Effect of Ems on Seed Germination, Seedling Height and Plant Survival of Horsegram [Macrotyloma Uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc] Cv. Rayat-1
Pranali A. Awate and Sadashiv N. Bolbhat
Seeds of horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc) cv. Rayat-1 were treated with various concentrations of EMS (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%). The effects on seed germination, seedling height (7 days) and plant survival at 45 days after sowing were investigated. Gradual reduction in seed germination, root length, shoots length, seedling height and plant survival was recorded with increase in concentration of EMS. Lower conc. of EMS 0.3% (81.2%) showed highest germination percentage in cv. Rayat- 1. The survival percent in cultivar of horsegram was decreased as the Conc. of EMS increased. Significant reduction in survival percentage was observed at the higher conc. (0.5%EMS).
The role of nature of casting solution on performance of cellulose acetate-coal heterogeneous reverse Osmosis membranes
T.Selimi, Makfire Sadiku, Xhemajlie Llugiqi, Sebehate Bushrani
Preparation and properties of cellulose acetate–coal heterogeneous reverse osmosis membranes (400-1), (400-4) and (500-1) with mixed solvents (acetoneformamide), and respectively (acetone-dimethylformamide) have been studied. Three types of reverse osmosis heterogeneous reverse osmosis membranes (cellulose acetate-coal membranes) have been investigated in this study. The first type of membranes batches 400-1 and the second type of membranes batches 400-4 were made from a blend of cellulose acetate-and powdered Kosova basen coal with formamide as a solvent .The third type of membranes batches 500-1 were made with dimethylformamide. Membranes were made in the same ratios and casting solutions, temperature, gelations medium. All types of membranes were tested with referent system NaCl-H2O solution of feed concentration 6.86x10-3 mol /dm3 and feed flow rate corresponding to a mass transfer coefficient of 45x10-4 cm/sec. At about 80%,75.6%,70% level of solute separation respectively for membrane batches (400-1,400-4,500-1) and feed flow conditions corresponding to a mass transfer coefficient of 45 x10-4cm/sec, The differences in the performances were attributed to the relation with casting solution and the effects of the volatility and evaporation rates of solvents. The performance data obtained with heterogeneous asymmetric membranes suggest that this membranes seen promising for treatment of waste waters.
Ar.N.L.Sireesha and Prof.P.Padmavathi,
Poor indoor air quality in schools is associated with diminished learning, health risks to students and staff, and economic costs. The objective of this investigation is to establish a relation between spatial qualities of built environments with regard to school buildings and indoor air pollutants. The investigation selected 30 secondary schools that fall under from GHMC area of Hyderabad City for this study. Phase I of the study was a questionnaire completed by 150 students. Phase II of the study was to collect data on spatial factors from each school selected for study using walk through forms. The walk through survey form used in phase II is used to document each school’s site plan, classroom orientation, setbacks of school, open spaces, classroom dimensions, number of students in the class, class room flooring, ceiling of the class, walls, doors, window material and school location. Phase III of the study was to collect data of indoor air quality parameters from one classroom in each school selected for study including comfort parameters (respirable and non-respirable air particles, VOC emissions, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, temperature, and relative humidity).The major findings of this study concern school management, school characteristics, building materials and finishes used in construction of schools, indoor air concentrations indoors and outdoors, schoolslocated in different zones, miscellaneous factors like cleaning procedures , teaching medium and indoor air quality parameters. This paper even reports on a comprehensive review of the worldwide literature which relates health of building occupants with the different aspects of the indoor environment which are believed to impact these issues, with a particular focus on studies in this field. Ultimately, the findings of this study enable the development of best practices for school design for improved indoor air quality.
Abhijit Mitra, U.S. Parkhi, Subratta Debnath, Prosenjit Pramanick, Pardis Fazli and Sufia Zaman
We conducted a study on the floral diversity in the postmonsoon season of 2015 in the Khurunti model plantation site, KPO of TATA Steel, Odisha. This plantation, being a component of Greenbelt development was done during 2011 and 2013, respectively. Shannon Weiner Species Diversity Index was computed based on the data of random quadrate samplings in the study area. The soil pH was monitored simultaneously in the selected quadrates to evaluate the influence of pH on species diversity. Leaf chlorophyll content of the planted floral species was also analyzed to evaluate the health and adaptability of the species. The study points towards the adverse role of acidic soil on the diversity index of the planted species. Finally as a part of recommendation, suitable species were selected (based on total chlorophyll content) for greening and eco-restoring the area.
Assessment of the Quality of Groundwater of Visakhapatnam Industrial Belt Using the Index Developed by UNEP
Srinivasa Rao S., N. Srinivasa Rajamani and E.U.B. Reddi.
Groundwater quality assumes greater significance because it is closely related to human health. Hence several water quality indices have been formulated all over the world to assess the quality of water, but none of them could serve as globally accepted index. In this backdrop, we adopted an index developed by UNEP GEMS/water programme and studied 120 groundwater samples of the study area for a period of two years. The water quality indices revealed that 90% of the locations were found to range between ‘fair to excellent’ for the health aspects and only 60% of the locations showed the acceptability aspects in the range of ‘fair to good’. Further, parameters contribution (validation) analysis was conducted to assess the parameters that exceeded the guidelines (percentage of total exceedence) for drinking water quality. The results (industrial belt) were compared with the results of non-industrial zone of Visakhapatnam studied by earlier workers and found no significant deviation excepting four parameters. These four parameters were also deviated significantly even before the establishment of industries in the study area. It indicated that the groundwater quality was mostly influenced by geological rather than industrial processes in the study area.
Santanu Gupta and Aparajita Mukherjee
A study was conducted to assess wetland bird assemblage in Durgapur Barrage, West Bengal, India from January 2011 to December 2014. Both river and bank species composition of birds using fixed surveys, linear walks and random searches were inventoried. We recorded 91 bird species, representing 17 orders and 39 families from the barrage. Our study is an attempt towards generating baseline information on the avifaunal diversity of riverine landscape in Durgapur Barrage and we recommend exhaustive surveys and regular monitoring of this river stretch through indicator species approach.
Occupational Accidents and Occupational Diseases are two crucial issues resulting from the work and working environment. According to the latest data of International Labor Organization (ILO), problems at working environment are caused by occupational accidents at 60 % and occupational diseases at 40 %. Contrary to this, 80 % of the deaths resulting from the work is caused by occupational diseases and death resulting from occupational accidents is only 20 % of all of the death cases. In other words, occupational diseases are more crucial facts regarding the impact on the employees. It is the legal procedure to inform of occupational diseases to Social Security Institution (SSI) within 3 days following the diagnosis is made, as it is done for the occupational accidents. However, in Turkey, majority of the occupational diseases are not registered. This fact hidden the real dimension of the problem and accordingly a perception that there is not a problem of occupational disease in Turkey occurs. Because of this, in this study, real dimensions of occupational diseases in Turkey are introduced. First of all, based on official data, occupational diseases data for the last 10 years (2003-2012) are analyzed. Discrepancies and inconsistencies at SSI statistical yearbooks are determined. By using several international criteria, numbers of cases of occupational disease and death cases resulting from occupational diseases to be registered are estimated. Additionally, Turkey is compared to Germany, regarding the occupational diseases, which can be taken as a reference for this case. In conclusion, several solutions are developed for this issue.
Dr. Subhas Chand Dubey, Mr. Santosh Kumar Shukla and Mr. Satya Prakash Shukla
The Earth’s climate has warmed over the last century. It is very likely that the primary cause of this global warming is the emission of greenhouse gases due to a range of human activities and the resulting increase in the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Climate models indicate that the global warming and other climate changes will continue and accelerate through the coming century if emissions of greenhouse gases continue to increase. There are two well-known causes that affect the global warming and other climate changes. One of them is solar variation (mainly TSI) and other is increase in greenhouse gases (mainly increases of carbon dioxide, Co2 after industrial revolution). Solar impact on the Earth’s climate in the upper atmosphere interacts most directly with the radiation, particles and magnetic fields emitted by the Sun. Solar activities follow the approximately 11-year solar activity cycle. We have analysed long-term correlative behaviour total solar irradiance (TSI) and sunspot number (SSN) for a long period 1976 onwards and find they are strongly correlated (r=0.928). We find very poor correlation(r=.036) between TSI and global surface temperature (GSTemp) but a strong correlation (r=0.875) have been found between increase in Co2 and GSTemp. These results indicate that effect of solar variation in change of global temperature is less than increase in greenhouses gases (mainly Co2) during aforesaid period. It is social need to awareness of maintain emission of greenhouse gases in present time; otherwise our future is very dangerous. Adverse impacts of climate change and challenges in near future have also been discussed.
Application of WQI to Assess Suitability of Groundwater Quality for Drinking Purposes of Pawai Terrain
Sunil K. Pandey
Water quality assessment can be defined as the evaluation of the physical, chemical and biological nature of water in relation to natural quality, human effects and intended uses. Water quality index (WQI) is important and exclusive rating to show the overall water quality rank in a single term that is useful for the selection of proper treatment technique to meet the concerned issues. WQI depicts the composite influence of different water quality parameters and communicates water quality information to the community and lawmakers. In this context, this paper displays the suitability of water of six sampling sites in three different seasons over a period of one year. The calculation of WQI has been made by using weighted arithmetic index method. Ten important parameters pH, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids, Dissolved Oxygen, Electrical Conductivity, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride and Nitrate were considered for WQI and found that the groundwater samples fall in the poor water class but very close to good water class and can be suitable for drinking purposes.
Binary Logistic Regression Analysis in Assessment and Identifying Factors That Influence Customers’ Satisfaction: The Case of Debre Berhan University, Ethiopia
Habte Tadesse, Gebire Kiros, O. Chandra Sekhara Reddy
Different organizations are working in maximizing the satisfaction of their customer taking customer satisfaction as the one and the major goal of their strategic plan. An accurate estimate level of customer’s satisfaction is highly required for planning, implementation and in improving the level of satisfaction by identifying the gap where the customers are more dissatisfied. The main objective of the study is to assess and identify customer’s satisfaction in Debre Berhan University, Ethiopia. A primary data collection was used for the study. Relevant information for the study was collected by setting questionnaires for all customers. A simple random sampling, stratified random sampling and cluster samplings were in determining sample size (n=954) by using a design effect 2 and 10% non response rate. Different statistical methods, mainly both descriptive and inferential statistics (logistic regression) are used and data collected were analyzed by using SPSS software version 16. The result of the study reveals that the level of customer’s satisfaction in Debre Berhan University of teachers, students, supportive staffs and external customers arerespectively 46.67%, 71%, 61.5% and 95%. From this study it is observed that the proportion of male and female teachers of Debre Berhan University who don’t satisfied were slightly greater than that of satisfied. The level of satisfaction of students in Debre Berhan University all most three fourth them were satisfied with service and facility offered by the university. However, the proportion of students in each college who were satisfied is greater than who don’t satisfy except in Engineering and Health Science College.From the result we observed that the dominance of student centred teaching and learning approach, lesser availability of internet service, lack of appropriate infrastructure, low quality of services in lounge, shortage of resident to teaching staff, poor complain and grievance handling process, low participatory decision making process factors associated with customers satisfaction. Therefore, it is recommended that the university management and the government should work more cooperatively on factors affecting customer’s satisfaction in DBU. It is advisable if the government and university management would pay their attention in providing medical laboratory in Health related and field laboratory equipments. The university management should pay more attention in providing quality of services and facilities for its customers so as to alleviate the problems. It is also recommended if there is a periodic discussion with teaching and administrative staffs on service delivery and complains handling process.
R. Hepzi Pramila Devamani, M. Kavitha and B. Lilly Bala
Calcium carbonate nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method from calcium chloride and sodium carbonate. The formed nanoparticle is characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultra-violet spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, confirmed the preferential growth of copper carbonate nanoparticles that width is 58.81nm. The SEM image shows the synthesized copper carbonate show well crystallized particles with spherical morphology. The FTIR spectrum is used to study the stretching and bending frequencies of molecular functional groups in the sample. From UV spectrum, the band gap of copper carbonate nanoparticles is found to be 2.5eV.
A Study of Panjabi University Students on relationship between their Age and Attitude Towards E-learning
Dr. Gunmala Suri, Dr. Navkiranjit kaur Dhaliwal, Gurman Kaur, Sneha Sharma
The evolution in ICT have revolutionized the process of learning where electronic devices are used for the process of effective learning. The introduction of e-learning has led to rapid changes in the way education is being imparted. The aim of this study is to understand the relationship between age and attitude towards e-learning. Literature shows that age plays a key role in understanding the differences in perception towards usefulness of technology and ease of use w.r.t technology adoption. This study was conducted in Punjabi University Patiala, to assess the impact of age on students’ attitude towards computer technology and e-learning collectively. It also analyses It also analyses the usage of the basic e-learning forms like uploading/downloading course content, interactive videos and pod casting. The instrument used in collecting data was the questionnaire. This study analyzed 306 students enrolled in various courses across many departments in Punjabi University, Patiala. The results showed that no significant relationship exists between age and attitude towards computer and e-learning. The results of this study also show that students of Punjabi University are well versed with the latest tools and forms of e-learning. The findings of this study could serve as a predictor of the attitudes of future students towards e-learning. The future developments in e-learning can take note of this finding while developing e-learning tools which are efficient.
Use of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern as an identification marker of Gram positive, aerobic spore forming bacilli, isolated during vaccine manufacturing process
Abdul Samad, Muhammad Kamran Taj, Farhat Abbas, Imran Taj, Mohammad Alam Mangel, Zafar Ahmed and Taj Mohammad Hassani
Bacilli used in this study were Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis. All of the bacilli tested were Grampositive while hemolysis on blood agar was variable. All bacilli were motile and catalase positive except for Bacillus anthracis. The Lecithinase reaction on egg yolk agar was also variable whereas urease activity was absent in all the organisms including Bacillus anthracis. Gelatin hydrolysis and anaerobic growth were positive in all bacilli. Sodium Chloride (NaCl) at concentration of 6% was tolerated by B. megaterium and B. subtilis. Free or endospores were observed in all including B. anthracis. Acid was produced from glucose, salicin and xylose in oxidation/fermentation reactions, whereas utilization of mannitol, maltose and lactose varied. The organisms have opaque to creamy ground glass consistency colonies on agar surfaces compared to broth where homogenous growth and pellicle formation were the main features and varied according to organism. Under the microscope; short to long chains made up of Gram-positive rods were observed. Forty four (44) antibiotics from different groups were used in this study. Of these 9 were from cephalosporin group, 6 from quinolone group, 5 from penicillin group, 3 from ß-lactainhibitors combination group, 2 from tetracycline group, 4 from aminoglycoside group and 15 from diverse group. The extensive antibiogram of a number of Bacillary species envisage to explore selected antibiotics to which the B. anthracis is resistant and other isolated Bacilli are sensitive. During this study the co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole) at the concentration of 25 µg/disc allowed the growth of B. anthracis (i.e. resistant) but did not allow the growth of other four Bacilli
Inter-Relationship between Artificially Triggered Phytoplankton Bloom and Nutrient Levels in Brackish Water Ponds of Indian Sundarbans
Subhasmita Sinha, Kakoli Banerjee, Sufia Zaman, and Abhijit Mitra
We analyze in this paper the oscillation of nitrate, phosphate and silicate due to enhancement of phytoplankton standing stock through iron fertilization. bservations of selected variables exhibit the depletion of nutrients with the increase of phytoplankton volume. We also observe significant positive correlation between phytoplankton cell volume and cell carbon content. This observation holds good for all the six major Coscinodiscus species available in the brackish water ponds of Indian Sundarbans. The maximum values of phytoplankton volume and carbon content in 1.5 ppm iron fertilized pond speaks in favour of phytoplankton bloom due to optimum iron level in aquatic phase.
Taj Muhammad Hassani, Muhammad Kamran Taj, Imran Taj, Zohra Samreen and Mohammad Alam Mangel
Balochistan’s rangelands are managed under two property regimes, classified as common or open rangelands. Common rangelands are traditionally owned by tribes, with customary institutional arrangements for their management. Open rangelands have unrestricted access thus are usually in poorer condition with an increase in area, while common rangelands have undergone degradation and have been abandoned by their owners. Grazing management involves a number of decisions, including the kinds and numbers of animals to be stocked, and the distribution and timing of grazing. Annual stocking rate decisions are made before the year’s forage production can be known. These decisions affect the quality and quantity of the forage produce and performance of livestock. Over time, cumulative grazing management decisions affect the productivity and health of the rangeland and farmer’s financial solvency. Mistakes do occur, due to complex rangeland ecosystems, communal owner ship and varying livestock demand in markets. However, rangeland owners can learn from their mistakes and make better decisions in the future. The most successful livestock raising communities plan conservatively so that they can handle unexpected situations, recognize the warning signs of unacceptable risks, and correct their management strategies before the rangeland resource is harmed.
Mercury Exposure Produce Changes in Protein Content in Different Body Parts of Oyster Crassostrea Cattuckensis (Newton and Smith)
G. D. Suryawanshi, A. R. Kurhe and Miguel A. Rodriguez
The oysters (Crassostrea cattuckensis) were exposed to sub lethal levels of mercury for 15 days for metal accumulation and 15 days of metal detoxification. The oysters, which served as experimental control after 15 days the protein (mg/100 mg) content showed more in adductor muscle (32.63) followed by siphon (31.50), mantle (29.25), gill (28.13), gonad (26.99) and hepatopancreas (25.88). During 15 days metal exposed oysters to (0.01ppm) and (0.04 ppm) concentrations there was decreased protein content significantly in all body parts when compared to experimental control. The decreased rate upon 15 days in (0.01ppm) concentrations was from mantle (27.74), followed by adductor muscle (26.46), gonad (22.32), siphon (22.33), gills (20.26), and hepatopancreas (19.74). While in (0.04 ppm) the protein content was from mantle (26.32), followed by adductor muscle (24.04), siphon (20.60), gills (18.19), gonad (16.98), and hepatopancreas (15.71) when it was compared to experimental control. Generally upon 15 days detoxified oysters the protein fall among the body parts in control oysters when compared with 15 days experimental control oysters. In (0.01ppm) the protein content was more in adductor muscle (21.88) followed by siphon (17.16), mantle (12.50), and gonad (10.44) and hepatopancreas (9.39). While in (0.04 ppm) the content was more in adductor muscleJECET; December 2014-February 2015; Sec. A, Vol.4.No.1, 0065-0071. 66(18.46) than mantle (11.81), gonad (9.06), siphon (9.06), gills (8.88) and hepatopancreas (8.26) when compared with respective concentrations of 15 days exposed oysters.
Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Soil Physical Properties using Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merill) as indicator crop under Temperate conditions.
Aziz M.A, Tahmina Mushtaq, Tahir Ali, Tajamul Islam and A.P. Rai
A field experiment was conducted at KVK, Srinagar during two consecutive kharif seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10 to study the “Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management for Soybean (Glycine max L.) Under Temperate Conditions”. The experiment was laid out under 18 treatment combinations viz., three levels of recommended inorganic fertilizers (50, 75 and 100% RD), three levels of organic manures (control, FYM 10 t ha-1 and Dalweed 10 t ha-1) and two levels of biofertilizers (control and dual inoculation with Rhizobium + PSB) in randomised complete block design with three replications. Soil physical properties were enhanced by application of recommended inorganic fertilisers except for bulk density. Organic manures also enhanced the physical properties of the soil. Among organic, FYM (10 t ha-1) was found superior over Dalweed (10 t ha-1). Dual inoculation with Rhizobium + PSB also showed significantly superior results in improved soil physical properties over no-inoculation.
Rural services in the Madingring Sub Division of the North Region of Cameroon: Coping strategies for an increasing rural population
Moupou Moise and Mbanga Lawrence Akei
The population of rural areas in Cameroon has been at a constant increase. This increase has been accompanied by some major transformations with a significant multiplication of services provided in the health, transport, water, education, electricity, telecommunication, finance and marketing sectors. The Madingring Sub Division of the North region of Cameroon was not left out in this transformation process. Changes in government policies have led to the arrival of new rural service providers, including private enterprises, NGOs and local communities. This is in sharp contrast to the past situation when public institutions were the key providers of rural services. This paper seeks to carry out an overview of the state of service provision in this Sub Division. It also seeks to analyze the coping strategies by the increasing rural population to access services. The methodology consisted of a review of existing published and unpublished documents as well as the collection of primary data through the use of questionnaires, interviews and field observation. The very revealing result shows the existence of some basic services provided by different actors though with a major problem of accessibility. The increasing local population copes with the problem of quality and quantity of services in several ways.
Dr. P.Sekhar, Hana Fikadu, Fayisa Jira, Desalegn Rebuma and Melese Agegn
In the present study, an attempt was made to assess the quality of the Huluka river, one of the biggest aquatic body in Ambo, Ethiopia in terms of phytoplankton community and organic pollution. The results in the present study revealed important aspects like status of organic pollution in Huluka with respect to presence and absences of indicator species and productivity levels of Huluka river which in turn depends on phytoplankton community. Results have revealed that there is a clear evidence of heavy organic pollution in the Huluka river. This was supported by the composition in algal genera in Huluka river water samples. In the two sample stations i.e., upstream and mid-point showed very sensitive algal genera with few types is a clear indication of organic pollution. Important sensitive algal genera identified were Euglena, Oscillatoria, Chlamydomonas, Scenedesmus, Chlorella, Navicula, Micractinium, Microcystis, and Ulothrix. The Palmer pollution index at upstream side was found to be 28 which is far from the safe limit of 20. At the midpoint, the palmer index was found to be 23 which indicate presence of organic pollution while sample station 3 (down-stream side) Palmer pollution index was found to be 17 which indicates relatively less pollution status. Important algal genera present in the sample station 2 includes Oscillatoria, Chlamydomonas, Navicula,Ankistrodesmus, Phacus, Phormidium, Gomphonema, Cyclotella, Closterium, Micractinium, Pandorina, Lepocinclis, Spirogyra, Fragilaria, Asterionella. The productivity studies of Huluka river indicated that primarily Huluka river is of autotrophic nature indicated by positive values (67.185) of net ecosystem productivity (NEP). This autotrophic nature of Huluka river may be attributed to the presence of phytoplankton at the sampling station.
Preliminary Studies on Evaluation of Sapwood as Nanopore Filter: A Promising Low Cost Water Treatment Technique
Dr. P.Sekhar and Muhssin Abdella
In the present study an attempt was made to evaluate the efficiency of plant xylem in removing pollutants from drinking water. A total five locally available plant species (flowering plants) were randomly selected from the Ambo university campus and they were evaluated for their pollutant removal capabilities in terms of Bacterial, Solids and Color removal. All the plant species used in the study have shown varying degrees of filtration in terms of bacterial, total solids, and color removal. Filtration studies carried in both dry and wet xylem conditions. In all the studies, xylem in wet condition proved to be highly efficient in removing bacteria, solids and color than in dry condition. Podocarpus falcatus (Birbirsa) and Juniperus procera showed highest percent removal of bacteria at the tune of 84 and 82% respectively. Juniperus procera has exhibited highest percent removal of solids (94%) followed by Cordia africana with a percent removal of 93. Least percent removal was observed with Podocarpus falcatus (86%) and moderate removal efficiencies were observed with other species. Most of the species were able remove color with varying degrees of efficiencies. In dry xylem studies, efficiency of plant species in removing bacteria, solids and color was found to be very poor. Filtration rates ranges from a minimum of 4L/D to a maximum of 7L/D. Highest filtration was observed withJuniperus procera (Gaatiraa) and lowest filtration was associated with Cordia Africana.
Dr. P.Sekhar and Nuratache
In the present study, the ability of plant xylem in removing pollutants from drinking water was assessed. For this study, locally available plant species were selected and their efficiency was determined. Results have shown that varying degrees of filtration by the selected species in terms of bacterial, total solids, and color removal. Filtration studies carried in both dry and wet xylem conditions. In all the studies, xylem in wet condition proved to be highly efficient in removing bacteria, solids and color than dry condition. Out of five species, Ambabeessa showed highest percent removal of bacteria at the tune of 84% followed by both Ricinus communis and Acacia nilotica with a percent removal of 83 and 82% respectively. Pheonix reclinata (Meexxii) has exhibited highest percent removal of solids (97%) followed by Acacia nilotica with a percent removal of 92. Least percent removal was observed with Baarzzaffi (84%) and moderate removal efficiencies were observed with other species. All of the species were able remove color with varying degrees of efficiencies. In dry xylem studies, efficiency of plant species in removing bacteria, solids and color was found very poor. Filtration rates ranges from a minimum of 4L/D to a maximum of 6L/D. Highest filtration was observed with Acacia nilotica followed by Baarzzaffi and moderate rate of filtration was associated with other species.
Shannon Weiner Species diversity index was computed in 2000, 2006 and 2012 on the floral community of true mangroves in Indian Sundarbans considering the natural – cum- anthropogenic threats along with conservation strategies operating in and around the selected ten sampling stations. Pronounced spatio-temporal variations were observed in the deltaic complex, which may be attributed primarily due to anthropogenic pressure that is more predominant in stations like Canning, Harinbari, Chemaguri and Sagar south. The adverse impact of hypersalinity on the diversity of true mangroves inhabiting Chotomollakhali island, Satjelia and Pakiralaya is also revealed from this first order analysis.