A Review on Vermicomposting of Bio Waste Using Different Earthworm Species

Sobana K., M. Agnes Sharmila and M.Jegadeesan

Halotolerant Bacterial Strains a Potential Source of Microbial Degradation of Acid Blue 113

V. Pushpa Rani, K. Shanmuga Priya, A. Anitha Nancy, G. Meena Kumari & P. George Fernado Pradeepa


Azo dye compounds represent a large group of chemicals which are extensively used in the textile, pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Due to industrialization release of massive quantity of effluent which increases in the pollution. The present study in microbial biodegradation of Acid Blue 113 dye by halotolerant bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus flexus). Different concentrations of dye (25, 50, 75 & 100 ppm) used to observe the degree of degradation with the help of identified halotolerant bacterial strains. The present study reveals that the azo dye Acid Blue 113 has been degraded to a maximum of 87% by P. aeruginosa & 84% by B. flexus were observed at 25 ppm.

A Temporal Appraisement of Urban Green space in Different Zones of Bengaluru

Dr. Malini A. Shetty and Prof. R.K. Somashekar


Urbanization is an inevitable consequence of human social development occurring rapidly and is global in scope having both positive and negative impacts. To take better advantage of benefits and minimize negative impact of urbanization, urban green space is recognized as an essential means of maintaining urban ecosystem health, nurturing a harmonious human nature relationship and ultimately achieving urban sustainability by improving air, water quality and cooling urban heat island. Bangalore once the garden city of India is experiencing unprecedented urbanization in recent times due to concentrated developmental activity, resulting in the increased population and consequent pressure on infrastructure and natural resources. In this direction the present work is carried out on a broader prospective of urban green space for the BBMP using satellite imageries of2005 and 2010.We examine spatial variation and mean NDVI, Impervious surface ratio (ISR) and Green cover ratio (GCR) for each zones. In the current study green space assessment epitomize how urban vegetation cover and its associated benefits vary across the BBMP and this data can be used to compare urban vegetation cover between the zones.

Study on Physico-Chemical, Heavy Metal Charecteristic of Ground Water Samples
from Kadur Taluk, Karnataka, India

Harish H.P and Mavinakere R. Abhilash


Rural parts of India depend on groundwater for drinking and agriculture. Unsustainable withdrawal of groundwater has led to the spectra of depleting the problem of water scarcity. The available groundwater quality is not only contaminated by hazardous pathogenic germs and anthropogenic substances, but also geogenic substances are adversely affecting the water quality in many regions. The groundwater of Kadur Taluk had many threats such as agricultural activities, over exploitation, rock interaction in aquifers and also persistence of continuous drought condition. This study mainly addresses the physico-chemical and to check the presence of heavy metals concentrations of 14 groundwater samples.

Ecosystem Service of Avicennia alba in terms of Carbon Sequestration

Abhijit Mitra, Tanmoy Rudra, Arnesha Guha, Aniruddha Ray, Prosenjit Pramanick, Nabonita Pal and Sufia Zaman


The present paper is an attempt to evaluate the spatio-temporal variation of Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and Above Ground Carbon (AGC) of Avicennia alba in Indian Sundarbans. The study was conducted in three sectors of Indian Sundarbans (western, central and eastern) with contrasting salinity, but ANOVA results revealed no pronounced spatial variations of the observed data sets, which reflect the wide range of tolerance of the species to salinity. The temporal variation (considering the data sets of two decades; 1996-2015) exhibited significant value (p < 0.01) thus emphasizing the increased storage of carbon with time.

Tert-Butylation of O-Xylene over Dealuminated Mordenite 

G. X. Valiyeva, S. E. Mammadov, E. I. Ahmadov


The tert-butylation of o-xylene over dealuminated mordenite catalysts and the main factors of determining the activity and selectivity of dealuminated mordenites were investigated. On the basis of the physico-chemical studies of dealuminated mordenites, adsorption of nitrogen at low-temperature and IR spectroscopy were showed that the combination of thermal processing with acid contributes to the creation of the microporous system and the formation of a super-microporous and mesoporous. It was established that the properties of the catalysts significantly depend on the dealumination method. The optimal conditions for the dealumination and the subsequent calcination by oxalic acid at 7500C which provide maximum selectivity of mordenits in the reaction of tert-butylation of the o-xylene yielding 1,2-dimethyl-tert-butylbenzene (DMTBB- 91,4%) were found.

Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Efficiency of CaMgO2 against Selected Dyes under Visible Radiation

C. Bhavya1, K. Yogendra1*, K. M. Mahadevan2 and N. Madhusudhana1


Solution combustion method was used to synthesize CaMgO2 nanoparticle for photocatalytic degradation of Coralene Navy Blue 3G, Coralene Violet 3R and Disperse Blue 2BL azo dyes in aqueous solutions. Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and UV-absorption spectroscopy was used to characterize the CaMgO2 nanoparticle. The effect of different system variables, such as catalyst dosage, initial dye concentration and pH of the solution were examined. The photo degradation of these dyes, catalyzed by CaMgO2 nanoparticle was studied under sunlight irradiation. Among the three dyes selected, the highest degradation was obtained for Coralene Violet 3R at time of 120min(0.7g/100ml, 0.5g/100ml and 0.4g/100ml of Coralene Navy Blue 3G, Coralene Violet 3R and Disperse Blue 2BL respectively). CaMgO2 nanoparticle was also efficient in degrading Coralene Navy Blue 3G, and Disperse Blue 2BL in the same interval of time.

Identification and Differential Expression Analysis of Conserved MicroRNAs under Salt Stress in Lablab purpureus (Hyacinth Bean)

Thilagavathy, A and V.R. Devaraj


MicroRNA (miRNA) guided post-transcriptional gene regulation plays vital role in abiotic stress responses in plants. Salt stress specific microRNAs were identified by cloning and sequencing small RNA fraction from Lablab purpureus, a multipurpose tropical legume tolerant to mild salt and drought stress. Sequence analysis revealed 12 miRNAs homologous to conserved miRNAs of dicots. Differential expression analysis indicated up-regulation of 4 miRNAs and down-regulation of 8 miRNAs. Potential targets were identified by psRNA target program, which included transcription factors that regulate gene expression in abiotic stress responses, enzymes and proteins involved in signal transduction, methylation and other metabolic processes

Heritage Trees of Gujarat: Carbon Sinks In the Scenario of Climate Change 

Aparna Rathore*, Yogesh. T. Jasrai


Heritage means the carrying forward of a tradition and the qualities for many years and from one generation to another. Gujarat has become the first state in enlisting all its largest, oldest, hugest, tallest and biggest trees as the heritage trees of Gujarat. Henceforth, conserving and protecting such heritage symbols for hundreds of years and from generation to generation will set an example of the importance of conservation of tree heritage as a huge carbon sink in this scenario of global climate change. Vegetation stands next only to soil in sequestering carbon. Owing to an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) especially carbon dioxide (CO2) due to human interventions it has become important that the tree carbon sinks is identified for maximum carbon sequestration so as to bring down the level of CO2, the main GHG. The total carbon stock of the trees were measured by non-destructive, morphometric method using equations involving the volume, biomass, percentage of carbon sequestered and wood density. Thus, the carbon stock of the heritage trees was calculated.

The Relationship between Farm Size, Productivity and Profitability: A Case Study of Districts Mansa and Jalandhar

Dr. Jagdeep Singh


Indian agriculture has undergone a significant change since independence both in agricultural production and productivity followed by change in agricultural technological inputs. The seed, fertilizer technology known as green revolution have had the significant impact on agriculture. Present study compares tehsils of two districts of Mansa and Jalandhar. The comparison is based on primary data. Mansa is comparatively backward district, whereas Jalandhar is among developed districts. A sample of 200 farmer households was selected from each district to analysis agricultural productivity and profitability.The comparison is based on primary data. Mansa is comparatively backward district, whereas Jalandhar is among developed districts. ((Cut these line)

Bioaccumulation pattern of Heavy Metals by Gastropods:A Case Study from Lower Gangetic Delta

Indranil Ghosh, Abhijit Mitra, Tanmoy Rudra, Prosenjit Pramanick and Partha Pratim Biswas


We have carried out a first order analysis on accumulation of selective heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, Pb, Cd and Ni) by two different gastropod species belonging to the genus Littorina (L. littorea and L. scabra scabra) collected from the Nayachar Island in the lower stretch of the Hooghly estuarine complex, West Bengal, India. L. littorea prefers to avoid the tidal surges and forages on the intertidal region. L. scabra scabra is commonly found on rocky substratum and mangrove plants. The analysis was carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Perkin-Elmer) after acid digestion as per the standard protocol. L. scabra scabra was found to accumulate more metals compared to L. littorea.

Analysis of Pesticides in Lendi River, District Nanded, (M.S.), India

Bimbisar D. Waghmare & A. N. Kulkarni


Lendi River is one of the tributary of river Manar, originates at Malkapur district Latur and joins to river Manar at Degloor, district Nanded. Water of this Semiperennial river is used to perform various activities such as industrial, irrigation, fisheries and human activities. In the present study all the analysed water samples were below detectable limit for both Endosulphan and Chloropyrifos.

The Study of Methanol Conversion to P-Xylene in the Presence of Modified HZSM Type of Pentasil

Т.А. Babayeva, S.E. Маmmadov, E.I. Ahmadov


Catalytic and physico-chemical properties of a high-silica zeolites modified with metals (Ga, Cr, La, Zr) was studied in the conversion process of methanol to pxylene. The selectivity of H-pentasil catalyst modified with the metals (Ga, Cr, La, Zr) on the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons increases by the following order:НZSМ<GaHZSМ<CrHZSМ<LaНZSМ< ZrНZSМ Chemical modification of HZSM-5 with a modifier concluded concentration decreasing of strength acid centers and adsorption value of catalysts which increases catalyst selectivity for p-xylene was revealed. P-Orienting properties of the catalysts depend on the modifier nature and concentration. Lanthanum and zirconium modified catalysts perform more highly p-selectivity than others was defined. The catalyst increasing p-selectivity (73%) attained by the modifying HZSM-5 with the zirconium (10.0 wt.%Zr). 

Source Apportionment of Ambient Aerosol Particulate Matter (AAPM) In Kochi City, Kerala, India

Gayathree Devi P. K. and Sujatha C. H.


It has been known for decades that atmospheric aerosols have significant adverse effects on human health and climate. The Kochi City is a fast growing industrial region where mounting civilisation and urbanization has been affecting abruptly in diminishing the air quality of these atmospheric environments. Hence a systematic investigation have been undertaken emphasising six transition sectors which are prominent sites with distinct topographical features covering the entire estuarine, riverine and coastal regions of the Cochin Backwater System. The study recorded that coastal site, C1 is exponentially showing Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) mass(5511 μg/m3). This sampling site can be taken as the “Hot Spot Area” and can be speculated to the synergism of sea salt and crustal influence. A premonsoon (May 2011) enhancement in particulate matter loading was observed in Phase I sampling period in all the collection sites: E1, E2, R1, R2, C1, and C2.

Physico-Chemical Investigation of Ground Water of Sirohi District (Raj.)

Hanumant Singh Chouhan


Physico-chemical parameters of ground water of Sirohi district, Rajasthan has been investigated in four seasons of the year .Parameters like Fluoride, Chloride, TDS, Nitrate, pH, Hardness, Alkalinity and Calcium were recorded and compared on the basis of 25 different villages of Sirohi district as well as four seasons rainy, winter, spring and summer . Parameters were studied following Scott-Sanchis (visual) method, SPADNS method, Tritimetric, Titration and Colorimetry Method. We found a big change in the above properties before and after the rainy seasons.

Carrot Grass – Hazardous Weed

Anam Hassan


Congress grass or carrot weed (Parthenium hysterophorous) a species of Aster family or Asteraceae; is believed to have entered the Indian soil sometime during 1956 along with Wheat sent by U.S.A. It is not only a weed of immense crop damaging potential, but also poses a serious threat to human beings and livestock. One of the major reason for its fast spread is high germination ability throughout the year, large seed production ability, high survival rate. This weed has to be controlled from spreading.Besides manual methods of removal, there are many others also such as using biological agents (insects, pathogens) by chemical methods, etc.

A Review on Technological Innovations and Cost Effectiveness: A Green Industrial Approach for Amylase Production

Sarita Sheoran and Rajesh Dhankhar


The biotechnological exploration due to the advancements in techniques has provided an insight into the enormous potential of microbial communities as bioreactors. Among these bioreactors, amylases have received great deal of attention. Amylases are the catalytic cornerstone of metabolism, and as such are focus of intense worldwide research. Several laboratory scale production processes are operational at national or University Research labs. However, one of the problems associated with commercialization of amylase production is feedstock availability and its cost. The development of economically viable and environmentally sustainable amylase industry has been largely impeded by the native recalcitrance of cost of pure starch. In these endeavours there is a great need to compile detailed information on amylase derived by microbes with their potential substrates and recent developments in amylase production. This review will focus briefly on the amylase with its engineered aspects followed by a detailed discussion of the technological innovations and benefits of eco- friendly industrial application of use of starch biomass. The review concisely presents the current scenario of amylase production with its future prospectus.

Effects of Methods of Planting Rice under Broad Ridge, Broad Furrow and Dead End Level Tillage Systems of Cultivation under Wetland Conditions in Natural Region 4 of Zimbabwe

Godwin Mtetwa


Trials on rice planting methods were conducted in two wetlands which were developed into broad ridge broad furrow (BR/BF) cultivation system and dead end level contour (DELC) cultivation system. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of methods of sowing on growth parameters and yield of rice grown in these cultivation systems in Natural Region 4 of Zimbabwe. Results showed that there were significant differences on plant heights (P<0.05) with Mhara 2 direct seeding showing significantly shorter plants as compared to Mhara 1 direct seeding. Transplanted Mhara 2 was significantly taller than direct seeded Mhara 2 in both seasons and significantly shorter than transplanted Mhara 1 in the first season. There were no significant plant height differences with Mhara 1 on method of sowing in both seasons. There were significantly more panicles per square metre (p<0.05) with transplanted rice than direct seeded for Mhara 2 in first seasons. Mhara 1 produced heavier seeds as compared to Mhara 2 for the same method of sowing in first season. In second season Mhara 1 produced heavier seeds than Mhara 2 for both sowing methods. There were no significant differences on grain yield between methods of sowing and between varieties for both seasons. However, transplanted rice produced higher yields as compared to direct seeded rice in both years. Under DELC water table was almost dry in June to November both seasons and this gave a negative impact on establishment of rice on the onset of rains in November and December. The top soil had insufficient moisture even after the first rains causing rice establishment failures in both seasons under DELC system of cultivation. There were no significant total rainfall differences for DELC and BR/BF in both seasons. Significant differences occurred between seasons.

The Productivity of Honeybee Apis Mellifera L. Colonies in Libya and the Factors Affecting it

Alfallah, H.M.


Averages of honey production were recorded for 15 years which the period divided to two, first period with average production 46.73 kg /col. and the other with 14.62 kg /col., the highest and lowest average production of the colony per seasons was 94.89 kg and 7.54 kg respectively.

Fungal Enzymes: Dynamic Strategy and Significance for Remediating Chlorinated Compounds

Rina D. Koyani and Kishore S. Rajput


The rapid industrialisation has escalated the production of synthetic chemicals to meet the critical needs and demands of industrialized world. A major class of contributors are chlorinated compounds which are highly synthesized for their massive usage as pesticides, solvents, plasticizers, fumigants etc. The physico-chemical properties of chlorinated compounds make them persistence into the environment and hence proved extremely hazardous to the biosphere. The usage and discharge of the huge amount of these compounds pose a very serious problem due to its toxicity towards environment and living organisms, and its degradation is also not without controversy. Application of bioremediation technique using fungi offers the excellent possibility to decontaminate the surroundings and prevent the pollution caused by these hazardous pollutants. The potential of fungi to break down these hazardous compounds through action of the different enzymes produced by them allow them to survive in the presence of these compounds. The present review underscores how fungi degrade the chlorinated compounds behaving as biological cleaning agents and enzymes involved therein are responsible to meet this goal.

Studies on Promoting Ecotourism in Bisle Reserve Forest, Hassan, Karnataka, India

Nandagopal P and Venkataramana G V


Ecotourism has attracted a drastic attention in the current decade, not only as an alternative to mass tourism, but also as a means of sustainable economic development and environmental conservation. Being wildlife based tourism; it takes into account the natural wild trail attraction, their conservation and eco-friendly development. The main aim is to safeguard the environment, making it beneficial to the local people by generating revenue at local level, education and pleasure for the tourist. Several field visits were made to Bisle reserve forest and sites were selected randomly to assess species richness, climatic parameters and socio economic value using ecological techniques and recorded. Results revealed that Bisle reserve forest is having a good potential to be developed as an ecotourism site which can contribute for the wellbeing of local community and biodiversity.