Organic Farming: A Road to Sustainable Agricultural Development: A Review

Dr. Saroj Singh Chahar

Abstract

The agricultural system in India after independence was mainly based on the traditional knowledge and practices. The net production, using those methods, was not sufficient to meet the demand of food. The Green Revolution came as an answer to all problems. India started producing enough but not without a cost. Not only in India but throughout the world, the ecology and environment suffered due to the modern practices which used chemicals to boost food production. The unsustainability, thus created forced the researchers and the administrators to look for alternatives. Organic farming has emerged as the solution to the problem of chemical agriculture. Organic farming practices not only involve environment friendly methods but also give more yields and hence improve social and economic status of farmers. Sustainable agricultural development requires that agriculture meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This is something that organic farming helps to achieve. This study is taken to understand the concept of sustainable development and find its relationship with organic farming along with the benefits involved. In this study, we try to establish how organic farming may lead to sustainable agricultural development and the steps required to achieve it.


Coal Fly Ash: Some Aspects of Characterization and Environmental Impacts

Sunil K. Pandey

Abstract

Environmental pollution due to non-biodegradable materials mainly inorganic fractions are matter of concern since last two decades. Industrialization and urbanization are the two phenomena that are going unabated all over the world. Apart from the needs for these phenomena, one has to look into their negative impacts on the global environment and social life. Most important ailing effect of these global processes has been the generation of large quantities of industrial wastes. Major non-degradable pollutants of thermal power plants are heavy metals present in ash. Arsenic, barium, copper, molybdenum and zinc are normally present in fly ash, besides these lots of other metals are also present in traces such as Ag, Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg0 Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, Zn, etc. Therefore, the problems related with their safe management and disposal has become a major challenge. Second associated problem is the pressure on land, materials and resources to support the developmental activities, including infrastructure. Electricity generation in India predominately depends upon coal based power plant for a couple of coming decades. Coal based power plant requires coal of high calorific value to generate optimum heat consequently to generate electricity, in this process a buy product is generated which is a waste material and named as fly-ash or coal ash. Current annual production of fly ash, a by-product of coal based thermal power plants (TPPs), is 120 million tonnes (MT). At present, the disposal of generated fly ash is by either wet disposal or dry disposal. Some of the problems associated with fly ash are land required for disposal and toxicity associated with heavy metals leached to ground water. This review presents characteristic of fly ash and some aspects of its environmental impacts.  


Procedural Approach to Specify Feed Forward Neural Networks for DO-COD Coupling

Sarala Thambavani D and Uma Mageswari T.S.R

Abstract

Artificial intelligence techniques, such as neural networks are modeling tools that can be applied to predict water quality parameters. Artificial neural networks are frequently used to model various highly variable and nonlinear physical phenomena in the water and environmental engineering fields. This paper presents the application of back-propagation neural networks and the testing of Levenberg Marquardt algorithm in predicting Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) at Batlagundu, Dindigul District, Tamilnadu. The water samples were collected from 18 sampling points on monthly basis from 2012 to 2013. The suitable architecture of the neural network models was ascertained after several steps of training and testing of the models. The models predicted all key parameters with high correlation coefficients and low minimum statistical errors. As a result, the back propagation and feed forward neural network model is the most widely used artificial neural network (ANN) type in water resources applications. 


Arsenic Removal from Aqueous Solution using Mixed Mineral Systems Injected with Sphalerite under Sul

D.E. Egirani, J.E. Andrews, A.R. Baker

Abstract

This study investigates arsenite removal onto binary mixed mineral sorbents in the presence of zinc sulfide under sulfidic-anoxic condition, relevant to streams and groundwater impacted area. Batch mode studies at room temperature reveal kaolinite, montmorillonite, and kaolinite-montmorillonite exhibit a near flattening sorption capacity over the range of pH investigated. All mineral systems exhibit variable sorption capacity as initial arsenic concentration increases. All mineral systems but zinc sulfide exhibit decrease in sorption as Cp increases. The complex behavior of mineral systems over the range of residence time investigated may be attributed to increased hydroxylation of the mineral surface and availability of thiol (≡S-H) and hydroxyl (≡Me-OH) functional groups and reactive sites. 


Arsenite Removal from Aqueous Solution using Mixed Mineral Systems Injected with Zinc Sulfide under

D.E. Egirani, J.E. Andrews, A.R. Baker

Abstract

This study investigates the reactivity and removal kinetics of arsenite on single and mixed mineral systems from aqueous solution related to contaminated water in sulfidic-anoxic condition. The sorbents used were zinc sulfide, kaolinite, montmorillonite and goethite. Using empirical models derived from Freundlich isotherm model, reactivity and sorption kinetics were studied at room temperature (23 ± 2 ◦C). Reactivity studies demonstrate proton coefficient greater than one for arsenite sorbed on zinc sulfide and goethite-montmorillonite. Three phase reaction kinetics attributed to outer sphere complexation, inner sphere complexation and intraparticle diffusion have been suggested. This means that the presence of zinc sulfide under sulfidic-anoxic condition influences the behaviour of arsenite sorption. 


Distribution and Development Stages of Microhylid, Ramanella mormorata (RAO, 1937) in the Forests of

Amit Sayyed

Abstract

We have observed the development stages of Ramanella mormorata at Amboli  Maharashtra, in the monsoon period, and also given the distribution of the nine species of the genus of Ramanella. 


Determination of Physicochemical Properties of Underground Drinking Water in Vicinity of Pawai Terri

Sunil K. Pandey

Abstract

Underground water is the most preferred water source in Indians. Once supposed to be safe from contamination as it is accessible many bands below the plane. The key reason of the contamination of underground water may be due to improper disposal of waste. The effort was made to assess the suitability of ground water quality for drinking purposes through physicochemical studies. Investigation of different hand dug wells and tube wells were done by subjecting the ground water samples collected to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis using APHA standard methods of analysis in six sampling station. The Physico-chemical parameters of Pawai Territory were studied and analyzed in three different seasons over a period of one year during June 2011 to May 2012.The physico-chemical parameters such as pH, DO, EC TDS, alkalinity, turbidity, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total hardness, nitrate, fluoride, iron and chloride have been analyzed. The results revealed that most of the parameters were within the permissible limit of WHO. 


Studies on Water Pollution of River Bicchiya: Physicochemical Characteristics

Sunil K. Pandey

Abstract

Pollution studies of river Bicchiya, Rewa, India have been made with an emphasis on the physio-chemical assessment of water quality. The widen of Bicchiya river contained in the Maoganj is extending up to 12 km downstream to the confluence of Redwa river and again joining together with Beehar river near Rewa city. The river flow spans up to approximately 55-60 km in Rewa district. Three sampling stations viz., Station A-near confluence of Redwa river (Khaira village), Station B-near Kasthar Nath temple (Gurh township) and Station C-near Rewa city were established for the collection of water samples during may 2011 to June, 2012. The water quality parameters namely transparency, colour, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, sulphate, phosphate, silicate, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, sodium and potassium reflects on the pristine nature of the river in Rewa city. The results on the basis of various parameters studied, Bicchiya River in this stretch can be positioned under the sort of oligosaprobic. The water quality analysis indicated that the river water in the area is pollution free but can become polluted if appropriate measures are not taken in right way. 


Effect of Stone Crusher Pollution on Certain Aspects of Health in and Arround Kabrai, Distt. Mahoba

Sadhana Chaurasia and Raj Karan

Abstract

Haze is all one can see beyond 60 meters in Kabrai distt. Mahoba U.P. The visibility reduces to zero when a stone crusher unit starts working. Green trees have greyed and concrete link roads are padded with an inch-deep layer of dust. The process of blasting mountains, blasting rocks, loading & unloading crushed stones of various sizes, crushing of stones in primary and secondary crushers continuously generates huge amount of dust in the atmosphere. The stone dust emissions and depletion of mountains of the region that adversely affect the ambient air quality, human health, ecological balance and fertility of farming lands. The areas around the stone crushing are constantly polluted by dust that spread in the atmosphere, thus causing damages to the environment and the residents lives nearby. The daily average ambient concentrations of TSP and PM10 varied from 282-562  μg/m3, at the source. The average PM2.5 concentration varied from 162-245 μg/m3 at the source. Pulmonary function tests performed on workers showed that the average values of pulmonary function in these workers are  significantly lower than the average values reported for normal human group. The residents of the area and specifically the labours working are suffering from various diseases such as skin allergy, throat and lungs diseases due to living and inhaling in the polluted air due to stone crushing. This study intends to determine statistical facts about the environmental damages and the health status of the poor workers who are working in stone crushing.


The Determinant of Agricultural Productivity and Profitability (Rate of Return) In Punjab

Jagdeep Singh and H.S. Yadav

Abstract

The present paper analyzes the farm size, productivity and profitability in districts of Punjab, Mansa and Jalandhar. Cotton though less popular, is cultivated in Mansa mainly due to non-suitability of soil for paddy cultivation and low water availability. It is found that productivity of wheat and paddy has a positive relationship with size of holding, whereas the relationship turns negative for cotton and potato. Further, the productivity of wheat is found high in Jalandhar and of paddy in Mansa. 


Socio-Economic Impact and Genetic Pollution of Genetically Modified Crop

Jitendra Malviya

Abstract

The insect-resistant Bt gene are resistant to only one or two insects. In the case of Bt cotton in India, bollworms became resistant to Bt gene and the seed company had to introduce Bt cotton with stacked genes to solve the problem. There were new incidences of yet unknown pests like mealy bug on Bt cotton, which never occurred earlier on cotton crops.GM crops are cultivated in only 25 countries Commercialized GM crops are soybean, corn, cotton, squash, papaya, alfalfa, sugar beet, tomato, poplar, sweet pepper, canola. A study in Nature reported that Bt-containing maize genes were contaminating maize in its center of origin. GM rice carrying the Bt gene was planted by the Mahyco company in field trials in Saparong village in Ratu block /Ranchi violating all rules prescribed by the government for such testing. The trial plots of GM rice were located unprotected, right in the middle of farmers’ fields, without any physical containment by a boundary wall, netting or other means to keep the GM rice segregated from the surrounding natural rice fields. This is a serious violation which can lead to contamination of natural rice in the region with very negative consequences for rice genetic diversity and ultimately, food security. 


Effects of Cage Culture on Dissolved Inorganic Nutrient and Surface Sediment Composition in Sulaman

Sujjat Al Azad, Abentin Estim and Ahmad Ramzy bin Mohd Rathi

Abstract

The major nutrient inputs into Sulaman Bay lagoon are wastes from a nearby village together with particulate organic matter and surface sediment as  runoff from mangrove area, as well as from aquaculture activities. The main objective of this study was to determine the dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN) of water and nutrients of surface sediment in Sulaman Bay lagoon. The data could be was used in developing management strategies for the sustainable aquaculture activity in lagoon ecosystem. Water sample and surface sediment were collected from six stations: five located inside the lagoon and one station at a point that connected the lagoon with South China Sea. The parameters determined included ammonium-nitrogen (mg/L), nitrate (mg/L) and phosphate (mg/L) in water, and particle size, total nitrogen (mg/g), total phosphorus (mg/g), total organic carbon (%) and total inorganic carbon (%) as carbonate equivalent in sediment samples. The highest concentrations of 0.072 mg/L nitrate, 0.121 mg/L of ammonium-nitrogen and 0.058 mg/L of phosphate were obtained from the sea opening point, station nearby village with mollusk culture and village waste drainage areas respectively. Sediment in the Sulaman Bay lagoon was mainly in the form of silt, sand and gravel. The values of total nitrogen and  Total phosphorus (mg/100g of sediment) were observed to be higher than the values obtained in all stations located inside lagoon. No significant (p>0.05) differences was observed in the total nitrogen of sediment among the stations located inside the lagoon. The highest total organic carbon (TOC) of 22.5% was observed in stations near to the village and cage culture area. The highest value of TOC from the aforesaid stations were significantly different (P<0.05) from that of other stations in the study area. The highest total inorganic carbon (TIC) of 2.98±0.89% at station near the village,2.95±0.078% at station close to mangrove and 2.35±0.88 at station adjacent to cage culture area was significantly different (p<0.05) from the TIC values at other stations. However, the concentration of organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the sediment was higher not only due to commercial cage culture, but also from other human induced activities such as discharge waste from the village, and leafy material with surface sediment as runoff from nearby mangrove vegetation. 


Chromium Levels at Some Selected Growth Stages of Roadside Grown Wheat and Maize near the Kano-Zaria

Anongo, M.C. , Bako, S.P. , Iortsuun D.N., Japhet, W.S., Uyovbisere, E. O.

Abstract

Consumption of food crops grown on agricultural soils contaminated with heavy metals is a major food chain route for human exposure, and of  increasing concern due to food safety issues and potential health risks. Zea mays L. (TZEEyellow maize), Zea mays everta L. (popcorn) and Tritium aestivum (Pavon-76 and Siettecerros) are two varieties of wheat and maize widely cultivated in northern Nigeria. The research examined the health risks assessment of heavy metals in food crops grown on roadside soils. The uptake/accumulation of Cr in the soil than in the plant parts (leaves, stems and roots) of the cereal crops suggests enrichment from the soil. However, Cr levels exceeded the permissible limits of the Joint FAO/WHO food standards (2006) of 1.30mg/kg, whereas the soil Cr levels was below the allowable limits. This study demonstrates that Cr may not pose a threat to public health, since the toxicity of Cr is yet uncovered. However, cultivation of food crops should be restricted from the roadside and further research should be carried out on the toxicity of Cr on humans and livestock. 


The Relationship of MODIS LST (Land Surface Temperature) and Terrain Attributes of Basins in Jammu a

Saif A Khan and Sarfaraz Ahmad

Abstract

Average Night and Day LST (Land surface Temperature) were extracted for various basins in J & K, North-Western Himalayas using MODIS – 11 LST products. The linear relationship between LST and mean altitude of the basins is good in case of Night LST and poor for the Day LST. It suggests that the Night time atmospheric turbulences are minimum in the atmosphere and hence shows good relation with altitude. The relationship between mean altitude and Day LST suggested that as season progresses from 241 Julian day to 337 Julian day the altitude and temperature linear relationship improves. However, temporal variation of linear relationship does not vary with season. Average LST in the western Himalayan basins is mostly controlled by the mean slope and altitude, while aspect and CTI plays lesser role. Long term mean Night LST can be used for long term time series analysis of the Satellite derived temperature.