Health Risks Associated with PET Bottled Mineral Waters and Beverages: Overview, Analysis and Evaluation

Valentina L. Christova-Bagdassarian, Julieta A. Tishkova, Vesela Georgieva


Abstract: Under the legislation any material or article intended to come into contact directly or indirectly with food must be sufficiently inert to preclude substances from being transferred to food in quantities large enough to endanger human health or to bring about an unacceptable change in the composition of the food or the deterioration in its organoleptic properties. The substances migrating from materials in contact with food are still being discussed, especially in terms of estrogenic activity, and PET is also controversial material in this sense. The various formulations, manufacturing conditions, bottling, storage, type of drink, give contradictory results on the migration of compounds to PET bottled beverages. The studies have implemented a wide range of different methods and different study designs, which creates difficulties in comparing the results. The potential migrants are a wide range of chemical compounds. The change in organoleptic properties, however, is likely to be due to microbiological problems and not to be related to chemical migration. Microbiological contamination of the bottled water is a possible source of health problems, which in contrast to chemical migration, impact in the short term health of people with compromised immune systems. In general, PET is a polymer that uses the least additives among all plastics. However, the guidelines of the World Health Organization to restrict the use of plastics in everyday life are good for the lifestyle of every inhabitant of the planet.

Valorization of Fish Processing Waste through Natural Fermentation with Molasses for Preparation of Bio Fertilizer and Bio Supplement

Binod Bihari Sahu, Nagesh Kumar Barik, Bikash Chandra Mohapatra, Badri Narayan Sahu, Hrushikesha Sahu, Prithviraj Sahoo, Dukhia Majhi, Nirmal Chandra Biswal, Prafulla Kumar Mohanty and Pallipuram Jayasankar


Abstract: Condition for natural fermentation during ensilage of fish processing waste in sugarcane molasses (50:50 w/w) were evaluated to produce fish hydrolysate/Liquid fish bio-fertilizer(LFB) and hydrolysate meal/Bioorganic fish fertilizer(BFF) successful natural fermentation has been achieved by incubating micro aerobically at ambient temperature (25-35ºC) to reach a pH of 4.0 in 28 days. The underutilized processing waste could be cost effectively transformed into fish hydrolysate using a natural fermentation process. Their value has been increased by using them as liquid bio fertilizer, feed supplement and bioorganic manure.

Estimation of Willingness to Pay for Family Biogas Plant

Malik Mohammad Hassan, Farooq Ahmad, Junaid Ahmad Noor and Adnan Skhawat Ali


Abstract: Biogas plants answers a major search for clean cooking fuels in rural areas of the developing world where a dire need for replacing the existing (traditional) fuel is. Dung and non-dung based biogas plant has a great potential and promise for the future energy requirement. The objective of the current study was to check the feasibility and willingness to pay of biogas plant in sub urban area of district Nankana. The descriptive study was conducted on the basis of questionnaire. The variables such as respondent profile, expenses and income of households, household characteristics, and current status for cooking purposes, social acceptance and willingness to pay were checked through interviews of head of the family. It was answered that they were spending 500-1000 rupees per month on conventional fuel for cooking. As for as the raw material for biogas is concerned, there were 6-7 animal (Cows and Buffaloes) per household on average producing enough manure to install biogas plants for that community but it was noted that about 13.33% household were willing to pay for installation of biogas plant having installation cost 50,000 rupees while 55.33% household were not willing to pay at this cost. There were 31.33% households who answered to think about it. However all the non-willing households were agreed to pay the cost of biogas plant in installments of 200-300 rupees per month. For modeling for willingness to pay, multinomial regression model was conducted which was used for risk assessment and relation of probability of occurrence of an event by appropriate data for legit function.

Spatial variations of dissolved zinc, copper and lead as influenced by anthropogenic factors in estuaries of Indian Sundarbans

Shankhadeep Chakraborty, Sufia Zaman, Pardis Fazli and Abhijit Mitra


Abstract: We analyzed the concentrations of dissolved zinc, copper and lead in the estuarine waters of Indian Sundarbans during 2013. Dissolved metals in the study area exhibited the order Zn > Cu > Pb. Significant variations of selected metals were observed between stations and seasons (p < 0.01). The contamination history of this World Heritage Site provides substantial evidence that spatial variations of selected metals is influenced from multiple sources (like industrial discharge, antifouling paints used for conditioning fishing vessels and trawlers, shrimp farms etc.), whose magnitude varies at different sites.

Effect of Altered Environmental Conditions on Nutritional Quality of Bee Pollen: A Contemporary Overview

R.S. Pawar, V. M. Wagh and D. B. Panaskar


Abstract: Pollen collected by honey-bee having valuable food and also used in apitherapy and commercially produced for many purposes. Bee Pollen is frequently called the "only perfectly complete food” thus pollen is essential for normal growth and development of individual as well as reproduction of colonies. Pollen is rich source of protein, carbohydrates, lipids, fats, vitamins; minerals etc. pollen has great medicinal value like honey since old days. In developed countries like Japan, China, bee pollen produced on large scale, however, India is lacking in its production. The meager literature was available on nutrition status of bee pollen. Researchers from western countries pinpointed the effect of degraded environment on nutritional quality of bee-pollen. Especially, global warming, water pollution and most important  parameter which directly affect the production as well as quality of bee pollen is atmospheric air pollution. Here, attempt was made to overview the contemporary research in India and abroad. This will definitely help to future workers take as compared significance of change in environmental quality and its effect on nutritional status of bee pollen.

Growth and Instability Analysis of fruits crops in India- An Economic Analysis

Kadli Vinayaka, Sameer lokapur, Ravi Gurikar and Roopa Hosali


Abstract: The present study was undertaken to study the trends of area, production and productivity of fruit crops in the India. The study was based on secondary data from 2000-01 to 2010–11. The data was collected from several government publications and web site. To analyze the trend of area, production and productivity of fruit crops in the India. Besides these, compound growth rate, coefficient of variation and instability index was also estimated. India was the second biggest harvester of vegetables and fruit, representing 8.6% and 8.48% of overall production, respectively. The major fruits produced by India are mangoes, papayas, sapota, and bananas. Compound growth rate and instability index were employed to analyze the time series data for 11 years collected from national horticultural board government of India of India. The result showed that the growth rates and instability in area, production and productivity of fruits crops. In India growth rate of fruits crops productivity in India was positive (1.05%) and was associated with instability index of 10.16 per cent. In the same period a positive growth rate of area was observed (7.34%) with high instability index of 10.16 per cent, while a positive growth rate of production (8.48 %) with instability index of 0.10 per cent was observed for production. The average of area, production and productivity of fruits crops during this period were 5084.55 (‘000 hectares), 55364.64 (‘000 Million Tonnes) and 10.83 (Million tonne/ha). Absence of support price in the case of glut, absence of regulated markets and fluctuations in market prices were major marketing constraints while non-availability of quality testing laboratories and lack of adequate cold storage facilities were the major area and productivity constraints in India.

Avicennia alba an indicator of heavy metal pollution in Indian Sundarban estuaries

Shankhadeep Chakraborty, Subrata Trivedi, Pardis Fazli, Sufia Zaman,and Abhijit Mitra


Abstract: Concentrations of zinc, copper and lead were studied during 2011 and 2012 inthe stem and leaf of dominant mangrove flora, Avicennia alba inhabiting Indian Sundarbans. The level of zinc was highest in the vegetative parts followed by copper and lead in all the selected stations. Significant positive correlations were observed between tissue metals and dissolved heavy metals. The correlation values were significantly negative between tissue metals and biologically available heavy metals in sediment. The selected heavy metals in the present study area originate from municipal and industrial sources.

Physiological and molecular response of plants to calcium in presence of salt stress

Asha Sharma,Arya Sunder Singh, Rohilla Jasbir and Govinda


Abiotic and biotic stresses are major limiting factors of crop yields .It is hoped that understanding at the molecular level will help us to solve these problems. Several studies have shown that increased Ca2+ supply has a protective effect on plants under salinity stress. Early experiments did not distinguished whether Ca2+ acted extracellular or intera-cellularly. Recently altered cellular Ca2+ homeostasis showed that internal cytosolic Ca2+ is important to salt sensitive regulation. During salt stress there are two homeostasis that need to be maintained i.e. ionic homeostasis and osmotic homeostasis. The SOS (Salt Overly Sensitive) pathway mediates ionic homeostasis (Na+ tolerance) and MAPK cascade mediates osmotic homeostasis. Ca2+have important role in SOS pathway. In cytosol SOS pathway is most studied and major pathway of salt tolerance. Recently (2013) a salt tolerance pathway also have been discovered in nucleus, a nuclear localized calcium binding protein RSA1(Short Root in salt medium),which is required for salt tolerance, and identified its interacting partner RITF1(a bHLH transcription factor ).They show that RSA1 and RITF1 regulate the transcription of several genes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species generated by salt stress and that they also regulate the SOS1 gene that encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter essential for salt tolerance. Together their results suggest that the existence of a novel nuclear calciumsensing and signaling pathway that is important for gene regulation and salt stress tolerance.

Effect of climate change on food security in Nigeria

J.A. Ayo, M.O. Omosebi. and A. Sulieman


The work is a review of the climatic effect on food security on developing nation with focus on Nigeria. Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. Principally effect have been identified to include: reduction of agricultural production, changes in the suitability of land for crop production, changes in precipitation patterns, and increase in temperature could lead to longer growing seasons, CO2 fertilization could increase yields for those crops with the physiology to benefit from CO2 enrichment, increased irrigation, planting and harvesting changes, decreased arability, more pest, risk to fisheries, under nutrition(inadequate dietary intake and reduce calorie intake), increase aflatoxin contamination, increased pathogenicity of organisms(by environmental induced mutation), etc. A step change is needed in efforts to create a 'climate-smart food system' that can better withstand whatever climate throws at us. This should include development of drought- and heat-tolerant crops or new tillage techniques that reduce release of carbon from soils, but we need to go further and ensure trade, investment and development policies all have 'climate- smart' food as a central goal.

Optimal Exploitation of Orange Peels in Sustainable Development Accessing to Zero Residue Level

Mohammed Nsaif Abbas


Orange peel contains many useful substances which can get it with simple and easy methods. The purpose of this investigation was to obtain the maximum exploitation from orange peels as a type of agricultural waste in production of pectin methylesterase (PME) enzyme, extraction of D-limonene acid, synthesis of bioethanol and finally prepare compost for bean crop with economical methods and inexpensive at all. Firstly, the production of PME enzyme was performed by extraction, filtration and centrifugation of orange peel. After that, the previous process waste residue was segregated and used in extraction of D-limonene acid by distillation process. The previous process waste residue was collected and exploit from it to synthesis of bioethanol by fermentation process with bakery yeast. Finally, the end waste residue was added to the soil used in cultivation of bean crops as organic compost. The results show that the method used in production of PME enzyme gives acceptable amount of enzyme in spite of simplicity, the orange peels residue give useful quantity of D-limonene acid, while the waste from the previous process gives produced a considerable amount of bioethanol and finally the prepared compost from the end residue was suitable fertilizer where assist to increase the size of bean plant and quicken the growth of it. So, it can get rid of orange peels by eco-friendly methods and achieve the maximum exploitation from it in prepare a benefit materials and reach to zero residue level (ZRL) i.e. don’t leave any residue in the environment.

Morinda tinctoria seeds a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue in aqueous solutions

R. Vijayalakshmi,R. Venkatachalam, T. Periathambi


The study on the removal of Methylene blue by adsorption on indigenously prepared activated carbon from Morinda tinctoria seeds have been carried out with an aim to obtain information on treating effluents. Adsorption studies were performed to determine the effects of various parameters like contact time, adsorbent doses(0.02-0.1g100mL-1), concentration (10-50mgL-1) and pH (1-7). Batch experiments were carried out for biosorption kinetics and isotherm studies. The results showed that the percentage of dye removal increased with the adsorbent dosage up to certain level and then attains saturation. The amount of adsorption of the dye was found to decrease with increasing concentration of the adsorbate. When the pH was increased the adsorption of Methyleneblue also increased. The experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlichisotherms. The isothermal adsorption data fitted best to the Langmuir Model. The adsorption kinetics of Methylene blue followed the pseudo second order reaction model. The results reveal that this novel biosorbent has a potential to be used as an economical pollution free adsorbent for the removal of Methylene blue in aqueous solution.

Demographic Variables, Energy Intensity, Environmental Degradation and Economic Growth Nexus in the

Nnaji, C. E, Nnaji, M. and Unachukwu .G. O.


This study examines the long run nexus as well as the causal relationships linking COemissions, population growth, urbanization, energy intensity and economic growth in Nigeria over the period of 1971-2011, within a multivariate framework. Cointegration technique, Vector error correction model (VECM) and VECM-based granger causality were used to examine these relationships. The cointegration results indicate that the variables have a long run equilibrium relationship. Results from the VECM estimation reveals that all the variables are positively related to environmental degradation and are statistically significant.The VECM granger causality analysis indicates a uni-directional causality running from all the variables to carbon emissions; urban population to energy intensity; population to energy intensity and a feedback effect between energy intensity and economic growth. The study opens up a new policy insight to control the environment by using energy efficient technologies.Access to alternative and affordable renewable energy systems and cleaner fuels can also play a pivotal role in improving environmental quality. 

Credit Access and Repayment by Farmer-Beneficiaries of Microfinance Banks Loans in Idemili North Loc

C. O. AUgwumba, J. T. Omojola and E. N. Azifuaku


This study examined credit access and repayment by farmer-beneficiaries of microfinance banks’ loans in Idemili North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. It specifically determined socio-economic characteristics of the farmers; assessed amounts of loan applied for, approved, disbursed and repaid by the farmers; determined the influence of socio-economic characteristics of the farmers on amount of loan repaid; and identified constraints to loan repayment by the farmers and administration by the bank. Simple random sampling techniques were used to select 70 respondents. Data were collected through structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Results indicated that majority of the farmers (58.3%) were males, 70.0% were married, 68.3% had household size of 6-10 persons and 46.7% had 11-20 years of farming experience and 48.3% realized above N200, 000 annually. Loan repayment by farmer-beneficiaries was statistically and significantly influenced by gender and annual farm income. The major constraints to loan repayment were family commitments, market price fluctuation and incidences of pests and diseases while micro finance bank encountered problems of low repayment rate, loan diversion by farmers and inexperience of loan anagement. Policy measures such as provision of adequate credit, encouragement of farmer’s cooperativesand broadening of extension services could mitigate the problems and improve loan repayment and administration.

Factors Influencing Youths Participation in Agricultural Activities of the National Poverty Eradicat

Ugwumba, C. O. A. and Nenna, M. G.


This study examined the determinants of youths’ participation in agricultural activities of the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) in Anambra State, Nigeria. One hundred respondents were selected by means of purposive and random sampling techniques. rimary data were collected using pre-tested questionnaire administered by personal interview. Descriptive statistics and Ordinary Least Squares regression were adopted for data analysis. Level of participation in agricultural activities of NAPEP was highest (56%) and lowest (2%) with poultry and goat enterprises respectively. Socio-economic factors of age of the youths, household size, gender, farm size and amount of credit accessed significantly determined level of participation. Serious constraints to youths’ participation in the programme were scarcity of farm land, followed by inadequate credit facilities, lack of relevant modern technologies, poor remuneration of agricultural activities and inadequate extension services. Embracing the current agricultural extension transformation agenda of government will provide adequate agricultural extension services that could mitigate the problems, ensure programme sustainability, entrepreneurship development and reduction in unemployment.