Seed Drugs from Tehsil Joginder Nagar, District Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India

Neelam Kumar, Munish Kumar, Bandu Sharma

Abstract

The present study has been conducted on tehsil Joginder Nagar for the survey of seed drugs. Tehsil Joginder Nagar lies between 31° 50' N and 76° 45' E in Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh. It is famous having three hydroelectric power houses and hence it is known as the ‘city of power houses’. During the course of study, 109 plant species of 97 genera and 51 families belonging to two taxonomic groups i.e. angiosperms and gymnosperms were collected. Out of these 51 families, 50 families belong to angiosperms [45 families (98 species of 86 genera) belong to Dicotyledons (89. 91 %) and 05 (10 species of 10 genera) belong to Monocotyledons (09.17 %)] and 01 families belong to gymnosperms (0.92 %). All plant specimens were identified and arranged according to Bentham and Hooker (1862-1883) system of classification1. Plants were enumerated along with their Botanical, Family and Local name. All plant species were compared with the literature available for their medicinal values.


Decolorization Potential of Aspergillus awamori (MTCC- 548) Against Brilliant Green Dye: A Toxic Dye

Naresh Kumar, Sukhvinder Singh Purewal and Amandeep Singh Thind

Abstract

Dyes are most widely used by various industries such as textile, paper, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. When these dyes are discharged as a waste in rivers and open environment it creates problem to fauna and flora. Although various physical and chemical methods have been used for emoval of dyes from waste but these methods are expensive and sometimes produce secondary pollutants. Biological methods have been used for decolorization of dyes. Various microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes have been reported to decolorize dyes. Out of these, fungi have shown great potential for decolorization by bioadsorption and biodegradation. Present work focused on decolorization potential of Aspergillus awamori (MTCC-548) against brilliant green dye. It was found that this fungus showed potential for decolorization of brilliant green dye.


Feasibility of Aeration Systems: A case study of urban eutrophic Lakes, Bhopal (MP) India

Kalpana Kumari Thakur, Shailbala Singh Baghel and Avinash Bajpai

Abstract

The water resources around the world are being polluted due to multiple anthropogenic activities such as uncontrolled population growth, urbanization, industrialization and chemical intensive agriculture. Aeration is one of the most important and effective method for treatment of waste water. Aeration increases the dissolved oxygen content of water and reduces algal blooming, hence improves the water quality of Lakes, ponds, reservoirs etc. The present study focused on the feasibility and effectiveness of aeration system installed in urban eutrophic Lakes of Bhopal for assessment of water quality. The water bodies selected for this purpose are Lower Lake, Shahpura Lake and Motia Talab. Various physicochemical parameters like pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrate & phosphate were analysed during May 2013 to determine the feasibility of aeration systems. 


Studies on Plant Diversity of Tehsil Joginder Nagar, District Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India

Neelam Kumar

Abstract

The present study has been conducted on tehsil Joginder Nagar, District Mandi of Himachal Pradesh. It is famous due to having three hydroelectric power houses and hence it is known as the ‘city of power houses’. During fie ld study, 117 plant species of 100 genera and 51 families belonging to three taxonomic groups i.e. angiosperms, gymnosperms and pteridophytes were collected from the areas of tehsil Joginder Nagar. Among these, 77 species were herbs (65.81%), 12 shrubs (10.26 %), 02 parasitic shrubs (1.71%), 12 trees (10.26 %), 02 small trees (1.71 %), 09 climbers (7.69 %) and 03 (2.56 %) leafy ferns. Out of these 51 families, 47 families belong to angiosperms [40 families belong to Dicotyledons (78. 43 %) and 07 belong to Monocotyledons (13.73 %)], 01 families belong to gymnosperms (1.96 %) and 03 belong to pteridophytes (5.88 %). The plants were identified and arranged according to Bentham and Hooker (1862-1883) system of classification1. Plants were enumerated along with their Botanical, Family, Local, and English name with their Habit.


Assessment and Planning of Solid Waste Management Practices in Selected Area of Lahore, Pakistan

Fawad Ali, Faiza Sharif, Farooq Ahmad and Adnan Skhawat Ali

Abstract

Solid waste management is becoming a major problem in developing countries like Pakistan due to its increasing volume and poor management. To minimize these problems waste should be handled according to its sources, as different sources produce different types of waste. Keeping this in perspective a study on the assessment and planning of solid waste management practices was conducted in Government College University, Lahore (GCU). Categorization and quantification of different categories of waste generated by GCU students was made and their knowledge, attitude and opinion were assessed using a questionnaire. The results showed that GCU produced 644 Kg/day of solid waste out of which organic waste was more in amount (44%) followed by Paper (13%), Plastic (11%), Glass (7%) and Metal waste (9%). Total recyclable waste produced from GCU Lahore was found to be 200 Kg/day. Science students and particularly environmental science students had more Knowledge and a positive attitude as compared to humanities and Non-Environmental science students respectively. A non-significant relationship of Gender was found with knowledge while female students had a more positive attitude towards solid waste management compared to male students. The mean score of knowledge and attitude of GCU Lahore’s students was found to be 0.53 and 0.62 respectively on the scale of 1. It was also found that knowledge and attitude of the students were highly correlated. It was suggested to introduce source separation and recycling in the University, by doing so environmental benefits and revenue can be generated. This research is expected to provide possible data which can be useful during planning and policy making by University authorities.


Changes in Biochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Raw and Brined Tor tor during Frozen S

Roopma Gandotra, Sweta Gupta, Meenakshi Koul and Vaini Gupta

Abstract

Presently, an attempt was made to study the quality changes in raw and brined (20%) muscle of Tor tor stored in freezer at -12±2ºC, for a period of 30 days. A significant total percental decrease (p≤0.05) in protein, lipid, moisture and ash content was found in both the samples after 30 days of storage. It was 9.52%, 24.19%, 2.96%, 21.69% in raw samples and 6.29%, 20.58%, 2.08%, 19.32% in brined samples respectively. However, Free Fatty Acid (FFA), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) and pH showed an increasing trend with increase in storage period in both the samples. It was 91.5%, 98.83%, 15.92% in raw samples and 87.21%, 95.94%, 14.64% in brined samples respectively. Similarly, the bacteriological studies revealed that the Total Plate Count (TPC) in both the samples also showed an increasing trend during the entire storage period. In raw samples, the TPC was found to increase from 2.12±0.02 log cfu/g to 7.29±0.01 log cfu/g and in brined samples from 1.32±0.04 log cfu/g to 5.86±0.09 log cfu/g. In raw samples, TPC was found with in the permissible limits up to 10th day (TPC= 5.99 log cfu/g) and in brined samples, up to 30th day (TPC= 5.86±0.09 log cfu/g).


Effect of Supplements on the Yield and Nutritional Composition of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-c

Nurudeen T.A, Ekpo E.N, Olasupo O.O, Okunrotifa A.O and Haastrup N.O

Abstract

Mushroom is a food of high quality flavour and nutritional value, high content of protein, high content carbohydrates, low in fat and cholesterol. Effect of supplements on the yield and nutritional value of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajorcaju) was investigated in this study. Wheat bran, lime and sugar were used as supplements which were varied into five treatments. The first treatment (T1) consisted of wheat bran, lime and sugar, second treatment (T2) consisted of wheat bran and lime, third treatment (T3) consisted of wheat bran only, fourth treatment (T4) consists of lime only and fifth treatment (T5) consists of wheat bran and sugar. Each of the substrate contained 1kilogram of substrate per bag. The produce of the mushroom; mycelia growths, diameter of the pileus, length of stipe, mushroom height, mushroom yield as well as proximate analysis of the mushroom were analyzed. The moisture content (%) ranged from 72.51-78.40%. The protein content ranged from 26.28- 29.61% across the five treatments. According to the result, the five treatments attained full ramification stage (100%) at fourth week. The analysis of variance carried out showed significant different (P≤0.05) in yield (g/kg) of mushroom across the treatments. Hence, T1 had the highest yield followed by T2, T4, T3 and T5 with mean yield values of 138.74±7.87, 90.76± 4.62, 88.66 ±3.48, 62.15 ±1.19 and 49.04 ±2.02 (g/kg) respectively. The results of the biological efficiency (BE) obtained ranged from 32.52-82.54% across the five treatments. The length of stipe, diameter of pileus and mushroom height obtained showed that values obtained were good and sizeable. The result further showed that T3 and T5 were unable to produce up to fifth harvest while T1, T2 and T3 were able to produce till fifth harvest. Hence, the implication is discussed.


A Novel Advanced Catalytic Liquid – Phase Oxidation Process for High Concentrated Organic Waste Wa

Raj Kumar and Jyoti Sharma

Abstract

Catalytic liquid - phase oxidation process was investigated in laboratory – scale experiments for the treatment of organic pollutants in industrial waste water. The effect of the operating conditions on COD reduction of organic pollutants including temperature, reactor pressure, residence time and pH were studies. The experimental results indicated that the COD reduction of organic pollutant is too high with catalytic oxidation process using the Platinum on activated carbon (2% Pt/AC) catalyst. This heterogeneous catalyst was found to be very effective in the complete degradation of organic pollutants. Approximately 98.85% Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reduction was achieved by catalytic liquid- phase oxidation over 2% Pt/AC catalyst at 37 kg/cm2 reactor pressure and 220 0C temperature. This process provides an environmentally attractive option to eliminate hazardous organic waste water problem and shows the significant potential for the treatment of organic pollutant in industrial wastewater.


Comparative Study of Transpiration Rate in Mangifera indica and Psidium guajawa Affect by Lantana ca

Ravindra Singh, Sadhana Chaurasia, Anand Dev Gupta, Arpana Mishra and Prabhat Soni

Abstract

Water is very precious to life. Save each drop of water can give a life to someone. Some losses of water take place from the surface of earth to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. Transpiration is a process of water loss from arial parts of plant. Plants absorb water from the soil for their growth and metabolic activities but only 1% is used in these processes and 99% water transpired in atmosphere. These losses can be reduced by the using Lantana camara extract as an anti transpirent. Present study shows that as the concentration of the extract increases, the transpiration rate decreases this is inversely proportionate to concentration of extract. Closed number of stomata’s increases with increasing concentration. Therefore Lantana extract can be used as an anti transpirent. Mangifera indica is more sensitive to aqueous extract of Lantana camara than the Psidium guajawa.


Assessment and Planning of Solid Waste Management Practices in Selected Area of Lahore, Pakistan

Fawad Ali, Faiza Sharif, Farooq Ahmad and Adnan Skhawat Ali

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Vegetables Cultivated in Land Irrigated from Hudiara Drain

Rana Muhammad Kamal, Farooq Ahmad, Adnan Skhawat Ali, Osama Sarwar Khan, Abdul Wahid, Muhammad Farhan and Maqsood Ahmad

Abstract

Use of industrial and domestic wastewaters for irrigation has been becoming a public health concern throughout the developing countries. It is a common practice in Pakistan to use industrial and sewage effluents to irrigate crops and vegetables. In this study an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to measure cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel and lead concentration in vegetables irrigated by effluent from Hudiara drain. Dry ash method and wet digestion method were used for analysis of heavy metal contents. Results showed that maximum concentrations of heavy metals were found in mustard leaves and turnip by dry ash method and wet digestion method respectively. Maximum concentration of heavy metals detected by dry ash method was of Cu (0.31ppm) in mustard leaves, Cr (0.12ppm) in coriander, Pub (0.22ppm) in mustard leaves and Ni (0.07ppm) in peas while by wet digestion method, it was of Cu (0.8ppm), Cad (0.02) in all vegetables, Cr (0.14ppm) in peas, Pub (0.21ppm) in spinach and Ni (0.03ppm) in mustard leaves. Though the heavy metal concentrations in selected vegetables were within WHO/FAO permissible limits but these can cause deleterious health effects in people on utilizing these vegetables repeatedly. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference in detection of heavy metals in various vegetables by dry ash method and wet digestion method.


Impact of Waste Water Discharge on Water Quality of River Mandakin at Chitrakoot Satna, M.P. India

Sadhana Chaurasia and Raj Karan

Abstract

The detailed survey of river revealed that small areas as well as large areas which fall in way of river, dump domestic and toxic wastes in the river. Domestic wastewater, agricultural runoffs, mass bathing, offering of religious materials, clay idols, etc. increases the pollution in water. River water samples were analyzed in terms of physical and chemical water quality parameters. Physico-chemical quality of river was fond very poor. The quality of water indicated that river seemed much polluted from Arogyadham to Ramghat due to several drains joining the river as point pollution sources. The point sources discharge domestic sewage or wastewater through open drains, sewerage systems etc. BOD and COD were found in higher range. The river water was highly polluted with reference to physico-chemical quality and biological quality. Increased pollution load deteriorating the water quality of river Mandakini day by day. The results of the study showed that despite of all awareness efforts pollution load is still increasing making water unfit for drinking and human consumption without proper treatment.


Electromagnetic Radiations-Sources, Effects, Safety Standards and Precautions

Shresth Bhutani and Deepak Bagai

Abstract

Electromagnetic radiations are all around us. With the advent of electrical and electronic equipments, exposure to electromagnetic radiation has increased considerably in the modern era. Various organizations such as World Health Organization (WHO), International Commission on Non-Ionization Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and others have already established safety guidelines for the equipment generating electromagnetic radiation. Across the globe, extensive research is being carried into figuring out possible adverse effects of the radiation. Also, a huge public concern over biological effects of the radiation is building up because many studies concluded potential ill effects of electromagnetic radiation on human health. The work represents an overview of various sources of electromagnetic radiation, potential adverse effects of radiation on human health, measurements units, safety standards and precautions to be taken in order to minimize biological health hazards associated with radiation exposure. 


Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) Extract Exhibit Anti-Cancer Activity When Checked against Huma

Ekta Prakash and Dwijendra. K. Gupta

Abstract

The objective of present study was to determine anti- cancer properties of chloroform extract of seed part of Trigonella foenum-graecum on Human breast cancer cell line MDAMD453 by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) method. The assay provides a convenient, sensitive, quantitative and reliable assay for determining the cytotoxic activity of test sample. The activity was evaluated at different concentration (100 μg, 250 μg, 500 μg, 1000 μg) of test material. Human breast cancer cell line MDAMD453 was taken to see the cytotoxic activity of chloroform extract. Test sample were added in different concentration from 1μg, 50 μg, 100 μg, 250 μg, 500 μg, 750 μg, 1000 μg for TFG concentration to MDA MD453 Human breast cancer cell line. Twenty-four-hour exposure extract inhibits cell proliferation as compared with untreatedcell. Growth Inhibition was noted 49 %, 51.3 %, 61.5 %, 72.3 %, 83.7 %, 84.6 %, 94.8 % against the concentration 1μg, 50 μg, 100 μg, 250 μg, 500 μg, 750 μg, 1000 μg of test sample respectively. Our results indicate that the plant has a promising anti-cancer activity.


Assessment of Drinking Water Quality Parameters of Selected Areas in and around H.E.C Township, Dist

Arvind Kumar Rai, Biswajit Paul

Abstract

The current study was designed to investigate the conditions of drinking water in the selected areas. A systematic study has been carried out to assess the physico chemical characteristics of drinking water quality of selected areas in Ranchi district. Water samples were collected from various sources i. e hand pump supply, dug well and municipal water. The parameters studied were namely pH, Conductivity, Chloride, Total Hardness, Alkalinity, Total Dissolved solids, Calcium and Sodium. The study showed that the drinking water quality in H.E.C Townships and its adjacent areas still maintain the well quality except the alkalinity to some extent. It does not need any treatment except of municipal water supply before use for drinking purposes.


In-Vitro Study of Curcuma Domestica Ethanolic Extract for Anticancer Properties

Ekta prakash, Ajit. K. Saxena and Dwijendra. K. Gupta

Abstract

Curcuma domestica is a perennial plant, belongs to the family of Zingiberaceae. It can be found in South East Asia. The objective was to observe the effect of curcumin ethanolic extract on human cancer cell line in vitro. Following Human Cancer cell line were taken Colon cancer cell line (Colon 502713, Colo- 205), Liver cancer cell line (Hep-2), Lung cancer cell line (A-549), Ovary cancer cell line (OVCAR-5) and Prostrate cancer cell line (PC-5) and central nervous system (SF-295). The SRB assay was done to test cytotoxic activity test material against all the cell lines. The activity was evaluated at 100 μg / ml concentration of test material. The cytotoxic activity was observed in Colon 502713, Colo-205, Hep- 2 A-549,OVCAR-5, and PC-5 are 56%, 6%, 19%, 18%, 14%, 16% respectively. Maximum activity showed by this plant was against Colon 502713 was 56%. 


Solar Modulation of Earths Electric Field & Thunderstorm Activity: a brief review

A. Nag, A. Dan and D. Chaudhuri

Abstract

Due to change in resistance between thundercloud top and the atmosphere, variation of current is produced in the global atmospheric electric circuit, which produces a change in conductivity. Modulation of cosmic ray due to solar influence leads to changes in earth’s electric field and thereby on thunderstorm activity.As conductivity is proportional to ion density and also the ion density is proportional to the square root of the production rate, Ionization of the upper atmosphere changes inversely with solar activity.


Bioremediation of Textile Effluent with Aspergillus Niger Based Silver Nanoparticles and, It's Field

Deepika R., Sathyabama N., Sankareswaran M., Anbalagan S., Vinayaga Moorthy D and Kamalakkannan V..

Abstract

In this paper we have to check the capacity of dye decolourization and degradation of textile effluent by A.niger and their silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles characterization was investigated by UV-Vis Spectroscopy, FTIR, and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and SEM analysis. The SP band in silver nanoparticles solution was found to be close to 450 nm. FTIR confirms the presence of possible proteins acting as reducing and stabilizing agent. DLS reveal the average mean size of silver nanoparticles comes out 100 to 1000 nm. SEM analysis image has shown that size of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Aspergillus niger was 200nm and seems to be spherical in morphology. A.niger and silver nanoparticles were subjected to dye decolourization study with 11 different dyes and dye effluents are also treated with A.niger and silver nanoparticles for observation of degradation capacity. Silver nanoparticles showed better decolourization and degradation activity on 24 hours (93%) after incubation A.niger shows the lowest decolourization and degradation (56%) activity. After dye degradation physico-chemical parameters were analyzed for plant growth. After degradation effluents are treated with plants and compare the plant growth of plain culture degraded dye effluent and silver nanoparticles degraded dye effluents. That degraded dye effluents were irrigated to plants for their growth. 


Cadmium Accumulation and Metallothionein induction of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

R. Ananda Babu* and B. Meena

Abstract

The accumulation of heavy metals in freshwater ecosystems has been a major concern. Heavy metals generally enter the aquatic environment through natural or anthropogenic activities leads to pollution. Aquatic pollution is a worldwide problem because it will be affected aquatic animals and human races. Excessive concentration of heavy metals in associated with the etiology of a number of diseases, especially cardiovascular, renal, and neurological and bone diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is commercially important for its value as a food source and distributed all freshwater ecosystems. To analyze the relationship between tissues specific cadmium accumulation and Metallothionein induction in various tissues. Cadmium accumulated in gills and hepatopancreas but muscles had a moderately significant Cd level increase. This paper study about the concentration of cadmium and metallothionein act as various tissues of M. rosenbergii.


Solar Radiation Assisted Photocatalytic Transformation of Azo Dye

Himakshi Verma, R. C. Meena

Abstract

The degradation efficiency of Methylene Blue Immobilized Resin Dowex -11 was evaluated with solar light using an azo dye Acid Yellow 17 (AY17). A study on effects of various parameters like concentration of dye, amount of catalyst, light intensity and pH on the photo degradation of AY17 has been carried out to find optimum condition. It was observed that the incresing light intensity and catalyst increased dye removal while increasing concentration of dye decreased the efficiency of photodegradation. The effect of pH on the photodegradation process was studied and the maximum efficiency of the degradation was at neutral (pH=7). Kinetic analysis indicates the photodegradation rates follow pseudo first order kinetics according to Langmuir Hinshelwood Model. The mechanism of degradation and FTIR spectra also discussed.


Response of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Fungi in Green House with Three Ornamental Plant Species

V. Divya Rao and Y. Avasn Maruthi

Abstract

The study in pots was taken for 180 days with three plant species with three sites (residential, industrial and commercial) in green house. All experimental study were carried in triplicates. The growth of plant is improved by AM colonization by increasing the efficiency of nutrient absorption even under declined soil water levels. The three different plant species used were S. scutellarioides and D. caryophyllus and I. herbstii which are ornamental plants. Among all the three zonal areas Residential and Commercial areas showed maximum AM colonization with S. scutellarioides and D. caryophyllus where least colonization was with I. herbstii. Industrial area showed minimal AM colonization with all the three plant species. 


Studies on Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda from Tehsil Joginder Nagar, District Mandi

Neelam Kumar

Abstract

Himachal Pradesh is situated in the lap of western Himalaya. It is repository of medicinal and aromatic plants due to variable geographical and environmental conditions. The present study has been conducted in different areas of tehsil Joginder Nagar, District Mandi (H.P.) during April 2012 to February 2014. During the course of study, 152 plant species of 129 genera and 70 families belonging to three different taxonomic groups i.e. angiosperms, gymnosperms and pteridophytes were collected and preserved in the form of herbarium. Plants were identified with the help of various published flora and books. All plant enumerated along with their Botanical name, Family name, Local name and Ayurvedic name. A check list has been prepared after comparing with the existing literature of Ayurvedic system of medicine.


Warming of Lower Gangetic Delta Water: An Alarming Trend

Abhijit Mitra, Prosenjit Pramanick, Pardis Fazli and Sufia Zaman

Abstract

We analyzed the surface water temperature in three sectors of Indian Sundarbans, which is a mangrove dominated deltaic complex in the lower Gangetic region. The long term data of 30 years reveals an increasing trend in all the three sectors, but the average rate of increase is relatively low in the western sector (4.47%) compared to the central (4.55%) and eastern (4.92%) sectors. The forecast method applied over these data sets exhibit an increase of 6.40%, 7.36% and 7.65% in the western, central and eastern sectors respectively after a period of 30 years (during 2043). The possible implications of such increase are discussed at the local and regional levels.