Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of some naturally fermented leafy vegetables

O.O.Egbewole; O.O. Oguntoyinbo; O.O. Awolu and B.O.T. Ifesan

Narmada Phase III Supply: A Boon for Indore City

Dr.Dheeraj Mandloi


A Successful thought, a beautiful dream, A Miracle of engineering all in oneNarmada phase III supply. Narmada is like a medicine for Indore water crises for rapid increase in population. For this we need a perfect solution and an engineering miracle. And now we have a perfect solution. The phases of Narmada under the guidelines of Indore Municipal Corporation (IMC). Narmada-III aims at solving the City’s chronic water shortage by providing 360 million litres daily (MLD) water by 2009. In addition to the 180 MLD supplied presently, it is expected to be sufficient to cater to Indore’s water needs up to 2024.This project is financed by the Asian Development Bank under its Urban Water Supply and Environment Improvement Programme (USWEIP). The cost for this project is 641.25 crore rupees. The PIU report pegs costs incurred in drawing filtering and transporting costs from Narmada to City households at Rs. 17.32 per 1000 litres. Narmada phase I and II support 2.0 million people’s with a supply of total 180 MLD with the spread network of 255 k.m. of pipelines.While Narmada phase III is capable to support 5.3 million’s population of Indore with a supply of 360MLD water with network of 600 K.M. in city it will possess new 21 high quality tanks can fed the water up to 2040.

The Use of Sesame Seed as a Coagulant for the Treatment of Turbid Surface Water

Abubakar JIBRIL, Saidat Olanipekun GIWA, Abdulwahab GIWA


Natural coagulants are now proving to be good substitutes for chemical coagulants due to their availability, cost effectiveness, nontoxic and biodegradable natures. In this research work,the treatment of highly turbid surface water by coagulation method with sesame seed as a coagulant has been investigated. In order to carry out the investigation, two sets of experiments were carried out according to conventional (jartest) and statistical methods. In the latter approach, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to design a set of 20 experimental runs and optimize the response (final turbidity)with the aid of Design Expert 7.0.0. Prior to RSM optimization, the experimental results were analyzed using a full quadratic model. The results obtained from the jar test showed that the optimum coagulant dose was 12 g/L at the pH of 6.8 and coagulation time of 10 minutes. Under these conditions, the optimum final turbidity given by the jar test was found to be 17 NTU, which was equivalent to 97.6% turbidity removal. Also, the model developed through the RSMwas discovered to correlate well with the experimental results, as indicated by its R-squared value of 0.9789 and significance with p-value of less than 0.0001. According to the numerical optimization results obtained from the RSM, the optimum conditions to reduce the turbidity of the surface water to the obtained minimum value of 12.42 NTU (98.2%) were found to be pH, coagulation time, and coagulant dose of7.79, 9.25 min and 12.03 g/L, respectively. Thus, both jar test and RSM based coagulation methods were found to give an optimum coagulant dose of approximately 12 g/L.Even though the final turbidity of 12 NTUobtained from the water treatment using sesame seed coagulant was higher than the value (5 NTU) recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), it has been demonstrated, in this work, that sesame seed is one of the promising natural coagulants for water treatment.

Impact of climate change on the fin fish diversity in the lower Gangetic delta

Kinsuk Purakait, Sufia Zaman, Tanmoy Rudra, Prosenjit Pramanick, Arnesha Guha, Pardis Fazli and Abhijit Mitra


Climate change in the lower Gangetic delta has caused an increase in water temperature and altered the salinity and pH of the aquatic phase. Such changes have caused a significant alteration in the diversity spectrum of fin fishes prevailing in the system. The Shannon Weiner species diversity indices computed from the catch of commercially important and trash fin fish varieties indicate a pronounced temporal variation both in the western and central sectors of Indian Sundarbans that have contrasting geo-physico-chemical features. The aquatic phase of the western Indian Sundarbans exhibited a gradual rise of commercially important fin fish diversity, while in the central sector the diversity of the trash fish variety increased over a period of more than two decades. The economic return from the fish catch (as revealed from the feedback of 837 fishermen) also exhibits a pronounced variation, with a gradual decreasein monetary benefit by the fisherman of central sector compared to the western Indian Sundarbans.

African Spirituality and Sustainable Environment: A Discourse on African Ecological Theology.

Rev. Samuel Asiedu-Amoako and Michael Kwadwo Ntiamoah


The issues about sustainable environment have now gained currency in recent times due to the massive environmental degradation and deteriorated ecosystems. Degraded environment and deteriorated ecosystems affect all lives including human beings. The paper explains how African spirituality can be employed in various ways to enhance sustainable environment. Sustainable environment is an issue of wise use of environmental resources. The paper focuses on the need and the potential of African traditional praxis to contribute to sustainable environment; and also developing a culture of ecological responsibility. African spirituality demands that environmental resources should be conserved through sustainable environment where everybody is involved in protecting and maintaining environmental resources.

Prevalence of distinctive sources on Hydrogen Production from Goa Photosynthetic Bacteria

Jahnavi Alwala, M.P.Pratap Rudra, Ramchander Merugu


Purple non sulphur phototrophic bacteria are among the most living resourceful bacteria well-known. Endorsed anaerobic organisms in the environment, a species of facultative photo-trophic, purple; non-sulfur bacterium was isolated from Goa marine water. Recycled economic process for production of hydrogen are inadequate for processing of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation recently .Therefore, the present study for Hydrogen production reveals that the influence of consortium purple non sulphur bacteria isolated from Goa marine Water. The different parameters like various Carbon, Nitrogen, Growth factors and PH variation was identified for hydrogen production by an oxygenic bacteria. The amount of hydrogen produced varies with various carbon, nitrogen, growth factors and PH used in the medium. The bacterial culture was cultured in 50ml vessel within 30ml of culture to produce hydrogen in anoxygenic conditions and incubated in 2000 lux light intensity for 196 hours. The best result for highest hydrogen productivity was 6ml/30ml vessel of sodium benzoate, ammonium chloride, and at PH 7.5, 8.0 to purple non sulphur bacteria isolated from Goa marine water.

Effects of simulated acid rain on the morphology, phenology and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L). Moench)

Macaulay Babajide Milton, Tapere Oluwatobi Abigael


This study aims to investigate the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the morphology, phenology and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) to identify the pH range in which okra is resistant to acid rain and to determine the order of SAR-induced severity in okra in terms of the parameters studied. Okra seeds (NH-34 variety) were grown in a screen house. Two weeks after planting, SAR was applied to the okra seedlings at pH 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0 (control), for a period of 94 days after planting following the method of Lal and Singh (2012). Digital photographs of the morphological/phenological defects were taken including the recording of flowering and fruiting time as well as dry biomass determination. SAR-induced morphological defects in okra include chlorosis, dehydration, wilting, early leaf senescence, pathogen infection and death. Phenological observations revealed that all the treatments studied (including the control) except pH 4.0, had delayed first flower emergence on the 9th week. The result showed that okra is resistant to SAR from pH 5.0 to neutral (in terms of morphology, phenology and yield) and exhibits the following SAR-induced order of severity: Morphology >Yield > Phenology. This is the first research on the effects of SAR on morphology, phenology and yield of okra from seed to maturity. Okra is an economically-important Tropical and sub-Tropical vegetable; therefore, studying its acidic tolerance or vulnerability will help evaluate its food status in the face of anthropogenic-induced acidic deposition.

Antimicrobial resistivity of the isolated coliform bacteria from the River Ganga

Shayeri Das, Sufia Zaman and Abhijit Mitra


The present study was undertaken during 2014 to evaluate the microbial load and detect the presence of indicator organisms that reflect the magnitude of fecal contamination of water in the aquatic phase of Gangetic delta region in the maritime state of West Bengal in and around the city of Kolkata. It also aimed at studying the antibiotic resistivity of different isolates. The results indicated the significant presence of indicator organisms in the water, hence forth, there is a need for conventional treatment of water to be under the domain of potability. Significant resistivity pattern to the different antibiotics was also observed among the isolates.

Comparison of Bacillus spp, Pseudomonas spp and Pseudomonas fluorescence in Degrading Polythene Bags – A Laboratory Approach

Sudevi Basu and Kusuma D K


Polythene bags are useful commodities for packaging but are a major pollutant in the environment due to their high molecular weight, complex three dimensional-structures and hydrophobic nature. These polythene bags find their ways to the landfills, parks, waterways and release toxic fumes in the air when these are burnt. These are not easily degradable and hence this research is aimed to study the relative efficiencies of three microbes Bacillus spp, Pseudomonas spp and Pseudomonas fluorescence in biodegrading polythene bags at laboratory scale. The extent of biodegradation was studied by SEM analysis, percentage weight loss and percentage tensile strength loss. SEM analysis revealed that holes were developed after 30 days and good structural changes such as cracks and formation of pits were observed after 120 days of incubation with all three microbes. The percentage weight loss of polythene bags with Pseudomonas fluorescence was 66.66% at 150 days, followed by Bacillus spp at 60% and Pseudomonas spp at 48.1%. The percentage tensile strength loss was seen at 16.81%, 11.54% and 9.39% respectively for Pseudomonas fluorescence, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp respectively. This study thus revealed that Pseudomonas fluorescence is the most efficient organism followed by Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp in degrading polythene bags.

Environmental Degradation in Uttarakhand: Need For Proper Management

Kavita Tariyal


With utter disregard for the State‘s mountain character and its delicate ecosystems, successive people have blindly pushed roads, dams, tunnels, bridges and unsafe buildings even in the most fragile regions. In the process, denuded mountains have remained deforested, roads designed to minimize expenditure rather than enhance safety have endangered human lives, tunnels blasted into mountainsides have further weakened the fragile slopes and dried up springs, ill-conceived hydropower projects have destroyed rivers and their ecosystems, and hotels and land developers have encroached on river banks. Very few have benefitted from these projects— mainly in the towns and cities of the southern terai plains and valleys where production investments have concentrated. In the mountain villages, agricultural production has shriveled, women still trudge the mountain slopes in search of fodder, fuel wood and water, and entire families wait longingly for an opportunity to escape to the plains. The unpredictable weather in Uttarakhand coupled with landslides is hindering the provision of relief materials to the villagers. For this we have to look forward for strong environmental management system for our state. For this, Forest cover has to be expanded, river flows and ecologies have to be sustained and wildlife has to be protected in a manner that enables livelihoods to grow. For protecting existing forests, village women should receive free cooking gas cylindersat their homes in payment for providing ecological services to the rest of India. Such payments can generate revenues for Himalayan states that pursue green development policies.

Impact of Salinity on the Condition Factor of Commercially Important Fin Fish in the Lower Gangetic Delta


The estuaries in the lower Gangetic delta at the apex of Bay of Bengal is noted for contrasting spatial variation of salinity. The Hugli estuary in the western sector is relatively low saline compared to the Matla estuary in the central sector on account of receiving the fresh water discharge from the Farakka barrage. The central sector is hyper saline due to siltation of the Bidyadhari River since the late 15th century. The present study evaluates the condition factor of fourteen commercially important fin fish species collected from the Hugli and Matla estuaries in the western and central sectors of the lower Gangetic delta respectively. Relatively higher values of condition factors of all the species collected from the Hugli estuary (compared to those collected from the Matla estuary) signifies the adverse effect of hyper salinity on the growth and condition factor of the species.

Study of large geomagnetic storms (GMSs) and space weather perturbation

Subhas Chand Dubey, Chandra Prabha Verma and L.K. Borker


A state of art of geomagnetic field variations and morphology of geomagnetic storms (GMSs) are presented in this work. We have analyzed all those large GMSs which are associated with Dst decreases of more than 100 nT, and are observed during the period 1986 onwards that covers the periods of SC 22, 23 and 24. The large GMSs create many adverse effects within ionosphere and geomagnetospher that affect our communication system, power system and space-whether. A comparative study of large GMSs and their characteristics along with climatic changes have been analyzed.

Impact of Fluctuation Risk Factor on Cost Overrun of Projects: The Case of Residential Buildings in Port Harcourt Nigeria.

Mee-EdoiyeMeeting Andawei, Anjiba D. Lamptey-Puddicombe, Adu E. Tayo


Projects generally are one-off activities with very unique characteristics. Their acyclic nature further make them practically difficult to repeat any completed section, thereby subjecting their original schedule, budget and performance baselines to the prevailing project environment shaped by both known and unknown technical and managerial risk factors. This paper is aimed at identifying the relationship between fluctuation and cost overrun of building projects. The result shows that the change in the prices of basic materials and labour required for the construction of building projects account for 94% of the total budgetary slip.It is recommended that practitioners in the construction industry should adequately provide for likely change of material and labour prices in preparing their budget baseline

Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and its Suitability for Drinking use in Parts of Khultabad , District Aurangabad, MS, India

Imamuddin Ustad


This study was conducted to evaluate factors regulating groundwater quality in an area. Eleven groundwater samples have been collected from Khultabadtaluka of Aurangabad district. Rapid development in recent years has led to an increased demand for water, which is increasingly being fulfilled by groundwater abstraction. A detailed knowledge of the water quality can enhance understanding of the hydro chemical system, to achieve this; a hydro chemical investigation was carried out in the study area. Groundwater samples were chemically analyzed for major physicochemical parameter in order to understand the different geochemical processes affecting the groundwater quality. The analytical results shows higher concentration of total dissolved solids (26.66%), electrical conductivity (26.66%), chloride (33.33%) total hardness (60%) and magnesium (86.66%) which indicates signs of deterioration as per WHO and ISI standards.

Reproductive Ecology of Abutilon X hybridum- Hort. ex Siebert. & Voss.(var. red and white) in Darjeeling Himalaya: A comparative approach

Ashoke Bhattacharya and Janaki Subba


The present paper deals with a comparative analysis of reproductive fitness in Abutilon X hybridum - Hort. ex Siebert. & Voss. (var. red and white) of the family Malvaceae growing in the vicinity of Darjeeling Himalaya. The flower anthesis, pollen anthesis, pollen productivity, pollen ovule ratio, stigma receptivity and pollen load as well as pollen-stigma chemistry in the context of carbohydrate, protein and amino acid content varies greatly although the log value of pollen, type and nature of flower visitors and their visit duration remain almost same among two varieties reflecting almost equal reproductive force generation among two verities in the context of their fruit set. It suggests that both type of plants are reproductively isolated and fit enough for a unique biological system but there is a tendency for mixing of their gene pool in natural settings.

Natural Convection in Closed Enclosures

Ahmed I. Abed


Convection is one of heat transfer modes, there are many factors effect onthe convection heat transfer coefficient like surface temperature, fluid properties, and other parameters, free or natural convection in closed region or enclosuresisimportant case for many applications like ovens. In this paper theboundary effects on the convection are studied, the designed setup consists of insulated rectangular cross section box, itis made from wood, the box inner surface is coated by steel sheets. The heat source consists of two heaters, the heater shape is cylindrical, the measured data are temperature with time for different cases, the main case is studying the effect of box cover also the temperature profile measured from the heater surface.

Physical Characteristics of Honey of Indigenous Giant Bee Apis Dorsata F. And Hive Bee Apis Cerana Indica Of Western Ghats Of Karnataka

Balasubramanyam, M.V.,


Multifloral honey of indigenous giant honeybee A. dorsata (wild) and Indian hivebee, A. cerana indica (apiary) were collected in Western ghats of Karnataka and its physical characteristics of refractive index, optical density, viscosity and surface tension in raw, processed and stored honey were determined during January 2014 to February 2015. All the four physical characteristics tested in three grades of honey samples exhibited quantitative variations. The refractive index of A. dorsata and A.cerana raw honey was 1.47 and 1.48 respectively. Similarly optical density of processed honey of A. cerana and A.dorsata was 0.61 and 0.64 respectively. . The viscosity of A. dorsata and A.cerana stored honey was 76.82 poise and 78.94 poise respectively. Further, surface tension of A. dorsata and A.cerana stored honey was 102.31 dynes/cms and 104.13 dynes/cms respectively. The refractive index of A.dorsata raw honey was less than that of stored honey of A.dorsata. The optical density of processed honey of A.dorsata was more than of processed honey of A. cerana. Viscosity and surface tension of processed honey was less than raw and stored honey in A.dorsata and A.cerana. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of viscosity and surface tension of raw, processed and stored honey of A.dorsata and A.cerana was significant at p<0.01% levels while refractive index and optical density of raw, processed and stored was not significant at p<0.01%.

Eco friendly Screen Printing Using Natural and Indigenous Thickener- Mango Kernel and Cassia Tora Gum

Sudha Babel, Rupali Gupta & Dolly Mogra


The experiments were conducted in the AICRP – CT lab. Textiles and Apparel Designing of Udaipur. To find out the possibility of using natural thickening agent to be used as natural and indigenous thickener. Cassia tora seed gum and waste mango kernel extracted gum was used for the printing of cotton fabric with screen. Cotton fabric was printed with different mordants and different concentration of thickening agents. The print quality was assessed in terms of depth of colour, evenness of print, sharpness of print and overall appearance. Experimental observation shows that both the gums can successfully used as textile printing thickeners which is ecofriendly for the environment.

Effect of Lead Toxicity on Physical Growth of Inky Cap Mushroom (CoprinopsisRadiata) and Safety of Mushroom Consumption

Thapakorn Kumhomkul


The inky cap mushrooms were cultivated in lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. The results shown the highest lead concentration was 388.58 mg kg-1 in lead contaminated rice stubble (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in control (T1). Lead accumulation in substrates affected on physical growth of inky cap mushroom such as mycelial running rate, yield, biological efficiency and number of mushroom. The highest lead concentration in egg and mature stage of mushroom (3.230 and 4.502 mg kg-1, respectively) were recorded in T3 of 15th cultivation. The highest lead concentration exceeded the European Union standard for cultivated
mushroom ( >3.0 mg kg-1).

A Review on Removal Methods of Phosphate from Different Wastewater Sources

MeenaVangalapati, KasiPradgna, Sunil Kanamarlapudi


Phosphate as an inorganic chemical is a salt of phosphoric acid. They are naturally occurring form of the element phosphorus, found in many phosphate minerals.Phosphate removal from different effluents by using various methods like chemical precipitation, coagulation, electrocoagulation method, electro-dialysis method, electro dialysis method, adsorption and biological treatment methods. Mostly the removal efficiency of phosphate is obtained from chemical precipitation, adsorption and coagulation methods. High phosphate concentration leads to eutrophication and also health problems such as kidney damage, osteoporosis and hyperphosphatemia. Therefore it is necessary to remove phosphate to minimize the health and environmental effects.

Drought Stress Alters Water Relations and Expression of PIP-Type Aquaporin Genes in Field Bean Seedlings

Myrene R. D’souza, Kokila S., V. R. Devaraj


Plant drought stress response and resistance are complex biological processes that need to be analyzed at a systems level using genomics and physiological approaches to dissect experimental models that address drought stresses encountered by crops in the field. Toward this goal, a controlled, sub lethal, moderate drought treatment system was developed in Field bean (Dolichos lablab cv. HA-4). Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), a type of aquaporin, mediate water transport in many plant species. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the functions of PIP-type water channels and relative water content under drought stress. Alignments of 247 bp and 483 bp cDNA sequences revealed that the predicted amino acid sequence shares 70% homology with Phytophthora infestans and 70% homology with uncharacterized proteins expressed under water deficit stress in Vitis vinifera and Glycine max respectively. Expression profile of the gene was studied from leaf tissues through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results indicated that the gene was expressed in both fully hydrated and dehydrated plants. However, it was more abundant in dehydrated leaves ascompared to control tissues.

Spatial Patterns of UrbanLand use in Tiruchirappalli Town

V. Kalyani ,R.Vasanthi


Rapid urban development and increasing land use changes due to increasing population and economic growth is being witnessed in India and other developing countries. The study area comprises of Trichy City. It extends geographically from 10º45’’ North latitude to 10º52” North latitude and between 78º37’ East longitudes and 78 º 42’ East longitudes. Primary data pertaining to the study period 2014 have been systematically collected theJPEG image file has been imported to Map Info 6.5. It is geo-referenced to fit into Map Info 9.3 GIS. These geographically rectified raster image maps are suitably converted to vector data format by means of on-screen digitization, and the resultant vector layer has been edited by using layer editable method. Simple overlay analysis has been performed to prepare final layouts and appropriate results were drawn.

Unfavorable Influences on Natural forests at Refugees amp in Qala Elnahal Locality,Gedaref State

Ismail Mohamed Fangama Abdalla


The settlement of refugees in the area created an environmental problem such as the misuse of natural forests, extensive cultivation, continuous cutting down of trees to satisfy their basic needs for energy and removal of trees form land for cultivation and housing purposes. The objectives of research consist of estimation of the area cleared from forests, the numbers of trees cleared, and the consumption of firewood and charcoal and to suggest suitable recommendations to minimize the environmental degradation in the area. The methodology depends on using the archival methods done by the legal authorities for calculation of the total area cleared, removal of trees, consumption of firewood and charcoal. The results explained that the total area cleared for settlement and agriculture are equals to 14290 ha while the total trees cut down for housing and renovation, agriculture, settlement, firewood and charcoal were equals to 24844320 trees. On the other hand the total consumption of firewood and charcoal were equals to 331800 cubic meters and 3981600 sacks of charcoal respectively. The results explain the scale of environmental degradation in the natural forests is grieved to anyone who loves the nature.

Effect of Adding Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium to the Seedlings of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis in Silt Soil

Dr. Ismail Mohamed Fangama Abdalla and Dr. YasirYousif Abdalla


The objectives of the study are to find out the effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium (NPK) when added to the silt soil during the growing of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The materials used consist of silt soil, sand soil, sieved with 2 mm opening, sensitive balance for weighting the matters used in the experiment, twelve polythene tubes with 40×60 cm and forty eight seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Vernier is used for measuring the stems diameter, ruler for measuring the length of the stems and the length of the roots. Oven dry is used with temperature of 103±2 ℃ degrees. Three samples were chosen that are: sample (A) contains silt as control, sample (B) contains mixed silt soil and three grams of (NPK) and sample (C) is a mixture of silt soil, sand soil and three grams of (NPK). The results explain that, sample (A) gives better growing in seedlings than sample (B) and sample (C).

BACTERIAL TOXINS: Types and Its Role

Kiran Bhadoria, Archana Shrivastav, A.M. Jana2 and Atul Kushwah


Toxins are a common and series cause of tissue damage, especially in bacterial. Bacterial toxins are thus important determinants of bacterial virulence while microbial toxins are components or products of microorganisms which, when extracted and introduced into host animals, can reproduce disease symptoms normally associated with infection without infestation by those microorganisms. Bacterial toxins are exotoxins and endotoxins. Beside enterotoxins are exotoxins that are associated with diarrhea diseases and food poisoning. Toxide is modified of exotoxin which has two main properties as toxicity and antigenicity.

Isolation and Characterization of Bacterial Strains In Terms Of COD Reduction from Dairy Waste Water

Sonika Saxena, Neha Sharma and Aparna Datta Saksham Gupta


Dairy industry is a large scale food production industry and plays an important role in causing water pollution. Dairy is one of the major agriculture industries and dairy wastewater problem is larger in developing countries because all milk is processed industrially. Dairy is having particular characteristics of effluents and hence has the different effluent related problems. Bioremediation strategies are often more beneficial than traditional strategies because it can be implemented in situ. Dairy waste water is characterized by high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and Chemical oxygen demand (COD) Concentrations. The bacterial isolation was done from untreated effluent and then the raw waste was treated with the isolates to observe reduction in COD level. 05 bacterial strains were isolated from dairy waste water out of which consortia with 1 % inoculum at 20 days was effective in reducing the level of COD and thus helping in bioremediation.

Lethal Effect of Potash Using Earthworm (Drawida willsi) As a Test Specimen on Soil Ecosystem

Anindita Bhattacharya and Sanjat Kumar Sahu


A number of agrochemicals have been using to boost up the agricultural production since few decades. Though it has increased the food production, enormous use of agrochemicals have resulted a threat to soil ecosystem. These agrochemicals are found to cause a decline in population size of beneficial organisms that are involved in maintaining soil fertility by breaking own the dead materials into several inorganic compounds. Several studies were conducted on the toxic effect of pesticides on soil organisms especially the earthworms. On contrary, few studies were conducted on the effect of fertilizer on earthworm and no concrete conclusion could be found out. So the present experiment was undertaken to find out effect of potash on soil ecosystem using earthworm (Drawida willsi) as test animal. Different concentrations of potash were prepared in dilution of water which is then added to the experiment sets. Ten healthy gut evacuated earthworms of each age group (juvenile, immature, adult) were added to five replicates (polythene packets) for each concentration of fertilizer. On the other hand, the control group was given only water, and same numbers of earthworms were added for each age group. The experiment was  maintained at 20±2g% soil moisture and 25±2°C soil temperature. Earthworm deaths were recorded and Finney’s probit method was followed to calculate 96h LC50 values. The experiment found that the juvenile worms of D. willsi did not die in soil containing up to 50 mg/kg of potash, whereas, immature and adult worms did not die up to 100 and 200 mg/kg of potash respectively. However, 100% mortality ofjuveniles were recorded when worms were exposed to concentration as high as 550 mg/kg, immature at 700 mg/kg and adult at 800 mg/kg of potash. The 96 h LC50 values with their 95% confidence limits for juvenile, immature and adult worms were 281.19 (281.15-281.23), 346.74 (346.69-346.79) and 412.09 (412.03-412.15) mg/kg respectively. This clearly indicates that the earthworms may be affected by the use of potash. If soil macro-organisms are hampered then it would affect the soil fertility. So it is suggested that potash should be used in their recommended dose to maintain the soil health. 

Bioefficacy of Textile Effluent Adapted Bacterial Strains for COD Reduction

Neha Sharma, Sonika Saxena ,Aparna Datta, Saksham Gupta


Textile industry is one of the most important sectors which contributes to Rajasthan’s economy and at the same generates huge volumes of waste water characterized by intense colour, high pH, BOD, COD. Keeping in view the above cited fact, an attempt has been made to characterize untreated textile waste water collected in accordance with standard procedures from a local dyeing unit based at Sanganer, Jaipur. objective of our study was to monitor COD reduction by microcosm analysis at an interval of 5 days till 20 days by indigenous bacteria and the strains was biochemically characterized as Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Sarcina sp., Bacillus sp. and consortium was established. The strains were inoculated in Nutrient Broth (NB) to study growth curve. COD reduction was carried out by in situ analysis in which the inoculum concentration was varied from 0.1 % to 1 % v/v. 1% inoculum concentration was found to be most promising in terms of COD reduction.