Foreshore Plantation in Community Based Tank Management Project: A Case Study in Talagawara Village, Chikkaballapura District, Karnataka, India

Sreenivasa and Azis Kemal Fauzie


Tank foreshore area is a land in between HTL and LTL. Tank foreshore plantations have immense potential for employment generation and importantly they prevent encroachments. Such plantations increase green cover, avoid evaporation of water, harbour aquatic birds in rainy season, controlling harmful pests and the fuel and fodder needs of villages are met partially at the time of harvest. Saplings produced in nurseries are sold to Jala Samvardhane Yojana Sangha (JSYS) project. Nursery raising and maintenance in the Talagavara village is a New Intervention being carried out in the village. Community members participated in larger number on the day of world environmental day, TMI’s, community members, neighbouring villagers, planted 9250 seedlings that were supplied by the TMI’s under JSYS, project. The purpose of the project is to identity and promotes strategies for sustainable management of natural resources to improve the livelihoods of landless, small, marginal farmers and including woman. The project was executed by an interdisciplinary partnership comprising from World Bank, TMI’s and SPU (State Project Unit), DPU (District Project Unit), JSYS and NGO. The success of foreshore plantation will depend on selection of appropriate sites and size, identification of 843 JECET;plant species and survival of plantation by sustaining interest of TUG and TMI members during the gestation period.

Microbiological and Physicochemical Analysis of Petroleum and Diesel Oil Contaminated Samples from Motor Mechanic Workshop in Trichy City, Tamilnadu, India

Rameshwari, R and Meenakshisundaram, M


The present study was conducted to analyse the microbiological and physicochemical parameters found in petrol and diesel oil contaminated water and sediment from motor mechanic workshops in Trichy city. Two sampling sites were identified for sampling. The contaminated water and sediment quality variables were analysed as per standard methods given in American Public Health Association (APHA, 1998). Physicochemical parameters such as PH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Salinity, Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Bicarbonate, Carbonate, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrite and Oil and grease, Heavy metals and microbiological parameters such as TVC, TC, TS, FC, FS, VLO, SC, PC were analysed by pure culture techniques.

Analysis & monitoring of Air SOx levels in Amravati city

Manisha Jane and Sangita Ingole


A study of oxides of sulphur (SOx) concentration has been carried out in the Amravati City during research activity. Observation periods are January 2013 to June 2013.Air pollution has been posing serious threats to environmental. Exposure to pollutants such as SOx has been associated with corrodes metal; building materials, harm crops and trees.Increases irritate the throat and lungs; increases susceptibility to respiratory infections Environmental effects Reduces visibility; acid deposition of H2SO4 can damage trees, soils, and aquatic life in lakes.SOx sampled were collected using a fine dust sample model. Attention was focused on the roadside, construction activities,streetlevel. The sampling was conducted one day in week from selected location as MIDC Amravati, Shri Shivaji Science College Amravati; Raj Kamal Chawk Amravati.This will create awareness within society about health aspect. Effects have been seen at very low levels of exposure. The result of analysis of concentration showed that as the summer started reading becomes high and as the rain falls suddenly down. 

Role of floodplain wetlands in supporting livelihood: A case study of Ansupa Lake in Odisha

Soma Das Sarkar, Anjana Ekka, Amiya Kumar Sahoo, Chakkiyath M. Roshith,Lianthuamluaia, Ashis Roychowdhury


The present study illustrates the importance of floodplain wetlands in supporting livelihood through ecosystem goods and services provided by the Ansupa Lake in Odisha. Fishing and Agricultural crops are the two provisioning services provided by the Lake. The Lake provides subsistence fisheries round the year in term of small indigenous fishes, table size fishes and important ornamental fisheries.While among agricultural crops rice form the highest income commodity. Further, the Lake provides eco-tourism as a source of income for the livelihood due to its unique bio-diversity of flora and fauna. But in due course of time, the Lake has undergone shrinkage in water area due to siltation and other anthropogenic activities. Hence a good management practice by involving local stakeholders with community participation can help in restoring the wetlands in the long run as well as will improve the livelihood of the poor people.

Impact of Urban Vegetation on Offsetting Carbon Emission: A Case Study from the City of Kolkata

Rupa Banerjee, ProsenjitPramanick, Sufia Zaman, Nabonita Pal, Shampa Mitra and Abhijit Mitra


Carbon storage and sequestration by dominant trees of the city of Kolkata was quantified to evaluate the role of urban vegetation in connection to reduction of carbon dioxidelevel in the atmosphere. 8 dominant trees were identified in the selected plots in the northern part of the city of Kolkata. The data collections were carried out in three seasons namely premonsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon. The Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and Above Ground Carbon (AGC) were highest in postmonsoon followed by monsoon and premonsoon. Both AGB and AGC varied as per the order Ficus bengalensis > Neolamarckia cadamba > Mangifera indica > Delonix regia > Mimusops elengi > Ficus religiosa > Azadirchta indica > Tamarindus indica. The CO2 equivalent calculated from the stored carbon suggest Ficus bengalensis to be the most potential species in terms of carbon storage.

Limnological Profile of Shyam Sayar (SSA) of BurdwanTown, West Bengal, India

Sk Alamgir Badsha


Wetlands are valuable ecosystems that occur extensively throughout the world in all climatic zones are estimated to cover about 6% of the earth's surface. Barddhaman stands first and second position respectively in terms of number and area in west Bengal. The Shyam Sayar is one of the important perennial wetland of Burdwan Town. It is located in front of Burdwan Medical College and Hospital. Documentary, field survey and laboratory analysis methods have been used to access information. Since the identifying capabilities and limiting factors of the wetland this study was made through the continuous, systematic, extensive field inspections and direct field observation with the questionnaire. As the function of ecosystems are ecological attributes resulting from the interaction between its physical, chemical and biological components many parameters have considered to know the potentialities of wetlands. Results show that B.O.D is higher (average 8.14) in the rainy season in the presence of hydrocarbon commuters of rural and suburban intervention and medical waste, bio- fertilizers. PH is alkaline in all time. Transparency values are half of the summer season than other seasons & euphotic limit ranges from 11.13 cm to 32.5 cm, low in rainy season and high in premonsoon season. Turbidity ranges from 17.5 to25 ppm, and soil organic carbon ranges from 0.68% to 0.75%. Surface runoff, hydrocarbon and development of the Burdwan Town towards the wetland resulting pollution load can be introduced as an important part of the wetland threats. It is recommended to make the necessary study of physical-chemical and biological parameters of wetland and also the facing threats and opportunities.

Male Sterility in Plants

Anam Hassan


Most of the higher plants species are hermaphroditic and male sterility is often considered as an accident of development. Male sterility (Mst)- an important outbreeding device that prevents autogamy and permits allogamy. Manual emasculation increased cost of production, so use of various genetic mechanism via; male sterility, self incompatiblity, gynoecious lines, use of chemical hybridizing agents based on relative importance in hybrid development. Among these, genetic emasculation tools male sterility is commonly used for hybrid production. Although engineered male sterility systems are not currently in commercial use, except for possibly the barnase -barstar system, these are likely to have significant importance in future hybrid-breeding programs.

Analysis of the polluting effect of industrial effluent from a food manufacturing company in Choba, Port Harcourt.

Ugbebor, J, N and Nwaka. O


The research was to find out the effect of industrial effluent discharge of an existing food Manufacturing Company on the water quality of Choba River. The field data was collected from eight stations a distance of 1000m at 200m intervals. Stations were established with the aid of Geographical Position System (GPS). Parameters analyzed include pH, temperature, velocity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and flow rate. The results obtained from laboratory analysis indicated average values of 6.11, 26.3OC, 0.005m/s, 26.2μs/cm, 17.2ppm, 2.97mg/l, 1.62mg/l,25.4mg/l and 8.51cfs respectively. The values obtained were used to derive   onedimensional DO model equation and was validated using two known models (Churchill and Buckingham; and Chapra model equations). The derived results were 4.06, 3.24, 2.43, 2.43, 2.43, 3.24 (observed); 3.83, 2.94, 2.28, 3.11, 2.49, 3.19 (Churchill and Buckingham); and 8.03, 7.99, 8.05, 8.05, 8.03, 8.05 (Chapra) respectively. Comparing values, it was ascertained that were some correlations between the DO values observed and those calculated from the derived equations. The subsequent results indicated that there was significant variation between those obtained using Chapra’s method and derived equations.

Occupational Analysis of Puthanatham Village in Tiruchirappalli District

Hajeeran Beevi. N, Sivakumar. S and Vasanthi. R


The occupational Analysis of Puthanatham Village of Trichirappalli District. The study area is located in the southwest direction of Trichirappalli District, which is situated in Manaparai and Thovarankurichi Main Road. Our study area-Puthanatham Village is situated at a distance of 60 Km from Trichirappalli on Madurai Road. The software like Arc Gis is used to demarcate the Occupational analysis of Puthanatham Village. GIS provides consistent and accurate base line information than many of the conventional surveys employed for such a task. The village has a total area of 1371.5 hectares. The growth of this occupational structure is different from surrounding areas.

Local Water Resources Management In The Municipality Of Ze In Benin

Sewade Grégoire, Azonsi Felix, Guedenon Patient Gnansounou Simon.


The Municipality of Zè has been faced with enormous challenges of hydraulic anagement connected to the misuse of the resource management means in water. The present research aims at assessing water resources of the study area and contributing to a better local governance of the aforementioned resources. In order to conduct this study, the documentation, the on-site investigations and the observation were used as methods of data collection. All in all, 248 water sources were present on the territory of the municipality and are unevenly distributed in districts. This maldistribution is due to the poor implementation of the methods of management. To solve this problem, the study proposes strategies such as the basic involvement of the local populations in the resource management in water and the raising awareness of the stakeholders.

Impact of Industrial Discharge on Surface Water Quality in Nigeria (A Case Study of Woji River)

J.N. Ugbebor,  V.E. Amah and  V. Anyanwu


This research work was to assess the impact of industrial effluent discharges on surface water quality in Woji River in Port Harcourt. Four sampling stations and one control point were established and samples were collected from the control point upstream and other stations downstream. Distances between stations are 150m. The parameters that were analyzed are biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonia (NH3), conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, salinity, temperature, total dissolved solid (TDS) and total hardness (TH). The laboratory analysis result shows that BOD5 is 12.6-24.5mg/l, NH3 is 1.20-25.1mg/l, Conductivity is 26500-30100μS/cm, DO is 3.55-5.4mg/l, COD is 39.2-60mg/l, pH is 7.6-8.67, Salinity is 17.6-18.9g/kg, Temperature 27.5-28.95oC, TDS is 16800-17378mg/l and TH is 4239-4911.4mg/l. When compared with the Federal Ministry of Environment standards DO, BOD5, Ammonia, pH and Conductivity were found not to be within the permissible limits of 20mg/l, 10mg/l, 0-5mg/l, 6-8, and <200μS/cm respectively. These results indicate that the river under review is polluted by industrial discharges in the area. Hence, it is recommended that the industrial effluents should be treated before it is discharged into the river else face displinary actions.

Microbial diversity analysis of Upper Lake of Bhopal,Madhya Pradesh

Bhupendra Prasad, Reena Antony and Anima Bidua


Upper Lake is the major source of drinking water for 50% residents of Bhopal. This needs to have lake water free of hazardous microbes, but mindless dumping of sewage, industrial &agricultural waste into the upper lake is affecting the water quality of life line of city thereby causing water borne diseases among the population .The study of microbial diversity and population in Upper Lake water will help to analyse portability strength. Direct plating with extended incubation periods have been shown to recover significant fractions of the dominant microbial groups in water sample. In this study, Water samples were studied in three different seasons i.e., rainy, winter and summer. Various bacterial colonies were seen on culture plate and confirmed as Escherichia, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus using selective media and biochemical test .Presence of Staphylococcus and Bacillus species shows hospital waste contamination in upper lake. Pseudomonas and E. coli indicated human activity or sewage input in water body. These results also reflects bio indicators as increasing number of microbes in different seasons shows the amount of contamination during particular season. Understanding patterns of bacterial diversity is of particular importance because bacteria likely comprise the majority of the planet’s biodiversity, they mediate many environmental processes that sustain life and their diversity is of great applied importance in bioremediation (the biological degradation of pollutants) and bioprospecting (the search for novel biochemical for use in medicine, agriculture and industry.

Separation of D-Limonene and Pectin from Citrus Limetta peels and Effect of pH of Different Acid as Extracting Medium on the Yield of pectin

Laxman S. Kushare, Sagar P. Derle, Prof. Sachin S. Shinde, Shrikrushna H. Khachane, Ashitosh A. Karnavat


Citrus Limetta tree were found to be the most cultivated fruit tree in the world. Steam distillation technique has been developed to extract D-Limonene from citrus Limetta peels. The result is found that high percentage of yield of D-imonene getting by steam distillation and there is no decomposition of residue. The analysis of D-Limonene done by Gas-Chromatography and Mass-Spectrometry (GC-MS),essential oil getting from citrus Limetta contains α-pinene, β-pinene and D-Limonene as constituents. D-Limonene is listed in the code of Federal Regulation as generally recognize as safe (GRAS) for flavouring agent and can be found in food items such as fruit juice, soft drinks, ice cream and pudding.Pectin is structural hetero polysaccharides, commonly obtained from the peels of citrus fruits and prime commercial use as a gelling agent and stabilizer in food industries. In the present study, pectin is extracted from the residue remain after steam distillation of peels. Pectin was extracted using alcohol precipitation method from the peels of the citrus Limetta.

Strength Properties of Expanded Polystyrene Beads, Concrete

P.L. Chowdary


This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation into the properties of hardened concrete containing expanded polystyrene beads with partial replacement of coarse aggregates. The results showed that the strength, stiffness and chemical resistance of polystyrene aggregate concrete of a constant density were affected by the water to cement ratio. An attempt is made to examine the structural lightweight concrete by partially replacing coarse and fine aggregates by expanded polystyrene (EPB) beads. Here the sizes of EPB beads are 1.0, 2.5 and 6.3mm were used. Additionally, fine silica fume (SF) partially replaces to increase the bond strength between the EPB beads and cement paste. Thus increasing the compressive strength of EPB concrete. To this aim, various mixtures are produced by replacing 0%, 15%, 25%, 40% and 55% of natural aggregate volume with EPB beads, substituting cement with 10% silica fume (SF) 4. These mixtures are evaluated through a comprehensive test program, including measuring compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, drying shrinkage, water absorption and electrical resistivity 4. Structured light weight concrete of density of 1816 kg /m3 and the corresponding strengths of about 20.69 MPa is successfully developed. The concretes are fabricated via substituting partially coarse and fine aggregates with EPB beads with diameter of 1.0, 2.5 and 6.7mm. Optimum level of replacement of aggregate by EPB beads is found to be 30% to obtain better compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength. The compressive strength generally increases with age at curing, but it decreases densities and strength when EPB beads increased accordingly. The spilt tensile strength decreases when EPB beads replaced content decreased accordingly. The flexure strength decreases when EPB beads replaced content decreased accordingly.

Floral Biodiversity of the fly ash dumpsite of Mejia Thermal Power Station (MTPS), DVC, West Bengal, India

Upasana Datta, Sufia Zaman and Abhijit Mitra



We analyzed the Shannon-Weiner species diversity index of tree species in the Mejia Thermal Power Station (MTPS) campus, in the Bankura district of West Bengal during 2011. The diversity index being an indicator of environmental health was evaluated to look on the environmental condition of the ambient media. Hence, the Fly Ash (FA) pH and organic carbon of the plantation site were also measured simultaneously to evaluate the regulatory role of these variables on the computed diversity index of the tree species.

Studies on Strength Properties of “Effect of Waste Granite Powder on the Compressive Strength of Concrete”

P. L. Chowdary


In This experimental investigation the strength of Granite powder used (as a replacement of cement) as a concrete is evaluated for the Grade of M20 (mix design) at various replacements levels of Granite powder (0 % to 10%). The results obtained are compared with control concrete. From this study it was observed that cube compressive strength, split strength, young’s modulus, Ultimate load increased continuously with the increase in % age Granite powder i.e. From 0 to 7.5% replacement of cement and decreases from 7.5% to 10%. Cube compressive strength, split strength, young’s modulus, Ultimate load increased continuously with that of age i.e. 7 to 28days. The modulus of elasticity values calculated from experimentation and theoretical formulae are found to be in satisfactory agreement, the flexural strength is found to be increase continuously with the percentage increase in granite powder content from 0 to 7.5% and decreases from7.5% to 10%.The workability of concrete is decreasing from normal to the 10% replacement of cement by Granite powder. From the above all tests, it is concluded that the Granite powder can be used as a replacement material for cement in the production of concrete and 10% replacement of marble dust gives an excellent result in strength aspect and quality aspect since it is better than the control concrete. The results showed that the substitution of 10% of the cement content by Granite powder induced higher compressive strength, higher splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and improvement of properties related to durability. Based on limited investigation on Granite powder waste, it has been used as partial replacement of cement.

Studies on Strength Properties of Artificial Light Weight (RHA) Aggregate Concrete

P. L.Chowdary


In This experimental investigation the strength of RHA used (as pellets using Pilletazation process) concrete is evaluated for the Grade of M20 (mix design) at various replacements levels of RHA Aggregate (0 % to 100%). The results obtained are compared with concrete. From this study it was observed that cube compressive strength, split strength, young’s modulus, density, Ultimate load in Mode-II fracture decreased continuously with the increase in % age of RHA Aggregate i.e., from 0 to 100% replacement of Granite aggregate by RHA Aggregate . It was observed that In-plane shear stress at ultimate load decreases continuously. The KIIc values calculated from the fracture energy approach are found to be lesser than those values arrived from Finite element analysis. In both the approaches studied, the KIIc values are found to decrease continuously with the % age increase in RHA Aggregate content. The modulus of elasticity values calculated from experimentation and theoretical formulae are found to be in satisfactory agreement.Ratio of cylinder compressive strength to cube compressive strength ranges from 0.68 to 0.74 for 28 days and 0.59 to 0.62 for 90 days curing period. The flexural strength is found to decrease continuously with the percentage increase in RHA aggregate content. The flexural strength increases continuously with that of age i.e. 28 to 90 days .

Evaluation of Construction Noise at Selected Highway Road Construction Sites in Urban City of Port Harcourt and Its Effects on Residential Environment

Ugbebor J. N. Promise , B.Yorkor


Construction activities often generates noise that arouse complaints from local residents, such complaints typically arise from interference with people’s activities and comfort, especially when the residents have no clear understanding of the extent or duration of the construction. This study measured the noise levels generated at selected construction sites along the East-West Highway, Port Harcourt. Noise impacts from construction activities have been estimated using Federal Highway Administration (FHA) construction noise prediction model. Results obtained indicated that measured maximum noise exceeded FMEnv exposure limit 40% of the monitoring time at Nkoplu site, 30% of monitoring time at Rukpakwulushi site and 10% of monitoring time at Eleme junction construction site. About 94 % of the predicted values of the noise levels using the FHA model were close to the measured values with a range of 5% error. The study revealed that residents’ environment experienced moderate to high noise pollution during period of construction which may cause hearing impairment and some psychological effects on residents and those doing business around the construction sites. Thus, alternative procedures of construction and selection of combination of techniques that generate the least overall noise should be implemented. Also, moveable noise barriers should be positioned along construction sites so as to protect the resident environment. 

Measurement and Evaluation of Road Traffic Noise in Three Selected Junctions in Port Harcourt Metropolitant, Nigeria

Ugbebor J. N., Raphael and B.Yorkor


Main sources of community noise in many part of Port Harcourt include heavy road traffic. High level of noise from sources such as busy traffic can adversely affect the health of the people living near road highways. Noise levels were measured at selected junctions in Port Harcourt predominated by both commercial and residential buildings, which often witnessed heavy vehicular traffic most time of the day. Noise impacts from vehicular traffic have been predicted using a traffic noise prediction model (Lam and Tam)1modified by Rawat et al2. Noise levels at Rumuokoro  unction exceeded WHO and Nigeria Noise Exposure limits 20% of the time, while noise levels at Choba and Rumuokuta junctions both exceeded stipulated limits 40% of the measurement time. Best fit lines generated between measured and predicted values gives R2 values of 0.8979, 0.9272 and 0.9333 for Choba, Rumuokoro and Rumuokuta junctions respectively.There is significant relationship between measured noise levels and predicted noise levels at 95% of confidence level. High environmental noise levels due to traffic of vehicles were observed during the study that may cause disturbance and hearing impairment problems among residents and traders around the junctions. Regulation restricting heavy trucks’ movement to night time should be enforced and strictly adhered to.

A Preliminary Application Study to Measure the Suitability of Two Major Carbonate Reserves (Sad El-Na'am and Umm Rassiess Mountains) in the Cement Industry: An Example From Northeastern Desert, Egypt

Nageh A. Obaidalla, Abdalla M. El Ayyat, Hassan Soltan Hassan & Ayman Abdel-Aal


In the last years, a considerable amount of attention has been devoted to the development of the area of northwest of the Gulf of Suez. It is one of the most important areas, which takes considerable attention by the Egyptian government because it hosts one of the MEGA National projects in Egypt. The area presents a great potential for development programs including touristic resorts, industrial zones, a new port and finally the great new second Suez Canal which has been started the implementation in the last quarter of 2014. The water resources in this area play an increasing important role in providing a source of potable water for land reclamation and construction of new settlements. The proposed area forms a part of the great Eocene plateau of the northeastern Desert of Egypt. Two major limestone sections have been selected to evaluate the suitability of the Eocene limestone in Cement Industry. The first section represents the carbonate sequence of Gabal Sad El-Na'am exposed at Bir Gindali district. The second one is measured at Gabal Umm Rassiess. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the suitability of both sections in Cement Industry by creating specific geochemical analyses. By using these geochemical analyses with other parameters, it willbe able to determine whether, Gabal Sad El-Na'am or Umm Rassiess is valid in Cement Industry.

Physico-Chemical Analysis of Sewage Water ofCuttack City Discharging in Kathajodi River,Odisha, India

S.R. Barik, P.J. Mishra, A.K. Nayak, B.B.Behera and S.Rout


In this research paper physico-chemical analysis of sewage water of Cuttack city discharging in Kathjodi River, Odisha were studied. The parameters studied were pH, EC dSm-1, BOD, COD, DO, TDS, TSS, Ca, Mg, Na, K, CO3,HCO3, Cl, SO4, and the heavy metal i.e. Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe, Mn. The values of these parameters were found above the critical limits and DO much below the critical limits. The resent study shows the discharge of sewage water in the river Kathajodi may be highly harmful to the flora and fauna.

Contamination of Heavy Metals in soil and Shallow Groundwater at Ethiopia Tannery Share Company in Ejersa Area of East Shoa, Ethiopia.

Dr . Aklilu Asfaw


The aim was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, in soil and shallow groundwater at Ethiopia Tannery Share Company in Ejersa area of East Shoa, Ethiopia the results with guidelines from various countries, draw conclusions and make recommendations. Soil and shallow groundwater samples from three different bore holes located at Ethiopia Tannery were selected between S2 and S3 (0.75-1.25 km) which is between the tannery effluent outlet and the entry point of the Koka Lake and a control site out of the effluent area were analysed for different physicochemical parameters of water such as:- pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD),total dissolved solids (TDS),Cd,Cr,Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn were analyzed. soil samples were collected using plastic bags from the boreholes in different depths of 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6 m, up to the shallow groundwater level. The pH value of the ground soil sample in all depths (1-6 m) ranged from 7.2-7.3 which are within the normal range for soils. The concentrations of Cu and Pb decreased with increasing depth of the soil from 1 m to 5 m, which were far below the maximum allowable limit for soil, but at 1m depth the concentrations of Cr and Fe werehigher than the standard levels as stated in the guideline for soil. This shows the movement of heavy metals in the area is very slow and the seepage level is minimal and safe for ground water label. Cd was not detected at all soil depths since it is not soluble in water. The mean concentrations of all other metals were also recorded to be less than the level recommended for irrigation water: thus, this leads us to the conclusion that the shallow groundwater is safe for irrigation and domestic use. The low levels of heavy metal contents across the sampled boreholes show they are not polluted and that they are suitable for human consumption. The low content also reveals that boreholes in the area are located far away from the tannery and other forms of heavy metal contamination. The result therefore implies that, since the examined parameters are within WHO permissible limits for drinking water, the quality status of boreholes in the area is not polluted. In order to maintain the present quality status of boreholes in the area, routine monitoring and assessment of boreholes by sanitary inspection officers is recommended since mostly, the indiscriminate sinking of boreholes to meet the ever increasing demands of people in the area is common. Findings from this study will be of immense help to researchersand environmental regulators working in this area of interest in developing countries.

Review of Seasonal Changes in Production and Consumption of Some Rangeland Plants Species in Sepidan Barm Khoshk Rangeland or (Semi-Steppe Habitat- Iran)

Ghasem Khoda Haammi  and Damoun Razmjoue


Each of rangeland species has determined production in grazing season months and various years. Grazing livestock also consume determine amount of forage in each time of grazing season which it could be different according to the various conditions and livestock races. this research was conducted in semi- steppe of Sepidan dry bromine, located in 125 km of north west of Shiraz for 5 years (2006- 2010), to review the vegetative, production and consumption characteristics and amount of forage consumption in different phenology stages by various livestock ,. For each of species, the production by start of vegetation season in enclosed area; and consumption by start of grazing season, in arena of livestock grazing was measured. Measurements were done once a month. Our results showed that there is high difference in growth season months, grazing season and studied years between rangeland species in terms of production and consumption percent. The remarkable growth of millet and annual herbaceous at the beginning of vegetation season and after that perennial millet such as Hordeum bulbosum and Bromus tomentellus and then, herbaceous- bush to mid exploitation period andfinally woody- bush such as Astragalus sp. till termination of growth period and presence of livestock in rangeland causes the needed forage of using livestock from angeland be provided. Also the obtained results show that about 70 percent of rangeland forage is produced by species of Prangos ferulaceae ،Astragalus adsendence ،Hordeum bulbosum Medicago sativa and Eryngium billardieri and annuals; that 90 percent of total consumed forage of rangeland is from the abovementioned species; and about 10 percent of forage consumption has been from the other species.

Biodiversity Conservation, Nutritional Characteristics And Starch Properties of Hull-less Barley

Bakht-un-Nisa Mangan, Muhammad Siddique Lashari, Ahmed Naqi Shah,Cui Licao1, Liu Hui1, Song Weining and Mahmooda Buriro


Nutritional imbalance and gene biodiversity of the most crop species adversely effected due the change of agricultural ecosystem and soil environment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ecosystem on nutritional (dietary elements) and mineral changes in barley grain. Barley grain is composed of abundant amount of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals. And also it has been considered good source of dietary fiber, iron, copper, manganese and selenium for human food source and animal feed but mostly infected due to environmental impacts. For screening and evaluation purpose, thirty three hull-less (Tibetan) barley accessions
were collected from the extremely cold region of China (Tibet) and were studied to evaluate availability and variability of micro elements: Fe, Zn, Mn, Se, Cu with amylose and amylopectin ratio at the experimental field of Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, China during 2012-2013. Results indicate that the TB-4406, TB-664 and TB-3835 performed very well in nutritional compatibility and trace elements as compared to other thirty cultivars. Among all rest thirty cultivars these three cultivars, TB-4406 showed great performance for all five trace elements with84.8μg kg-1, 63.4, 51.0, 40.0 and 9.37 mg kg-1 concentration for selenium, Iron, Zinc,Manganese and copper respectively followed by TB-664 and TB-3835. Furthermore,the findings revealed that Tibetan barley is a highly auspicious resource for genetic diversity with higher amylose contents and nutritional value of dietary elements. In conclusion, the hull-less barley has the potential to increase intestinal nutrient and carbohydrates availability, so should be consider as a genetic source for further breeding program under same environmental ecosystem of agriculture.

Quality Assessment of Rainwater in Two Industrial Towns in Southeast Nigeria



Rainwater quality indicators in two industrial towns of Aba and Port Harcourt in Southeast Nigeria were investigated. The water samples were collected directly from open areas and indirectly through metal roofs. The same procedure was used in collecting samples from a control location. Concentrations of water quality parameters were determined and compared with the control values and WHO standards. The results generally showed higher values of the rainwater parameters from samples obtained through the roof than the ones from the open areas. Similarly, parameters of samples from industrial areas had higher values than the control. Mean pH value from the industrial locations was 5.4 which was below WHO limit of 6.5-8.5 while the mean value (6.55) from the non-industrial areas was within WHO standard. All other parameters had average values within WHO limit except phosphate (3.65mg/l), Cadmium (0.03mg/l), and lead (0.05mg/l) which were above the limit.

Comparative Analysis of the Flora and Vegetation of the Community Nature Reserve of Mansadallaand the Classified Forest of Diambour in Southeastern Senegal

Rokhaya Faye, Bienvenu Sambou and Papa Madiallacke Diedhiou


In Senegal, in situ conservation of biodiversity is operated through protected land areas that include special reserves, land areas for reforestation and restoration, national parks, biosphere reserves, classified forests and community nature reserves. The present study analyzes the current state of the flora and vegetation in two types of protected land areas located in southeastern Senegal, that are the classified forest of Diambour and the Community Nature Reserve of Mansadalla. Classified Forests are placed under the responsibility of the state and managed by the National Water and Forests Authority whereas Community Nature Reserves, besides being also under the responsibility of the state, have an operational management plan set up and owned by local communities. The results showed that the flora of the Community Nature Reserve of Mansadalla was more diverse than that of the classified forest of Daimbour. The latest is characterized by repetitive bush fires and a high human pressure. The vegetation is dominated by woodlands in both domains. High density shrubs and corridors of gallery forests were specific to the Community Nature Reserve of Mansadalla while in the classified forest of Diambour more signs of disturbance were present. 

Diluted proxies of climate change in the inshore estuarine complex of Bay of Bengal: A case of overlapping noise and facts


We review current understanding of the primary proxies of climate change(viz. surface water temperature, salinity and pH) in the two major estuaries (Hooghly and
Matla) in the inshore region of the Bay of Bengal. In both the estuaries, rise in surface water temperature and lowering of pH are observed, but surface water salinity oscillation exhibits contradictory pictures with freshening in the Hooghly estuary (in the western sector of the lower Gangetic delta) and salinification in the Matla estuary (located in the central sector of the study area). This first order analysis concludes that the Hooghlyestuarine system has more noise in terms of anthropogenic pressure (due to its location adjacent to highly urbanized and industrialized city of Kolkata) compared to the Matlaestuary. The human interference is negligible and salinification is pronounced in the Matla estuary thus imparting negligible noise in the selected climate change proxies. The overall scenario poses difficulty in segregating noise from the signals of climate change in the inshore estuaries of Bay of Bengal.

Study of Ultrasonic velocity of Nanofluid of Silver

Sushil Phadke, B.D. Shrivastava, Ravindra Barde, A. Mishra


As scientific inquires in nano science progress, the opportunity for nanotechnology breakthroughs continue to expand. Nano materials hold the key to significant future advances in a wide range of miniaturized consumer product such as miniaturized computer chips, nano scale sensors, and devices for sorting DNA molecules, including products that are reliant on synthesized nano materials and their integration with micro systems and biotechnology. Nano fluids are stable suspensions of nano particles in a liquid. In order to avoid coagulation of the particles, the particles must be coated with a second distance holder phase which in most cases, consist of surfactants that are stable in the liquid. An important application of Nano fluids containing nano particles is as a coolant, since the addition of only a few volume percent of nano particles to a liquid coolant and significantly improves its thermal conductivity. Ultrasonic velocity is the speed in which sound propagates in a certain material. It depends on material density and elasticity. In this work we have measured the ultrasonic velocity at different temperature of silver fluid using Interferometer technique.

Heavy metal accumulation in a mangrove associate species Ipomoea pes-caprae in and around the World Heritage Site of Indian Sundarbans

Abhijit Mitra, Bulti Nayak, Prosenjit Pramanick, Madhumita Roy, Shankhadeep Chakraborty, Kakoli Banerjee, Gahul Amin and Sufia Zaman


The accumulation of Fe, Zn, Cu and Pb was analyzed in an estuarine trailing herb Ipomoea pes-caprae from three locations in Indian Sundarbans during September 2014. The contamination history of the area provides substantial evidence that metal accumulation in the species is influenced from multiple sources (like industrial discharge, fish landing related activities, antifouling paints used for conditioning fishing vessels and trawlers, shrimp farms etc.). Metals in the mangrove associate species accumulated as per the order Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb. Significant variation was observed between the metal levels in the vegetative parts of the species (p < 0.01). The stem accumulated maximum metal followed by leaf and root irrespective of sampling stations.