Study on Decolorization Activities of Fungi for Textile Wastewater by using Aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor

San San Oo, Zaw Khaing Oo and Weine Nway Nway Oo

Abstract

This study was investigated to biologically treat textile wastewater discharged from textile industry by aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Textile effluent sample was collected around discharge site of textile industries situated at Seik Khum village, Myanmar and was also monitored for its physiochemical properties. Eight indigenous fungal strains were isolated from textile effluent sample. Among them, five indigenous fungal strains possessed the decolorization activity and they were named as P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5. Decolorization activity of each fungal isolates were evaluated on 100ppm of textile dye Vat blue RSN in submerge condition at 28̊C. P2 and P5 strains were decolorized the 100ppm concentration of Vat Blue RSN until 93% and 94% respectively. In the treatment of textile wastewater by using SBR, the combination activities of all selected fungal species were analyzed. After 72 hours incubation, the combination activity of dye decolorizers shows 51% of decolorization activity on textile effluent.


Future Trend of Phosphate in and around the World Heritage Site of Indian Sundarbans

Gahul Amin, Sufia Zaman, Shayeri Das, Prosenjit Pramanick, Tanmoy Rudra, Arnesha Guha ,Kinsuk Purkait and Abhijit Mitra

Abstract

Phosphate levels in three major stations of Hooghly-Matla estuarine complex have been forecasted on the basis of three decade real time data (1984-2014). Our first order analysis reflects an increasing trend of phosphate with time in all the selected stations. The forecast values exhibit enhanced concentrations of the phosphate after a period of three decades. Considering the baseline and prediction years to be 1984 and 2044 respectively, the increase in phosphate level will be 285.57%, 224.86% and 73.97 % at Diamond Harbour, Namkhana and Ajmalmari respectively. 


Deforestation and its Impact on Ethno-Medicinal Practices among Bodo Tribe of Kokrajhar District in Assam, India

Dimacha D. Mwchahary and Dilip C. Nath

Abstract

The dominating tribal people of Kokrajhar district of Assam in India have traditional method of treatment to various common fever and prevalent diseases among them. The district had a vast forest area (about 70% of geographical area), which has witnessed a massive deforestation (about 30%). Due to backwardness of the forest area, modern health care method could very lately graze its people. Nature remains as their main defender in regards to medicine. Due to out-of-the-way of modern health facilities, they are still equally dependent on traditional way of caring health. Study reveals that the Bodo tribal people of the district were widely using about 239 plant species for their health treatment. Medicinal plants are disappearing from their vicinity due to deforestation and obscurity has arisen in ethno-medicinal practices, while the modern health care system has touched the tribal people through different health programmes. As a result, they are now back and forth between the two systems of caring health but they can neither utterly renounce traditional method nor absolutely rely on modern system. Hence, their health seeking behaviour has taken an attention-grabbing turn. They are now practising a mixed up reversible health care method of tradition and modern.


Role of B.Ed Students in Developing Harmonious Relationship between Man and Environment

Tazyeen Bano and Nakhat Nasreen

Abstract

“Here is your country. Cherish these natural wonders, cherish the natural resources, cherish the history and romance as a sacred heritage, for your children and your children's children. Do not let selfish men or greedy interests skin your country of its beauty, its riches or its romance.” Theodore Roosevelt. God created this wonderful world, made flora and fauna, filled it with different kinds of vegetation, water bodies and a lot of others things that are essential for the survival of ‘Man’, who is the supreme creation of God. Man is known as the supreme creation of god as he is bestowed by intelligence, it is such a power that is not given to any other creation of god. God has gifted the entire earth to man so that he can live here in the harmony of nature. Whenever we contemplate about the various phenomenon of the universe, we are surprised to know that there is a unique coordination among them that is why our life is possible on earth. Man has been using its intelligence for his advancement but at the cost of environment. Environment in simple terms can be defined as that which surrounds us. It is very much essential for the survival of life on earth. But man is degrading environment for his selfish interests. Due to non-judicial use of the natural resources and the environment, man has become his own enemy. It is a matter of great concern that a harmonious relationship between man and environment should be built, so that our future generation can live a healthy life on earth without regretting for our activities. As it is said that we do not inherit the earth from our ancestors; we borrow it from our children, which means that excess use of any natural resource will deprive our future generation of what is rightfully theirs. As we are aware of the fact that the children are the future of a nation, so if we are successful in developing sustainable environment for our future generation and making the students aware of their environmental problems through some practical work such as assigning them some project work to be carried out in their own vicinity, we will be able to contribute something in protecting our environment. The reason for selecting B.ED students is that they are "would be teachers", so whatever they will learn, they would transfer it to their students. This paper will focus on how B.ED students can play a significant role in identifying pollution problems in their vicinity, assessing the pollutants, and how they affect the locality. Moreover, this paper would also suggest some measures to control pollution by adopting suitable strategies.


Spontaneous Combustion of Coal and the Risk of Fire Development on the Advanced Slopes at the Open Pit Mines in Kosovo

Izet Shehu

Abstract

At the depletion stage of the coal open pit mines in Kosovo there is a considerable amount of coal formation remaining due to slides, which is the attacking point of the risk degree for fires on the coal seams, due to expansion and advancement of the working front and mining activities northwards of the Bardh mine, respectively, towards the so-called Sibovc Southwest Mine. The increased mining activities that imply development of coal benches represent a real problem, the time harmonization of the coal uncover as well as coal exploitation create optimal conditions for spontaneous combustion or the creation of fire in the uncovered coal formations. The practice has shown that the fires appear due to spontaneous coal combustion if the working front which has been passive for a long period of time, and as a consequence of chemical reactions the oxidation occurs whereby the water disappears from the area and the cracks are formed enabling thus air circulation. The exploration activities in the fields with a changing environment, pollutions and risks, the sustainable management of natural resources and pertinent technologies are the key points to provide a better quality of work in a cleaner environment and ecologically sustainable in the existing mines as well as in the Sibovc Southwest Mine in Kosovo.


Perturbation in Dissolved Oxygen Trend due to Super Cyclone Aila in the Lower Gangetic Delta Region

Sangita Agarwal, Ankita Mitra, Nabonita Pal, Sufia Zaman, Prosenjit Pramanick and Abhijit Mitra

Abstract

We analyze in this paper the trend of dissolved oxygen (DO) since last three decades (1984-2014) with the aim to evaluate the temporal variation of DO through seasons in Diamond Harbour, a sampling station in the Hooghly estuarine stretch in the lower Gangetic delta region. Our first order analysis reflects a decreasing trend of DO in all the seasons except in premonsoon 2009, when there was a sudden rise in the DO level due to super cyclone, Aila that hit the region in and around the study site with a speed of 110 km/hr on 25th May 2009. The perturbation in the DO level during premonsoon 2009 is reflected through insignificant R2 value in the polynomial equation.


Increasing Noise Pollution and its Impact on Raipur City, Chhattisgarh - A Case Study

Pratima Rani Dwivedi, Deepti Sahare, Karuna Rani Dwivedi and Kamana Dwivedi

Abstract

The present paper deals with monitoring of Noise Pollution at different places of Raipur city in the period of December month 2014. During the present study the noise level data were collected by different sources, i.e. E-source, Newspaper, Pollution control board. The Noise Pollution is increasing considerably. Noise measurement collected at different locations during this period, it was understood clearly from our study that noise levels are elevated the main sources of noise pollution are transport, heavy vehicles, loud speakers, D.J., drums etc. Major effects of noise pollution include interference with communication, sleeplessness and reduced efficiency. Public education appears to be the best method to overcome from this problem. Nevertheless, government and NGOs can engage in recreation a momentous role in this process.


Oxidative Stress Increases the Prevalence of CVD Incidence on Periodontitis

Kiran Bhadoria, Archana Shrivastav, A.M Jana and Anjali Kushwah

Abstract

Periodontitis is the major cause of tooth loss and is also significantly associated with an increased risk of CVD. Antioxidants are molecules capable of reducing the causes or effects of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a wide range of cardiac and oral diseases. This study aims to evaluate the status of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in blood samples of periodontitis patients with risk of cardiovascular disease. A case control study consisting of 60 new periodontitis patients and equal number of age, sex, and habit matched healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Their blood samples were subjected to evaluation of antioxidant enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) using spectrophotometric methods. The data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. P-value <0.01 was considered statistically significant. Significant reduction in GSH (P < 0.01) to SOD, GPx and CAT (P < 0.001) was observed in the blood of periodontitis patients as compared to the healthy controls. Reduced GSH and increased activity of SOD, CAT and GPx are the risk factor for CVD in the periodontitis patients. Among the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione reductase appears to have a profound role in oxidative stress on periodontitis. Whenever the balance is disturbed between oxidative stress and antioxidant; it will result into the prevalence of CVD in periodontitis. Hence, in the prevention of prevalence of CVD in periodontitis, antioxidant enzymes play a great role.


Moringa Oleifera as an Alternative to Aluminium Sulphate in Water Treatment (A Case of Otamiri Water Treatment, Imo State, Nigeria)

Nwoke, H.U, Okoro, B.C., Osuagwu, J.C and Obi, L.E.

Abstract

Clarity remains an important factor in water quality. Raw water from Otamiri River in Imo State, Nigeria was subjected to Jar test to determine the effectiveness of Aluminum sulphate (Alum) and Moringa Oleifera seeds extract as coagulants. The raw water’s turbidity and colour were measured as 64.85 NTU and 105 TCU respectively. The two coagulants were added in doses of 5ml. 10ml. 15ml, 20ml and 25ml to five different samples each. The samples were subjected to five minutes of rapid mixing and thirty minutes of slow mixing to enhance flocculation before being allowed to settle for two hours. A control sample was prepared without addition of any coagulant. The result of the study shows that addition of 10ml of Aluminum sulphate at pH of 7.3 gave the best clarity with turbidity and colour values as 1.54 NTU and 6TCU respectively while addition of 10ml Moringa Oleifera extract at the same pH gave the respective values of turbidity and colour as 1.36 NTU and 5TCU, thereby showing better treatment. The use of Moringa Oleifera seeds extract as coagulant in water treatment will serve as a realistic and better alternative to conventional method of using Alum for small and medium water treatment plants.


Experimental Design and Optimization of the Utilization of Vacuum Membrane Distillations Lithium Cloride-Water Absorption Refrigeration System

Bayu Rudiyanto, Ahmad Fahriannur and Budi Hariono

Abstract

Response surface methodology (RSM) has been applied for modeling and ptimization in utilization of vacuum membrane distillation on Lithium Cloride-water absorption refrigeration system (ARS). The effect of the operational parameter is initial feed concentration, feed inlet temperature, feed flow rate and interaction on the permeate flux. The developed model has been statistically validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and further used to predict the permeate flux. The result for the given factors is a saddle point one, which meant for the range given, there is no optimal value. This saddle point parameter is outside the data range which is concentration of 24.41 %, feed temperature at 65.03°C and flow rate 0.88 L.min-1 while its predicted flux value is 166.9 g.m-2.s-1.


Evaluation of Biological Performance of an ETP

Seema A. Nihalani

Abstract

The present study has been undertaken to evaluate performance efficiency of an effluent treatment plant. The industry considered for study is engaged in manufacturing of various bulk drugs and active pharma ingredients (API). Wastewater samples were collected at different stages of treatment units and analyzed for the major water quality parameters, such as pH, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS). The performance efficiency of each unit & overall ETP in treating the pollutants was calculated. Also the adequacy of the ETP was calculated considering the current status in comparison to its design criteria.