JECET : Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering & Technology. E-ISSN : 2278-179X

      JECET : Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering & Technology

Research Papers in Env Science

Comparative study of the reproduction of Synodontis punctifer (Daget, 1964) upstream and downstream of the Taabo hydroelectric dam, Côte d'Ivoire

Oussou Koffi Hervé, Soro Yaya, Diaha N’guessan Constance, N’guessan Yao, N’Da Konan,[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.8.1.00113.]

Synodontis punctifer is an endemic species in Ivory Coast. Its breeding strategies have been determined in Taabo Lake for sustainable management of stocks. In January and December 2016, 848 specimens were harvested, of which 367 downstream against 481 upstream. The sex ratio was 1: 1.1 downstream and 1: 1.4 upstream in favor of females. The upstream landed fish consisting of all stages of development were large (13.82 ± 2 cm LF) compared to those downstream (12.31 ± 1.49 cm LF) where no mature individual was captured. There is a migration of juveniles from downstream to upstream for spawning. The first maturity size of males 16.5 cm (LF) is greater than females (16.1 cm LF). The evolution of the gonado-somatic ratio (RGS) and frequency of gonad maturation stages showed that S. punctifer breeds between August and September and is believed to be due to flooding in the lake. The absolute fecundity (Fa) of S. punctifer at Taabo lake was estimated at between 2735 to 20218 oocytes, an average of 6757 ± 4094.67 oocytes for females between 13 cm and 20.5 cm (LF) in size. These oocytes have diameters ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 mm, an average of 0.97 mm ± 0.09 at the time of egg-laying. As for relative fertility (Fr), it varied from 28,000 oocytes to 35,000 oocytes, an average of 123,000 ± 58,75 oocytes per kg of body weight. S. punctifer is a less prolific fish producing large size oocytes.

Etude comparée de la reproduction de Synodontis punctifer (Daget, 1964) en amont et en aval du barrage hydroélectrique de Taabo, Côte d’ivoire

Oussou Koffi Hervé, Soro Yaya, Diaha N’guessan Constance, N’guessan Yao, N’Da Konan,[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.8.1.00113.]

Synodontis punctifer est une espèce endémique à la Côte d’ivoire. Ses stratégies de reproduction ont été déterminées dans lac de Taabo en vue d’une gestion durable des stocks. Entre janvier et décembre 2016, 848 spécimens ont été récoltés dont 367en aval contre 481 en amont. La sex-ratio a été de 1 : 1,1 en aval et 1 :1,4 en amont en faveur des femelles. Les poissons débarqués en amont, constitués de tous les stades de développement ont été de grande taille (13,82 ± 2 cm LF) par rapport à ceux en aval (12,31 ± 1,49 cm LF) où aucun individu mature n’a été capturé. Il existerait une migration des juvéniles de l’aval vers l’amont pour le frai. La taille de première maturité des mâles 16,5 cm (LF) est supérieure à celle des femelles (16,1 cm LF). L’évolution du rapport gonado-somatique (RGS) et des fréquences de stades de maturation des gonades ont montré que S. punctifer se reproduit entre août et septembre et serait dû aux crues dans le lac. La fécondité absolue (Fa) de S. punctifer au lac de Taabo a été estimée entre 2735 à 20218 ovocytes soit une moyenne de 6757 ± 4094,67 ovocytes pour des femelles de taille comprise entre 13 cm et 20,5 cm (LF). Ces ovocytes ont des diamètres mesurant entre 0,6 et 1,2 mm soit une moyenne de 0,97mm ± 0,09 au moment de la ponte. Quant à la Fécondité relative (Fr), elle a varié de 28000 ovocytes à 350000 ovocytes soit une moyenne de 123000 ± 58,75 ovocytespar kg de masse corporelle. S. punctifer est un poisson moins prolifique, produisant des ovocytes des grandes tailles.

Spent Catalyst Coming Out from Ammonia Synthesis Fertilizer Plant and Impact on Environment

R. P. Prajapati ,[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.8.1.01422.]

Ammonia is primarily used as nitrogenous fertilizer and as a raw material of inorganic compounds including nitric acid, ammonia salts, cyanide and organic compounds, such as amines, sulfanilamide and so on. In addition, ammonia is also an excellent refrigerant. Since ammonia is a key raw material for industry and agriculture, the process of ammonia synthesis has an extremely important position in any economy. During ammonia synthesis in nitrogenous fertilizer plant for production of nitrogenous fertilizer and other products, the major reactions of production and purification of synthesis gas and the synthesis of ammonia, all the carried out over different catalysts (Prajapati, R. P., Sharma Anand and Tiwari, D. R., 2010) . At least eight kinds of catalyst used in the whole process, where natural gas or naphtha is used a feedstock and steam reforming is used to produce synthesis gas. These catalyst, are Co-Mo hydrogenation catalyst, zinc oxide desulfurizer, primary and secondary, steam reforming  catalysts, high and low temperature shift catalysts, methanation catalyst and ammonia synthesis catalyst etc. In every catalytic operation, activity of the catalyst gradually decreases. Due to structural changes, poisoning, or deposition of extraneous material. A catalyst, which can no longer perform its original duty is referred to as “spent catalyst”. In such cases fresh catalysts have to be substituted and the spent catalyst will be discarded as solid waste material. Disposal of spent catalyst is a problem as it falls under the category of hazardous industrial waste. Environmental laws concerning spent catalyst disposal have becomes increasingly more serve in recent years. Metals such Ni, Mo, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Cr present in the spent catalyst can leached by water after disposal and pollute the environment. These metals exert wide variety of adverse effects on human being. Some of the metals have extremely long biological half-life that essentially makes it a cumulative toxin. Also some metals are carcinogenic in nature. Hence these solid waste materials which are causing serous environmental problems can act as artificial ores. The valuable metals can be recovered from these spent catalyst waste1. Recovery of metals from spent catalysts solid wastes has been an important issue not only from economic aspect but also for recycling rare natural sources and reducing the spent catalyst waste to prevent the environmental pollution.

Sound channel characteristics of the Red Sea

M. S. Kamel and Maiyza I. A,,[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.8.1.02335]

The monthly sound channel characteristics is discussed and the monthly conversion zones is localized in the Red Sea using all the available hydrographic data from the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC-A) up to 2000 and the Global Temperature Salinity Profile Project (GTSPP) data.The axis of the sound channel, along which the sound energy propagates, varied monthly in depth and magnitude between the surface (1525 m/s) and 250m (1537m/s). The shallow in depth, coincide with the minimum sound speeds, along this axis (conversion zones) are, generally, lies in the northern & southern Red Sea to the south of Ras-Mohamed & to the north of Gulf of Aden and the med-south Red Sea proper.

Biological efficiency of natural substances aqueous extracts (Cassia nigricans Vahl., Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. Ex G.Donf., Capsicum annum L., Cleome viscosa L.) against Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith on corn production and their effects on a ferruginous soil microorganisms, in Burkina Faso.

K AMBOU Georges and MILLOGO Adama Malick,[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.8.1.03651.]

A study of four natural substances aqueous extracts (Cassia nigricans, Parkiabiglobosa, Capsicum annum, Cleome viscosa) biological efficiency against Spodopterafrugiperda which cause big damages to corn and their effect on soil microorganisms has been done at Kou Valley in Burkina Faso. The experimental design was a randomized fisher bloc of six treatments (Untreated control, benzoate emamectine 0,5l/ha, C. nigricans 250l/ha, P. biglobosa 250l/ha, C. annum 250l / ha, C. viscosa 250l / ha) in four replications. The biological coefficient efficiencies of insecticides have been determined with the help of Afanassevaand al. (1983) formula, and the counting of soil microorganisms has been done on specific media. The different extracts have shown efficacy against S. frugiperda population as on their symptoms evolution on corn leaves. C. nigricans aqueous extract, the most efficient between them, allowed getting an average coefficient efficiency of 62.22% on S. frugiperda larva, leading to symptoms reduction of 12.98 to 13.57 in comparison with the untreated control. The synthetic insecticide (Benzoate emamectin) got an average efficiency coefficient of 70 leading to symptoms reduction of 66.98% to 71.22% during the same period.These factors allowed getting at C. nigricans and at benzoate emamectin respectively yields increases of 20% and 23% in comparison with the untreated control. Indeed, the different products didn’t affect the natural development of cellulolytic bacteria, microscopic fungi, ammonifying and nitrifying bacteria. C. nigricans aqueous extract can be recommended as biopesticide against S. frugiperda on corn production.

Efficacité biologique d’extraits aqueux de substances naturelles (Cassia nigricansVahl., Parkia biglobosa(Jacq.) R. ex G. Donf., Capsicum annum L., Cleome viscosa L.) sur la chenille légionnaire (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E Smith) en culture du maïs et de leurs effets sur les microorganismes d’un sol ferrugineux, au Burkina Faso

K AMBOU Georges and MILLOGO Adama Malick,[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.8.1.03651.]

Une étude de l'efficacité biologique de quatre extraits aqueux de substances naturelles (Cassia nigricans, Parkia biglobosa, Capsicum annum, Cleome viscosa) contre Spodoptera frugiperda, qui cause des dommages considérables sur le maïs et de leurs effets sur les microorganismes du sol a été effectué a la vallée du kou, au Burkina Faso. Le dispositif expérimental a été un bloc de Fisher randomisé de six traitements (Témoin non traité, Emamectine benzoate 0,5l/ha, C.nigricans250l/ha. P.biglobosa250l/ha, C.annum250l/ha, C.viscosa250l/ha) en quatre répétitions. Les coefficients d’efficacité biologiques des insecticides ont été déterminés à l’aide de la formule de Afanasseva et al. (1983) et le dénombrement des microorganismes dans le sol sur de milieux de culture gélosés. Les différents extraits ont montré une efficacité contre la population de S. frugiperda ainsi que sur l’évolution des symptômes d’attaques. L’extrait aqueux de C. nigricans, la plus efficace parmi elles,  a permis d’obtenir un coefficient d’efficacité moyen de 62,22 sur les larves de S. Frugiperda entraînant une réduction des symptômes de 12,98% à 13,57%  par rapport au témoin non traité, pendant la période de développement du maïs. L’insecticide de synthèse (Emamectine benzoate) a eu un coefficient d’efficacité biologique moyen de 70 entraînant une réduction des symptômes de 66,98% à 71,22% pendant la même période. Ces facteurs ont permis d’obtenir au C. nigricans et à Emamectine benzoate des augmentations respectives de rendement de 20% et de 23% par rapport au témoin non traité. En outre, les différents produits n’ont pas perturbé la dynamique habituelle de développement des bactéries cellulolytiques, champignons microscopiques, bactéries ammonifiantes et bactéries nitrifiantes. L’extrait aqueux de C. nigricans peut être recommandé comme biopesticide contre S. frugiperda en culture du maïs.

Genetic link between HFSE - Base and Precious metals in Mylonite and N-S Lamprophyre Dikes, Abu Rusheid Area, Egypt

Mohamed El-Ahmady Ibrahim and Mohamed Salem Kamar,[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.8.1.05271.]

Abu Rusheid area is located at the southern Eastern Desert of Egypt and regarding as closed basin. The ophiolitic metagabbro forms the higher peripheral parts of the basin and thrusted over the ophiolitic mélange. The banded cataclastic rocks (NNW-SSE,300/WSW) were deposited in the central part of basin and subdivided from base to top into; protomylonites, mylonites , ultramylonites and quartzite. They are subjected to regional metamorphism (sillmanite- kaynite - garnet facies) and cut by two shear zones (N-S and E-W trends). The shear zones are intruded by discontinuous and brecciate lamprophyre dikes.The cataclastic rocks were subjected to hydrothermal alteration types, including propylitic, sericitic, Na-metasomatism, ferrugination, fluoritization, and argillation, whereas lamprophyre dikes were underwent ferrugination, kaolinitization, sericitization, and calcification. The mylonites and N-S lamprophyre dikes, are extremely rich in base metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, and As), precious metals (Au and Ag) and HFSE (Nb, U, Zr, HREE and Y). They show MREY > HREY > LREY. The HREEs minerals are represented by xenotime, fergusonite, fluorite and zircon. The average of U/Th ratio in mylonites and lamprophyre dikes (1.3 - 40.0) is higher than protomylonites and ultramylonites (0.24) manifesting migration in and out respectively. Ascending and descending hydrothermal solutions are affected on the Abu Rusheid rocks. These solutions with low temperatures and containing F1− and CO32−, PO43− and H2O caused redistribution; transportation and redeposition of the base metals, precious metals and HFSE from the mylonite rocks through channel ways to lamprophyre dikes, in addition to the clay minerals and carbonates were formed.

Agrochemicals use on carrot (Daucus carota) cultivation and its phytochemicals content at Kedjom-Ketinguh, North- West, Cameroon

Sonchieu Jean, Feh Watad Gilbert, Fru Nsoh John,[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.8.1.07283]

Nationwide surveys conducted on pesticide application in Cameroon raised growing concern of the exposure of applicators. The aim of this study was to investigate the agricultural practices in carrot cultivation, phytochemical composition of carrot and the various exposures of farmers associated with the use of agrochemicals in the cultivation of carrot in Kedjom-Ketinguh, Tubah Sub-Division (North-West Region, Cameroon). A questionnaire was randomly administered to 100 carrot cultivation farmers for a period of twelve months. Laboratory analysis was done to determine the content of carrot with flavonoids, total carbohydrates and phenolic acid using spectrophotometric technics. The results obtained indicate that: 95% of the farmers use chemical fertilizers and organic manure (cow dung and fowls drops); 34% of farmers use fungicide such as pencozeb, mancozeb and plantineb, which are bought in local market or from individuals and stored in rooms in the house; the planting  is done in March at 50%, some minor health hazards associated with the use of agrochemicals were observed; the concentration of carbohydrates, flavonoids and phenols varies from the control to treated samples. The carrot produced in Kedjom-Ketinguh may be considered safe for consumption looking at the pesticide use and the quality is improved with the use of organic fertilizers.

Gold, radioactive and associated mineralization in Gabal El-Maghara Coal, Sinai, Egypt: Mineralogy and geochemistry

Mohammed El Ahmady Ibrahim; Amira Mohammed El-Tohamy, and Marwa Medhat Abdel Azeem ,[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.8.1.08609.]

Gabal El-Maghara is located in North Sinai, Egypt. The exposed sedimentary succession is 200 m thick and consists of six formations. Economically, the Safa Formation (160–215 m thick) is the most important rock unit and contains more than 11 coal seams, two of which are minable; namely: The Main Coal Seam (MCS) and the Upper Coal Seam (UCS). The former is ~130 to 190 cm thick and has an estimated coal reserve of about 52 million tons. The Jurassic El- Maghara coal, contains a large mineral assemblage of uranium (betafite, plumbobetafite, kasolite and zippeite) and thorium (thorite and uranothorite) in addition to gold. Zircon, fluorite and barite were also recorded. These minerals are allogeneic (detrital) and, less commonly, authigenic. Allogeneic minerals were inherited from crystalline rocks in Sinai and especially older hydrothermal deposits that were formed at wide ranges of temperature and pressure. On the other hand, some base metals (pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, nickel, zincite, scheelite and cuprite) in El- Maghara coal were formed authigenically by: (i) precipitation from circulating underground waters; and / or (ii) by the action of marine waters during periods of the post- Jurassic sea transgressions.  Gold (0.5 gm/ ton) was originally precipitated from mesothermal and epithermal solutions as a result of changes in physic-chemical conditions and fugacity of oxygen and sulfur. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to evaluate the importance of El- Maghara coal as a resource of radioactive and some base metals. On the other hand, the coal mines have several negative environmental impacts as they represent a source of significant pollution. This requires taking serious steps to avoid or, at least, reduce this environmental hazard.  

Commercial Fish Catch as an Index of Lakes Eutrophication in Egypt

Maiyza, Sh. I. and El-Caryony, I. A ; [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.8.1.11022]

The study is an attempt to identify the location of Egyptian Northern Mediterranean Delta Lakes in relation to Vollenweider classification of lakes from oligotrophy to polytrophy in the course of eutrophication process. Time series approach has been used to achieve the aim of the study and to predict future catches from these lakes.  It was found that Egyptian Northern Delta Lakes can be considered in the 5th stage of Vollenweider model


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