature and adult earthworms were added separately into all the replicates of different concentration of NPK + I. All the samples were kept in the laboratory for 96 hours and number of earthworm death with respect to doses and replicates were recorded. The 96h LC50 values for juvenile, immature and adult earthworm were calculated by the Finney’s Probit Method. No mortality was observed when juvenile, immature and adult worms were exposed to soil containing up to 250.4, 310.6 and 461.1 mg/kg of NPK+I respectively. As the concentration was increased as high as 491.2 mg/kg of NPK+I, 100% of juveniles, 66% of immature and 4% of adults died. The 96 h LC50 values with their 95% confidence limits for juvenile, immature and adult worms were 365.59 (365.58-365.60), 453.94 (453.93-453.95) and 602.56 (602.55-602.57) mg/kg respectively. Although the recommended dose of NPK+I (160.05 mg a.i./ kg dry soil) was lower than the 96 h LC50 values of D. willsi, but still, it may hamper the soil biota due to some sub-lethal effect on growth, reproduction and metabolism and also the soil health by decreasing the population of earthworm and beneficial microorganisms thereby decreasing the fertility status.

Technical Aspects, Design and Operation of Portable Hand Lift Net of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra

Mayuri Dongare, Ashish Mohite, Makarand Sharangdhar and Shrikant Sharangdhar


The present study encompasses the traditional fishing method of Portable hand lift net practiced in Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. Portable hand lifts net locally known as Zile was used to catch mud crab. In this type of fishing gear, crabs were first attracted towards the gear which had a bag like webbing and then they were removed by lifting the gear. PA multifilament twisted twine having diameter ranging from 1 to 1.5 mm, mesh size of 2 to 3 cm and depth of 30 to 55 cm was used for fabrication of the netting bag. Metallic circular ring of 0.4 to 0.6 made up of iron rod of 4 to 7 cm was used to support the netting and to form a bag like structure. PP twisted multifilament rope of 1 to 2.5 m length having diameter ranging from 3 to 7 mm was generally used as pulling chord. In Ratnagiri, 18 to 55 cm length PP twisted multifilament rope of 3 to 5 mm diameter was used as line. Goats ear were used as bait.

Trace analysis of heavy metals in ground waters of Vijayawada industrial area

T. Ravi Sankar and P.T.S.R.K. Prasada Rao


In recent years, the new environmental problem is arising due to industrial hazard wastage, global climate change, ground water contamination and etc. gives an attention to protect environment. The present study about contamination of ground water due to trace metals in and around the Vijayawada. 60 samples are collected industrial area around the Vijayawada. The study area divided into five zones depending on the nature of industries are present in the study area .The following trace metals are analyzed Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Se, and Zn were analyzed in all the sample. In some ground water sample are found to be more concentration of metals are exceeds maximum limits values of WHO, ISI standards. The result gives important information of ground water quality.

Extraction of Ternary Mixture of Acid Dyes from Textile Effluent Using CPC by Solvent Extraction

Narinderjit Kaur and Sangeeta Sharma, Ekta Khosla


The textile industry and various dye houses are responsible for releasing highly contaminated colored effluent leading to intense water pollution. In this paper, solvent extraction method was used to remove anionic dyes Acid Orange-7, Acid Yellow-17 and Acid Blue-1 from ternary mixture of dyes using reverse micelles of cationic surfactant CPC (cetylpyridinium chloride) in polar solvent isoamyl alcohol and their comparison of extraction of dyes was also studied. The removal trend of the dye from aqueous phase was studied with different concentrations of dye, surfactant concentration, pH, salt concentration, temperature etc.

Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Environment using Aquatic Macrophyte Pistia Stratiotes L.

Priyadarshini Pillai


Heavy metals are among the most important sorts of contaminant in the environment. The contamination by heavy metals in plants and water is one of the major issues to be faced throughout the world and requires attention because heavy metals above their normal ranges are extremely threatened to both plant and animal life. Several methods already used to clean up the environment from these kinds of contaminants, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results. Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals and metal pollutants from contaminated water. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. The aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of water lettuce Pistia stratiotes L. to remove heavy metals from waste water and the biochemical effect of heavy metals on Pistia stratiotes. One-month laboratory experiments have been conducted to mark the percentage removal of different heavy metals at different concentrations and the effect of heavy metals on nitrate reductase activity, total chlorophyll and protein contents of the plant. Approximately 93% of total heavy metal induced – toxicity appears resulting in the reduced activities of nitrate reductase, total chlorophyll and protein content of the plant. The results recommended the use of Pistia stratiotes L. to ameliorate the wastewater contaminated with heavy metals. 

Effect of Cadmium on Morphological and Biochemical Constituents of Cassia Species.

Sweta Tiwari, Triratnesh Gajbhiye, Sudhir kumar Pandey


The effects of cadmium (Cd) toxicity on two Cassia species (Cassia siamea and Cassia fistula) was examined by measurement of growth and other biochemical constitutents in pot experiment. The seedlings of Cassia species i.e Cassia siamea and Cassia fistula were raised in pots to evaluate the effect of cadmium on growth and biochemical activity such as protein and chlorophyll content. Protein estimation results revealed that Cassia fistula is highly affected by cadmium treatment as compared to Cassia siamea, similarly, effects on Cassia fistula are relatively more toxic than Cassia siamea in study of % phytotoxicity of shoot and root length. It was found that growth rate was influenced with increasing concentration of Cadmium (Cd) i.e., from 10 μM to 100 μM. In Cassia siamea, carotenoid content increased in response to Cd treatment at 20 μM while in Cassia fistula carotenoid content decreased with increasing concentration of cadmium. However, chlorophyll a and b contents decreased with increasing concentration of cadmium in both the species of Cassia. Results of protein estimation are more distinct in Cassia fistula i.e 5 times lower than control plant as compared to Cassia siamea i.e., 2 times lower than control plant. Prominent growth inhibition observed in roots than shoots.

Determination of Quasi-Static Behaviour of Bambara Nut, Ground Nut and African Yam Beans Pods and Seeds

Ijabo, O J; Orwua, J T and Omale, P A


The cracking force of groundnut (Arachis hypogeae), Bambara nut (Voandzeia subterranean) and African yam bean (sphenostylis stenocarpa) were determined for both intact pod and seed by quasi-static method of loading using instron universal testing machine (UTM), the Testometric M 500/50 kN AX having a maximum load of 50 kN, with an error ±0.0001 kN at the National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM), Ilorin, Nigeria. A two-factor 3 x3 and 2 x2 Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used for Groundnut and bambara nut respectively. The seed and the intact pod containing a number of seeds form the two factors. Thus, for groundnut it has three levels of one seed per pod, GOSP, two seeds per pod, G2SP, and three seeds per pod G3SP and their corresponding seeds; GOS, G2S and G3S. Similarly, bambara nut has two levels defined as one seed per pod, BOSP and two seeds per pod, B2SP and their corresponding seeds, BOS and B2S. In the case of African yam beans, it is a one- factor, Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment at three levels with the seed, AYBS, as control. The three levels are the positions along the pod identified as the stalk end, AYSE, the middle, AYBM, and curved tip end, AYBT, all along the line of natural cleavage. All the quasi-static tests were done at 10 replications each. The materials were characterized in terms of moisture content which was determined using oven method in three replicates. Correlation analysis, ANOVA and separation of means were carried out. About 103 correlation factors of the properties were > 0.9. For groundnut and for each number of seeds per pod the cracking force of the seed is less than that of the intact pod except for one seed per pod where there is no significant difference. For bambara nut, the load at yield of seed > the load at yield for the pod; that is 53.2 ± 3.29 > 8.07 ±0.51 N and the cracking force of bambara nut seed is 130.765 ± 0.275 N and that of the pod is 35.37 ± 0.57 N. Similarly, the bio-yield force of African yam beans seed (= 99.0 N) is greater than the peak load of the pod (= 24.285 ± 0.245 N). Since in threshing we think of the viability of the seed and the removal or destruction of the pod, it is a good indication that bambara nut and African yam beans can be threshed conveniently without destroying the viability of their seeds. Thus a multi-thresher can be used for bambara nut and African yam beans with or without adjustment whereas that of groundnut would need a substantial adjustment. The cracking force of seeds of bambara nut and African yam beans are 130.765 ± 0.275 and 106.360 ± 0.5.088 N ±10.839 are greater than that of groundnut (= 45.130 ± 0.508 N). These could be used in force analysis for roller and burr mills.

Study of Land Use/ Land Cover Changes of Mysuru City, Karnataka, India by using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques

Vahid Sharifi, Srikantaswamy S and Manjunatha M.C


Land is one of the natural resources that need immediate planning development strategies for better implantation to meet the needs of rapidly growing population. Any forces on these lands will directly affects the hydrosphere, geosphere, bio-sphere, underlying soil and lithology. Remote Sensing (RS) multispectral satellite data with its synoptic view provides better accuracy in mapping those changes affected especially by rapid increase in population, urban sprawl, more demand of natural resources etc. Landsat-7 ETM+ (2001) and Landsat-5 TM (2011) satellite images are digitized to detect temporal changes in LU/LC patterns in Mysuru city and calculated the stress on theselands as well as accuracy of change detection through error of emission/ omission through ArcGIS v10. Supervised Classification has performed using Erdas Imagine v2011 for mark exact boundaries between each LU/LC patterns. The final results highlight the impact of urbanization on LU/LC patterns in Mysuru city which is a suitable model for application to similar geological area. 

Spatial Analysis for the Preparation of the Ulin Growing Requirements (Eusideroxylon zwageri T. & B.) in the Forest Area of Tabalong District, South Kalimantan, Indonesia



The natural forest in Tabalong District has been degraded, proved by the fact that Ulin trees (Eusideroxylon zwageri T. & B.) are rarely to be found. Ulin is in the status of endangered species, thus it must be protected and under the development efforts. Therefore, it needs information of the optimum growing requirements. The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between land characteristics with the presence of Ulin. The data required are primary data collected by sampling method and secondary data by indirectly through institutions. Sampling was done by line observations followed the mapping unit representation which consists of land system majority, elevation, and slopes. Transects made the cut contour, thus the line observation represent the condition of ecological site from the lower land to the upper land. Data collection include data spatial of Ulin, relief, climate and soil sample. Land system and relief spatially analyzed using geographic information systems, while the land characteristics analyzed in the laboratory. The results of this study are optimum growing requirements on the attributes Ulin temperatures ranging from 25-32 oC, the availability of water (w): the number of dry months 2000 mm per year, rooting medium (r): soil permeability is medium class, soil texture is sandy clay, soil effective depth >50 cm, soil porosity 55-65 percent, field capacity water >45 percent, nutrient available (n):does not require sufficient nutrient supply with low-grade organic C and relief (s) of slope