Spatio - Temporal Assessment of Air Pollutants in Kochi City, Kerala, India

Gayathree Devi P.K, Sujatha C.H, Akhil P.S and Rajesh R


Kochi City is a fast growing industrial region where mounting civilization and urbanization has been affecting abruptly in diminishing the air quality of these atmospheric environments. Hence a systematic investigation have been undertaken to carry out the quality assessment emphasizing six transition sectors which are prominent sites with distinct topographical features covering the entire estuarine, riverine and coastal regions of the Cochin Aquatic System. The study recorded that one of the riverine site (R2) is exponentially showing enrichment in SO2 concentration which can be speculated for severe industrial emissions and this site can described as the “Hot Spot Realm”. The enrichment of NO2 portrays the pollution source as through vehicular emissions. Regarding the temporal trend, vagueness exists throughout the analysis more than the spatial allocation trend. It is reflected from the analysis that both climatology and source effect plays significant role in pollutant dispersion. The Air Quality Index (AQI) values calculated for SO2 and NO2 gases pointed out that Kochi area is moderately polluted

Natural Eco-Friendly Processes by Omnipresent Microorganisms to Reduce Carbon Footprint

Salman Khan, D. R. Majumder


In today’s generation industrialization and population is increasing at a very fast rate. To meet the demand of the growing population stress is on the industrial sector and on the construction process, thanks to advancement of science consumer demands are increasing and leading to lavish life style causing a stress on environment. Restoration of the environment is the need of the hour. This review study of various microbiological techniques has been discussed which have a huge potential in different sectors for Green House Gas (GHG) reduction. Replacing physical and chemical techniques with microbiological ones like Biometallurgy for extracting metals, production of Bioelectricity, conversion of CO2 into fuel with the help of bioengineered microbes, replacing chemical fertilizer with Biofertilizer, conversion of lignocelluloses to Biofuel etc. A comparative study has been done on primary and secondary fuel with respect to their potential of GHG emission. Hospitals biomedical waste generated are of huge quantity. Proper disposal of such waste is possible with the use of earthworm’s gut microbial flora and which convert it to compost. Large quantity of plastic waste is generated every year causing severe environmental hazards. Production of Bioplastic and degradation of polythene with microbe could be a viable solution to this problem. Livestock vaccination of ruminant animal against Methanogens and various other diseases, Waste water treatment and production of fuel cells with the help of microbial community will help reduce GHG. Decreasing GHG emission will reduce the stress on environment without affecting industry of any nation that boosts economy, the Kyoto Protocol, the first legal agreement on climate protection.

Study of Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete with Nitric and Sulfuric Acids in a Controlled Environment

González Rolón B., Fuentes Castañeda P.


The effect of strong oxidants such as nitrous oxides and sulfur as oxides commonly present in industrial areas were studied. The pollution conditions were reproduced with aqueous solutions of nitric acid 2.4x 10-3 M and sulfuric acid 3.8x10-4 M on reinforced steel in concrete samples by seven and twenty-eight days of exposure to oxidants. The competition of the several reactions that cause corrosion of samples of steel reinforcement in concrete was studied using the electrochemical technique, and measures of polarization resistance in samples of concrete reinforcing rod to measure the corrosion rate to room temperature. The increase in the corrosion rate after initiation of sample contamination are consistent with the presence of localized corrosion of the reinforcement steel rod concrete. The corrosion effects by the oxidants solutions were evaluated in the mechanical the strength of healthy and contaminated samples at seven and twenty-eight days the compressive stress on a test machine was measured the results obtained exhibited a tendency over the course of the fracture.

The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Nigerian Capital Market

Sophia A. Tukur, Emeka E. Ene


The importance of foreign investment either by private or public agencies in promoting growth and development in developing countries cannot be overemphasized. This study set to assess significant relationship between net portfolio investment and stock market capitalization and secondly, to assess the effect of foreign direct investment on stock market value in Nigeria. Secondary data were obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria’s (CBN) statistical bulletin from 1990 – 2014. Statistical method of ordinary least squares executed with E-views software version 7.0 was employed in analysis of data. The findings reveal that foreign direct investment plays a significant role in the growth process of the capital market, net portfolio investment was found to improve market capitalization, and in addition, stock market value also influences foreign direct investment. It was recommended that Nigerian government should put in place appropriate prudential supervision and regulatory policies that will boost continuous inflow of foreign portfolio investment in Nigeria’s capital market. It was further recommended that sustainable democratic values should be entrenched in Nigeria politygiven that FDI inflow has been found to exhibit positive relationship with stable socio-economic indices.

Environment and Pharmaceutical Industry in 21st Century: An Update

J.B. Gawad, M.K. Deole, B.A. Chavan, S.J. Tauro


Currently we concerns about the occurrence and fate of active pharmaceutical ingredients, solvents, Intermediates and raw materials that could be present in water and wastewater including pharmaceutical industry waste water have gained increasing attention. Traditional waste water treatment methods, such as activated sludge, are not sufficient for the complete removal of active pharmaceutical ingredients and other wastewater constituents from these waters. Environment and health are directly or indirectly affected by pharmaceutical effluents especially in the vicinity of pharmaceutical industrial zones. Though untreated or partially treated effluents released by pharmaceutical industries, drinking water sources are being polluted. Different classes of pharmaceutical compounds like analgesic, antidepressant, antihypertensive, contraceptive, antibiotic, steroids and hormones etc. have been detected in water samples from mg/L to μg/L range. There is a need of regular monitoring of concentration of pharmaceutical compounds in pharmaceutical effluents entering into drinking water sources in order to save environment as well as living form of lives from health hazards.

Phytoplankton Species Composition and Abundance in the Lower Sombreiro River, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

O.A.F. Wokoma, V.O. Nwaogu, G.N. Chima, V.I. Gbosidom


The phytoplankton community of the lower reaches (brackish – water axis) of the Sombreiro River was studied over a 2- year period. Phytoplankton samples were collected across 10 sampling stations and analyzed in the laboratory following standard methods. 140 species belonging to 88 genera and 7 classes were recorded; Bacillariophyta was the most dominant class with 69 species representing 49.29%, followed by Cyanophyta with 28 species (20.0%), Chlorophyta with 21 species (15%), Chrysophyta with 7 species (5.0%), Euglenophyta and Dinophyta with 6 species each (4.29%) and Xanthophyta with 3 species (2.14%). The most occurring genera were Cyclotella, Niztchia and Rhizosolenia with 7 and 6 species each respectively. In terms of phytoplankton class abundance, Baccillariophyta dominated the phytoplankton community with 524,680 individuals representing 77.42%, followed by Cyanophyta with 87,720 individuals representing 12.94%, Chlorophyta had 50240 individuals representing 7.41%, Chrysophyta accounted for 12,720 individuals translating to 1.88%, Euglenophyta, Xanthophyta and Dinophyta then followed in that order with 1280 (0.19%), 640 (0.09) and 440 (0.07) individuals respectively. Cyclotella menighianiana was the most encountered phytoplankton species (of class Baccillariophyta) having a total of 72, 120 individuals followed closely by Melosira listans and Azpeitia natalifera with 67,080 and 53,760 individuals respectively.

Extraction, Isolation and Identification Very Important Fluorosence Compound from Pongamia Pinnata Leaves

Jiva P Odedrai, Vijay R Ram and Pragnesh N Dave & Ekta Khosla


Pomgamia pinnata leaves through the process of extraction, identification and characterization process found Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Direct and sequential soxhlet extraction and its fraction were subjected to the thin layer chromatography. The result showed that the maximum fluorosence of Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was obtained from methonolic extraction. Characterization of Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was done by 1H NMR, UV-VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY and GCMS. On the basis of these analysis the structure elucidated as Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is used as good plastisizer and other used are also available. This compound was isolated for the first time from the pogamia pinnata leaves.

Feasibility of Supply of Drinking Water in Villages by Using Gravity Flow

V.A. Auti and A.R. Ghode


Over 480 million people in India do not have access to safe drinking water. India has been ranked 133rd among 180 countries for its poor water availability (1880 cubic meters per person) by the United Nations. Lack of access to safe drinking water is a major cause of ill-health and loss of productivity. It is one of the major causes of life-threatening diseases among infants and children. Fetching water from far off places by women and girls is a burden, adding to their already long days of domestic hardship. Provision of piped water to homes and toilets lessens the burden for women and girls who fetch water from distant sources for household consumption. Water is a basic need of life to which every village has an inalienable right. More than 80% of households have no electricity connection and sanitation facilities are found in fewer than 5% of rural homes. Access is a particular constraint, especially in the central, hilly area of the state. In the 21st century, rural communities are far away from getting their most basic needs. We aims to ensure that all homes in rural/tribal areas have access to uninterrupted, protected piped water supply. Rural areas have long been subject to an uneven development process where piped water supply to individual homes has never been seriously considered by the government. In this project we tried to contribute to help those rural people to get potable water economically, by using sustainable gravity flow system. The result shows that alternative we suggest is feasible system over pumping lift system.

A Comparison of Some Biochemical Parameters in Sera and Semen of Fertile Male in Fallujah City

Hathama R. Hasan & Wissam M. Mohamed


The aim of the objactive study was to inspect the concentrations of some biochemical parameters. Total protein, the enzymes activities and some metals in sera and semen of normal, healthy men were determined and the relationships between these parameters in each fluid were examined. The sampls (n=32) were collected between April to September 2013 from Fallujah city. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation was found between serum and semen in all parameters except total protein and RNase activity.

Adsorption Study of Cr (VI) on Low Cost Leaf Powders

Ekta Khosla


The adsorption behavior of Cr (VI) on neem leaf powder (NLP), eucalyptus leaf powder (ELP) and mango leaf powder (MLP) has been investigated to understand the physicochemical process involved and to explore the possible use of low cost materials for in metal waste water treatment and management. The metal ion removal capacity of NLP, ELP and MLP is 60.5%, 61% and 65.5% respectively at an optimum adsorbent dose. The adsorption process has been found to be pH dependent and optimum pH for removal of metal ion was found to be 2.0. The equilibrium was established in 1.0 h for all dyes. Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherm models have been applied on the system. The adsorbents NLP, ELP and MLP has been characterized with SEM and FTIR techniques. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed noticeable porous morphologies of the material. The results of FTIR spectroscopy revealed that the process is electrostatic complexation mechanism driven. The kinetic measurements suggested pseudo second order kinetic processes with high regression coefficients and smaller standard error of estimate and lower residual sum of squares. The thermodynamic measurements suggested that all processes were exothermic accompanied with negative ΔGo and negative ΔSo, and negative ΔHo values.

Phytoremediation Studies in Industrial Soil of Mysuru City, India

Shiva Kumar.D, Srikantaswamy.S, Smitha.N and, Abhilash.M.R


Heavy metals are considered as one of the major threats in the soil environment. These metals are going to add to the soil through many process and sources. Fertilizers, Pesticides, fungicides, insecticides are the main sources in agriculture field and hazardous/toxic wastes would be discharged from industries. Accumulated metals persist in the soil for longer duration and affecting the soil microbes. The present study, experiments were carried out to remove the heavy metals in polluted industrial soil of Mysuru city, India. Heavy metals such as Lead, Zinc, Cadmium, Chromium and Copper were selected for the phytoremidation studies in the soil. Based on the levels of removal, the plants are considered as good accumulator. Hence the used plants in the experiment may be used in the polluted/industrial areas to minimise the heavy metal contamination in soil and control over the ground water pollution as phyto-remediator

Farm Size, Cropping Pattern and Productivity Variation (An Analysis of Mansa District)

Dr. Jagdeep Singh


Punjab, being one of the beneficiaries of productivity increases during the green revolution, experienced fast mechanization as well as weakening of the land size and productivity relationship. In fact, the reversal of the trend was observed with the increase in modern technology and use of modern inputs in Punjab. The green revolution and resultant productivity increase benefited the farmers of Punjab by increasing the yield and allowing higher cropping intensity. Since, increase in productivity was also associated with reversal of the relationship between productivity and farm size, it made the large scale farming even more profitable. Nonetheless, these changes also results that lead to change in some basic features of Punjab agriculture. One of the major problems faced by Punjab agriculture is the start of wheat rice cycle (and lack of diversified) in Punjab.

Geomatics Application on Climate Change and Its Impact on Groundwater Table Fluctuation in Parts of Upper Cauvery Basin (Mysuru and Chamarajanagara Districts), Karnataka, India

Basavarajappa H.T, Dinakar S and Manjunatha M.C


Analyses of season-wise rainfall variations have been analyzed using 31 years (1971-2001) rainfall data. Rainfall trend alters the hydrological cycle and directly affects the surface & sub-surface water conditions. The spatial variability of mean annual precipitation depends upon the topographic factors like exposure of station to the prevailing wind, elevation, orientation and slope of the mountain. 13 years of Groundwater level has been recorded to study its fluctuation from 1990-2002. The average and mean rainfall & subsurface water level over the area are calculated using Arithmetic mean, Thiessen polygon and Iso-hyetal methods. Average rainfall, water level is the simple arithmetic mean measured in the area; while Iso-hyetal method has been adopted for rainfall & groundwater fluctuation analysis. Rain gauge stations are plotted on a base map with their respective amount of rainfall and then the contours of equal rainfall (isohyets) are drawn using Surfer software and same groundwater levels. The different in rainfall & groundwater intervals obtained (area between the two adjacent lines) are helpful in understanding the variation of rainfall; groundwater over the study area. The final results highlight the impacts of climatic change over groundwater table fluctuation in parts of Upper Cauvery basin in Karnataka state, which is a suitable model in similar geological conditions.

Rainfall Variation and Its Impact on Groundwater Table Fluctuation in Mysore Taluk, Karnataka, India using GIS Application

Vahid Sharifi, Srikantaswamy S, Manjunatha M.C and Basavarajappa H.T


Precipitation is an important factor in hydrological cycle that acts as the major source of all water resources on earth. Rise in temperature increases the evaporation of surface water bodies & transpiration in wetlands. Groundwater in hard rock aquifers is essentially confined to fractured and/or weathered horizons which need thorough understanding, management and periodic monitoring. Groundwater is the invisible and ultimate indicator of the atmospheric anomalies in the hydrological cycle. The present aim is to analyze the rainfall variation impacts on groundwater table fluctuation in the study area through GIS potentiality.Selection of observation well points relies heavily on traditional methods; need a proper systematic approach which is lacking. Groundwater level data provides direct value of groundwater occurrences below ground level (bgl). Aquifers have the capacity to store large volumes of water and are naturally buffered against seasonal changes in temperature and rainfall. A sincere attempt has been made to evaluate 6 rain gauge stations data of 11 years (2001-11) in determining the rainfall fluctuation; while 9 observation well points are considered to determine the groundwater table fluctuation of the same 11 years. Arithmetic mean, theissen polygon and iso-hyetal methods are well utilized in the present study in digitization of spatio-temporal maps using field data collection through GIS’s software. The final results highlight the capability of GIS tool in mapping, management and period monitoring of rainfall variation and groundwater table fluctuation in Mysore taluk, Karnataka, India.

Ground Water Depletion Due To Water Mining– A Threat

Nurul Hassan


Bottle water has become a pervasive global business, and bottled water consumption continues to increase rapidly, particularly in countries where clean potable tap water is available at very low cost or free. The paper provides an overview of the Indian bottled water market situation, water mining, over exploiting of groundwater in order to understand the reason of a trend that goes beyond a simple fashion and turns to be a real social phenomenon. This paper insight on how the bottle water industry is expected to grow in the next few years with harmful impacts on human beings and various environmental disasters. It provides intelligent insight on the drivers and challenges for the industry, the proposed government policy initiatives.

Bioremediation of Hexavalent Chromium [Cr (VI)] in Tannery Effluent using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

V. Pushpa Rani, G. Meena Kumari, K. Shanmuga Priya, A. Anitha Nancy, Louis M.R. Lima Mirabel


Chromium is the most toxic and common among heavy metal pollutants of industrial effluents. In this study, physico-chemical, biological analysis and bio-reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] by microorganisms from tannery effluent were investigated. The optimum pH and temperature of the leather effluent was found as 8.5 and 37oC. The TS, TDS, TSS, COD and BOD content of the leather effluent were found to be 1200mg/L, 6800mg/L, 4020mg/L, 4100mg/L and 1900mg/L respectively. The LB broth was inoculated with hexavalent chromium estimated from the sample. After 24 hours, the culture suspension (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) of 0.1ml was inoculated into the LB broth and incubated at 30oC for 24 hrs. In this current study, Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella Spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger were isolated in the adsorption of chromium in tannery effluents. During this present investigation, Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found to be highly resistant to chromium.

Excoecaria agallocha: A Potential Mangrove Species in Context to Carbon Storage in High Saline Zone

Kakoli Banerjee, Gahul Amin, Pardis Fazli, Prosenjit Pramanick, Sufia Zaman and Abhijit Mitra


We estimated the Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and Above Ground Carbon (AGC) of Excoecaria agallocha in 24 sampling stations of Indian Sundarbans distributed in three sectors (western, central and eastern) having contrasting salinity profile. Significant temporal variation is revealed on observed data sets through ANOVA (p < 0.01), but there is no pronounced spatial variation, which reflects the wide range of tolerance of the species to salinity. It can thus be concluded that the species is highly adapted to climate change induced sea level rise and subsequent increase of salinity.

Enhancing Fruit Set and Productivity in Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) Berhi Cultivar Using Boron and Potassium

Hussein J. Shareef


‘Berhi’ is one of the most important cultivars not only in Iraq, but in all regions interested in planting date palm as a commercial crop. The influence of pollens sources with boric acid and potassium sulphate (2 and 4 g) on fruit set and yield of ‘Berhi’ cultivar was estimated in the experiment. Results indicated that addition of boron or potassium by mixing with pollens sources of Al-Ghannami Al-Akhdar or Al-Khikri Al-Adi male clones significantly increased fruit set, fruit weight, a percentage of fruit ripening, bunch weight and total yield and decreased fruit drop compared to both two treatments control the cultivars. Also, application of 4 g boron with pollen of ‘Al-Ghannami Al-Akhdar’ cultivar showed the greatest values of fruit traits. Our results revealed that mixture of boric acid or potassium sulphate had a positive effect on improving date palm ’Berhi’ fruit set, yield and fruit quality and the mixture should be introduced as new method for its sufficient pollination.

N-Octane Isomerization over Bicationic Platinum-Containing Zeolites of Y-Type

A.Z. Mammadova, S. E. Mirzalieva, E.I. Akhmedov, S.E. Mammadov


Influence of polyvalent cations (Ho3+, Cr3+, Co2+, Ni2+) on catalytic and acidic properties of Pt/СаY catalyst in n-octane isomerization has been studied. High promoting effect of polyvalent cations on Pt-zeolite catalyst activity has been established; and polyvalent cations have been shown to influence the activity of Pt/СаY catalyst by regulating the amount and strength of acidic sites.

Methods & Executions of Electrostatic Precipitator and Its Fundamental Plan

Ezadin. B. Farhat Alkateb, Dr. Satyendra Nath, Prof/Co-advisor. A.K. Nema


Mminimally clogging the flow of gases through the unit, from a flowing gas using the force of associate induced electrostatic charge, like dirt and smoke, which removes fine particles, associate electrostatic precipitator (ESP) may be a filtration device. To wet scrubbers that apply energy directly, in distinction to the flowing fluid medium, to the particulate being collected associate ESP applies energy only and thus in its consumption, for energy (in the shape of electricity) is extremely efficient. As per this study it should controlled is particulate (particles), one among the industrial air pollution issues that has created. It’s not a retardant isolated, to a number of industries, however across a large sort of industries it is pervasive. That is why the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has regulated particulate emissions and why industry has responded, with numerous management devices. Eelectrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is the additional of times used of the main particulate assortment devices used these days. With a large range of recess temperatures, pressures, dirt volumes, and acid gas conditions, they w’ll handle massive gas volumes. In dry and wet states, they can collect a wide range of particle sizes, and they can collect particles. For many industries, as high as 99%, the collection efficiency can go. ESPs aren't always the appropriate collection device, but because of electrostatic attraction (like charges repel; unlike charges attract), they work. In an ESP, let’s see how this law of physics works.

Physico-Chemical Analysis of Ground Water Samples from SawaiMadhopur Tehsil with Emphasis on Fluoride

ArshiIram* and T.I. Khan


Water samples from Sawai Madhopur Tehsil were collected for analysis. Inhabitants of this tehsil suffers from fluorosis. Ground water samples were collected from 30 villages of Sawai Madhopur Tehsil. Total 150 samples (5 samples from each village) were analyzed. Selected ion meter was used for estimation of fluoride. Fluoride ion concentration in ground water samples varied from 1.11mg/l to 7.94mg/l. Out of 150 samples, 16.66 percent samples were found to be within permissible limit, however, 83.34 percent were found to contain fluoride beyond permissible limits. 

Stomatal Responses to Water Stress in Cotton

K. Ananthi and H. Vijayaraghavan


A study was conducted to determine the stomatal responses to water stress in cotton. The experiment was conducted by adopting Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replications. The treatments comprised of water stress imposed at vegetative, squaring and boll development stages of crop growth. Water stress may reduce leaf net photosynthetic carbon assimilation through both stomatal effects, which reduce the leaf internal CO2 concentration, and nonstomatal effects, which result in reduced net photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate at a given level of leaf internal CO2 concentration.

Speciation of Heavy Metals in Municipal and Industrial Wastewater Irrigated Crops of Mysuru City, India – A Comparative Study

Mavinakere R. Abhilash, Srikantaswamy Shivanna, Shiva Kumar Doddaiah, and Jagadish Krishnegowda


Present days, cities are growing fast with population; City planners are able to make arrangements for providing them with basic necessities like water. Industries are considered a sign of growth, and governments encourage indiscriminate expansion of industrialization, at the cost of providing basic necessities for the human population. The Municipal and Industrial wastewater is contributed by both human civilization and industrial expansion, Because of rapid urban growth; many civic bodies are not made proper treatment and disposal of urban wastewater. So, these untreated Municipal and Industrial wastewaters easily contaminate the Heavy metals in agricultural crops through natural uptake phenomenon. In the present investigation wastewater irrigated crop species is used for analysis of trace metals contaminated crops in and around Mysore city. 

Analysis of Fluoride in Ground Water and its Impact on Human Health in Parts of Noida, Uttar Pradesh.

Yusra Khan, Gauhar Mehmood, Saranjit Singh Bhasin


Noida is one of the planned cities in India where the water supply system has got various water sources like ground water, Ganga water, and Yamuna water. The ground water in the area has got excess fluoride in places for which the proper treatment has been given by the water supply authority of Noida. However many areas in Noida especially urban villagers are getting water supply from ground water without proper treatment and most of the individual units especially bungalow types have also installed submersible pumps where the utilization of ground water is going without proper treatment. Although most of the places in Noida have fluoride within permissible limits as per ISO: 500 standards but few unplanned places have got fluoride value which varies from 2.1 to 3.0 mg/lt, as result ,the fluoride related problems especially the dental problems have been recorded from hospitals, dispensaries, doctors. The present study deals with the impact of groundwater quality due to fluoride on dental issues of residents in the area and provides its remedial measures apart from the other aspects of groundwater analysis have also been discussed which is useful to the practicing doctors in the Noida area. The present study was undertaken to determine fluoride content in ground water in parts of Noida, District Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh and to study its effects on human beings. A total of 40 samples of ground water were collected mostly from tube well pumps in which fluoride content and others physio- chemical properties were determined. The impact of fluoride on human health was studied in collaboration with various hospitals and clinics from the results obtained in same region. The fluoride concentration varied from 0.3 ppm to 2.4ppm which had lower and higher limits than the normal range limits (0.5 ppm - 1.5 ppm). Both the extreme lower and higher limits are detrimental for health.

Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Synodontis koensis Pellegrin, 1939 in Sassandra River, Côte d’Ivoire

Kouamé Kouakou Augusti, Kamelan Tanoh Marius, Nobah Céline Sidonie Koco, Goore Bi Gouli and Kouamélan Essetchi Paul


The Length-Weight Relationship (LWR) and condition factor of Synodontis koensis Pellegrin, 1939 were studied between October 2004 and September 2005. A total number of 254 specimens comprising of 103 males and 151 females with the size ranged from 50 to 140 mm and the mean of 96.42 ± 17.59 mm were studied. The weight ranged from 2.4 to 48.5 g with the mean of 22.72 ± 9.89 g. The Length-Weight Relationships for the males, females and combined sexes had rvalues of 0.87, 0.89 and 0.88 respectively. The condition factor (K) was 2.57 for the males, 2.36 for the females and 2.45 for combined sexes; growth exponent (b) was 2.7795, 2.8575 and 2.8007 for the females, males and combined sexes respectively. S.koensis exhibited a negative allometric growth pattern in Sassandra River.

Comparative account of some physico-chemical parameters of three different sites of Kamwadi River

Archana Gupte & Laxmishree Chengala


Present study deals with the comparative studies of some physico chemical parameters of water samples at three different locations of Kamwadi River in Bhiwandi. Bhiwandi city has large number of textile industries. Kamwad iRiver is the only river flowing through this area. Water analysis was carried out in order to analyze quality of water and extent of anthropogenic activity. Physico-chemical characteristics such as temperature, pH, DO, etc were measured at selected locations. It was observed that Dissolved Oxygen at all the sites was very low. COD at Naddi Naka was high and all the sites show slightly acidic pH.

Properties of Modal Fabric after Formic Acid Treatment

Jeyakodi Moses J and Gnanapriya


Modal fabrics are very soft and smooth with the ability to absorb up to 50% more water than cotton. Fabric made from modal drape well and do not pile like cotton. Modal fabric is a bio-based rather than natural made from the spun reconstituted cellulose polymer of beech trees. Modal fabrics resist fading, shrinking and the buildup of hard water mineral deposits even after repeated washing. In this study, modal fabrics (woven and knitted) are selected and conventionally pretreated and subjected with 98% formic acid in different concentrations. The formic acid treated modal fabrics were then undergone different testing such as; physical properties, absorbency, wicking, K/S value, fastness properties, water vapor permeability, air permeability, SEM & FTIR analysis. These treatments on modal fabrics were correspondingly compared with those of cotton for its effectiveness.

First Record on Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Neritina (Dostia) violacea (Gmelin) From Nayachar Island, West Bengal, India

Indranil Ghosh, Satyendranath Maitra, Sujoy Biswas, Suresh Agarwal and Abhijit Mitra


This paper presents the seasonal variations of selective heavy metals in Red-mouth Nerite Snail Neritina (Dostia) violacea (family: Neritidae), collected from Nayachar Island, Hooghly estuary just opposite to Haldia Port-cum-Industrial Complex, during premonsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon seasons. Metals like Zn, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Co, Pb, Cr, and Cd were analyzed with the help of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer following the standard protocol. Physico-chemical parameters like pH, salinity and temperature were also recorded in all the three seasons. Maximum concentrations of metals were observed in monsoon period, followed by postmonsoon and premonsoon periods.

Catalytic Activity of Oxovanadium Catalysts Supported SiO2 or Al2O3 in the Selective Oxidation of p- Chlorotoluene

E.M. Babayev, A.C. Efendi, F.A. Yunisova, N.F. Aykan


Catalytic conversion of p-chloro substituted toluene has carried out in the presence of oxovanadium catalysts. The activities of synthesized variety catalytic systems based on V, P, Mo, Sb oxides were determined in the oxidation reaction of psubstituted toluene. It was shown, the appropriate optimum reaction condition for the activity and selectivity for received catalysts was designated (temperature 603-753 K; contact time 0.6-0.8 sec-1; mole ratio of p-substituted toluene to O2 (XY:O2)=1:10-1:25) and under this condition the conversion of p-chlorotoluene was 80-90%. Meanwhile, besides helping to solve ecological problem with the neutralization of ecological harmful substance, also received very important raw materials (benzaldehydes, maleic anhydride (MA) and their chloro analogues) for petrochemical synthesis.

Study of Molecular Characterization in the Vermiremediating Earthworm on the Tannery Effluents by DNA Barcoding

V. Pushpa Rani, K. Sathya, A. Anitha Nancy, K. Shanmuga Priya, and G. Meena Kumari


Indiscriminate and uncontrolled discharge of metal contaminated industrial effluents into the environment has become a major issue in developing countries. The vermicomposting of organic material with earthworm minimizes the environmental pollution and health hazards. The organic and inorganic minerals in earthworm cast were high, considering the positive effect; the problem of pollution can be solved using vermicomposting. Tannery effluent is one of the common industrial effluents, containing the most poisonous heavy metals and toxic compounds. This work reflects the improved nutrient availability and decreased toxic effect of tannery sludge after treating with the predominant earthworms. In addition, the study emphasizes nutrient analysis of vermicomposted tannery sludge and suggests improved nutrient availability. Results of tannery sludge after treating with earthworms Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida clearly state the presence of favorable environment for microbial diversity through characterization study when compared to the pretreatment. Thus, we could able to recommend E. eugeniae, E. fetida in the agricultural usage of tannery sludge and tannery effluent contaminated soils. 

Study of Amylase Activity in Stored and Artificially Infested Maize Grain

Nilima K. Wahegaonkar and Deepavali D. Shirurkar


Seed samples of three maize varieties, Local, African Tall and Amber, were collected from different localities in Maharashtra. Eight fungal species were found associated with the grains of these maize varieties. The fungal species recovered on agar media and blotter paper were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus terreus, Fusarium solani, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium sp. Amylase activity was studied in artificially infested grains and compared with non-artificially infested grains of maize. In all artificially infested grains the activity was more than that in control condition. Maximum amylase activity was recorded in the grains of Local variety and in grains infested artificially with Aspergillus niger. Local variety thus was more susceptible to fungal deterioration.