JECET : Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering & Technology. E-ISSN : 2278-179X

      JECET : Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering & Technology

Research Papers in Env Science

Perception and Attitude of Urban dwellers on the uses of Urban Green Infrastructure for Climate change mitigation in developing Countries.(A Case Study of Lokoja Urban Centre)

Abu Onimisi Hassan and Ocholi Utewojo Isaac

The study investigated the perception and attitudes of urban dwellers on the uses of urban green infrastructure for mitigating climate change in developing countries. Studies have been carried out in developed countries on the potency of mitigating climate change with urban green infrastructure and has proven to be a powerful tool for regulating urban heat island and thermal comfort. The success of using Urban Green Infrastructure for climate change mitigation may depend largely on the level of knowledge and  perception of the people concerning its uses and their attitudes towards creating, nurturing, and maintenance of UGI particularly where little or nothing is known about urban green space due to high level of illiteracy  and ignorant. The objectives of the study are; to find out the peoples level of knowledge and perception of UGI as a climate change mitigation tool, to find out their knowledge concerning green roofing, green wall, green spaces and their importance for reducing urban heat island.  To achieve these objectives, Lokoja urban centre was divided into three residential areas, these are government residential quarters, residential area along the bank of river Niger and the city centre. Three hundred (300) copies of structured questionnaire were administered using random sampling techniques. One hundred (100) questionnaire were administered in each area of divisions on urban residents. 80% of respondents are not aware of UGI and its importance, 10% are aware of UGI but considered it unachievable in this part of the world. 10% viewed UGI as a potential sources of fuel wood. 

Production of activated carbon from peach kernel and its use as a cost-efficient bio-absorbent in eliminating cobalt ions from synthesized sewages: a synthetic and thermodynamic study

R.Foroutan 1, M. Ramezani Farani, S.A. Ghaffarizadeh, N. Sadeghi Azad, M. Ahmadzadeh, H. Pouyafar

In this study, activated carbon produced from peach kernel was used as a low cost, appropriate, and abundant absorbent for the retrieval and elimination of cobalt ions from aqueous solutions. This discussion has been done discontinuously and the effects of significant parameters such as the initial pH of the solution, absorbent dosage, temperature, and the efficiency time for cobalt ion elimination from aqueous solutions have been analyzed. Upon surface absorbance experimentation, optimized conditions for cobalt ion absorption from activated carbon produced by peach kernel were determined: initial pH 6, absorbent dosage 4gr/L, temperature 298.15K, and contact time 70 min. The optimized condition showed a 96.44% efficiency for cobalt ion absorbance. In order to analyze the synthetic behavior of the process, pseudo-first and pseudo-second order reaction models were used. According to the determined amount of correlation coefficient (R2) and the calculated amount of absorbance capacity (qcal), the pseudo-second order synthetic model compared to the pseudo-first order synthetic model had more ability to express the synthetic behavior of the process. It is also important to state that the amount of K2 determined using pseudo-second order synthetic model was lowered pon increased temperature and that it follows a specific state, while the k2 parameter from the pseudo-first order reaction synthetic model does not have a specific state upon increased temperature and upon temperature increase, initially decreases and subsequently increases. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (∆Ho), entropy (∆So), and free Gibbs energy (∆Go) were used in order to study the thermodynamic behavior of the process. The free Gibbs energy of the process in temperatures 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15K was -3.565, -3.245, and -2.58 kJ/mol respectively. This shows that the cobalt ion absorption process using the absorbent prepared is automatic and thermodynamically favorable. Also, the amount of enthalpy and entropy were -18.471 kJ/mol.K and -50.087 K/mol respectively, showing how the the cobalt ion absorption process using activated carbon produced from peach kernel is exothermic and automatic.

Infrastructural Development and Improving Livelihoods of Rural People in Nepal: A Case Study of Kanchanpur District Nepal

Ishwor Datt Awasthi

Infrastructure is the vital prerequisite and utmost essential element of physical change and social development. It is a backbone of economic development as well as, is a catalytic component for progress and welfare in the lives of rural poor residents. In this connection, the infrastructural development play a crucial role in reducing poverty and lay down the foundation stone intended for rural development and economic acceleration in remote areas. In every society of the developing and underdeveloped third world, there is need of proper infrastructural development, in this study the relationship between availability of infrastructures and quality of living along with means of subsistence is analyzed in concrete ways. This study summarizes that abundance number of basic infrastructures like drinking water, transportation, irrigation, information and communication, health services and educational facilities has the great influence on the better living conditions and livelihoods of poor people. In essence, the presence of indispensable rural infrastructures has significant impact on the livelihoods of rural people in Nepal.

Solar-Light-Induced Photocatalytic Properties of Novel MnV2O6/TiO2 Nanocomposite

S. Rajendra Prasad, S. Srikantaswamy, K. Jagadish, M. R. Abhilash, M. B. Nayan

High quality MnV2O6/TiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized by simple and cost effective route hydrothermal method. As synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by different advanced analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectrophotometer for the investigation of crystalline, morphology, elemental percentage, particle size distribution, functional group and optical properties respectively. Further the photo-catalytic properties of as synthesized MnV2O6/TiO2 nanocomposite were characterized by using Tauc plot (2.9 band gap energy). It was found that the methylene blue dye degraded to high (~90) percentage in the presence of photocatalyst MnV2O6/TiO2 nanocomposite under solar light irradiation.

Comparative Evaluation of the Cyanide and Heavy Metal Levels in Traditionally Processed Cassava Meal Products Sold Within Enugu Metropolis

Ezeh E.,2Okeke O., Aburu C.M. and Anya O.U

Studies were carried out to comparatively evaluate the cyanide and heavy metal levels in traditionally processed cassava meal products (abacha, akpu and garri) sold within Enugu Metropolis using relevant analytical procedures and instrumentation. The mean levels of cyanide in the abacha, akpu and garri samples sold within Enugu metropolis were, 11.07, 6.84 and 9.22ppm respectively. Only the mean cyanide levels in abacha samples sold within the metropolis was above the maximum safe intake limits of 10ppm in cyanide containing food/feed for human and animals. The levels of cyanide in the samples were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb and Fe were all detected at non-toxic levels in the traditionally processed cassava meal product sold within Enugu metropolis. The mean levels of the metals in akpu were significantly higher than in the other studied samples sold within the metropolis (p < 0.05). Varying periods of fermentation, soil chemistry and ecology was attributed to be responsible for the varying levels of cyanide in the samples. Contamination during processing and in the soil where the cassava were harvested could have significantly influenced the levels of the studied heavy metals in the samples

Water Stability Studies of different Probiotic Aqua Feed Pellets

K. Sivagami and J. Ronald

Water stability is an important physical property a feed for aquatic species. It is defined as the retention of the pellet integrity with minimal disintegration and nutrient leaching. Water stability of feed pellets prepared for fishes is especially important because the pellets should remain intact in water until it is ingested. The water stability of the feed pellet depends primarily on how well the individual ingredient binds together. A good aqua feed should have good water stability in order to reduce nutrient leaching and prevent water pollution. This study aims to evaluate the percentage of water stability in water for 60 minutes. At the first 10 minutes, the stability of all probiotic bacteria diet ranged between 90.66 ± 2.08 and 93.00 ± 2.00%, whereas the stability of probiotic spirulina pellets ranged from 92.00 ± 1.93 to 95.00 ± 1.00%and probiotic yeast feed pellets stability ranged between 87.00 ± 1.61 and 91.33 ±1.55.At the end of experimental hour (60 minutes) the results of the water stability test indicated that control feed was least stable (40.00 ±1.00) than the experimental feeds. Among the all experimental feeds, the superior percentage of stability 68.00 ±3.61 was recorded in probiotic spirulina PS5 feed at 60 minutes immersion. The poor stability was 51.33± 1.52; 55.33± 2.08 and 44.66± 1.53 in PB1, PS1 and PY1 feed types respectively

Study of effects of Municipal solid waste on water quality of Dehradun City

Ritesh Saini, Nihal Anwar Siddiqui, Kanchan Deoli Bahukhandi, Neelu J Ahuja

The leachate produced by waste disposal sites contains a large amount of substances which are likely to contaminate ground water. The impact of such sites upon ground water can be judged by monitoring the concentration of potential contaminants at a number of specific monitoring points. In this study, the quality of ground water around a legal and illegal municipal solid waste disposal site in Dehradun was investigated. Physical and Chemical analysis were carried out on water samples collected at different sites. The physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, hardness, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, alkalinity, calcium,magnesium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate and the heavy metals like iron, copper, lead, cadmium etc. were studied using various analytical techniques. It has been found that most of the parameters of water are not in the acceptable limit in accordance with the BIS drinking water quality Standards. The study has revealed that the ground water quality deteriorates greatly due to disposal of municipal solid wastes. The effects of dumping activity on ground water appeared most clearly as high concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness, chlorides, nitrates and sulphates. The study clearly indicates that in densely populated growing urban cities should have the ground water monitored on regular basis. Furthermore, ground water in and around the dumping sites shall not be used for drinking purposes unless it meets specific standards. Indiscriminate dumping of wastes in developed areas without proper solid waste management practices should be stopped.

Combining Ability Analysis in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Dinesh Chandra, Raghav Sharma and S.K. Sharma

The present investigation “study of combining ability through line X tester analysis in wheat Triticum aestivum” was carried out during the cropping season of 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 at research farm R.B.S. College Bichpuri, Agra, Uttar Pradesh . The experimental material consisted of 32 crosses by crossing 8 lines (PBW-498, GW-322, VL-840, HI-977, GW-190, HP-1731, GW-173 and UP–2338 and four testers (HD-2428, DL-788-2 DL-1266-5, and NIAW–34) of T. aestivum genotype in line x tester method. The observation were recorded on days to ear emergence, days to maturity, plant height, number of effective tillers per plant, spike length,Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotype, parent, hybrid for all the traits indicating ample scope for selection, further partitioning of genotype, only female vs. males showed in significant variation for kernel yield per plant. The analysis of variance for combining ability through line x tester design indicated significance of parent of hybrids variation of all the characters except spike length indicated the existence of heterosis in the material.Preponderance of additive gene action was evident for all the traits except days to ear emergence and days to maturity. The parents GW-190 and PBW 498 among lines and HD-2428 and DL 788-2 among the tester proved to be good general combiners for most of the yield traits DL-788-2 and DL-1266-5 with significant negative g.c.a. effect were best general combiners for earliness.The study identified the few potential crosses (GW-322 X DL-788-2, GW-322 X DL-1266 – 5, HI–977 X DL-1266-5, GW-190 X DL 788-2, GW–190 X N1AW-34, HP-1731 X HD-2428, HP-1731 X DL-1266-5 and UP-2338 XHD-2428) for higher 1000 kernel weight and kernel yield per plant based on high per se performance and s.c.a. effect.

Seasonal Assessment and Investigation of Groundwater Quality and Mapping Using GIS in Suruliyar Sub Basin, Tamilnadu, India

R.Padmanaban, S.Vignesh, P.Umarani

The seasonal variation study on groundwater water quality is very much important in identifying sequential changes in aquifer system for watershed management essential in sub basin level study. In this study, 9 nos of groundwater samples were collected in during post monsoon ( December,2017), and summer (April, 2018) seasons and analysed for pH, EC, TDS, TH, TA, HCO3, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4and F. The analyzed samples were compared WHO, BIS and ICMR standards. pH and EC values are within permissible limit for both the seasons. TDS values are higher the permissible limit in jangalpatti for post monsoon and summer season. Similarly, Na and Cl values are higher in Cumbum, jangalpatti, sankarapuram and uthamapalayam in both seasons and other parameters are within limit prescribed by BIS. From piper diagram, all the samples falls under Na-Cl and Mg-HCO3 types. In reference to irrigation suitability based on EC and Sodium AbsorptionRatio (SAR), %Na shows all the values comes under within permissible limit and groundwater can utilized for irrigation purposes. The spatial distribution diagram for groundwater were drawn using Arc-GIS 9.3 for all the water quality parameters. From the study groundwater quality is in safe zone can be use for both domestic and irrigation purposes and continuous monitoring is essential for sub basin level study for conjunctive uses.

Effect of Alkalinity on Planktons of Lodha Pond of Banswara District (RAJ)

Pooja Joshi, Lalit Chaudhary, Manish Kunwar Sisodiya and Seema Bharadwaj

The alkalinity of water is its capacity to accept protons it can shift the pH to the alkaline side of neutrality. Alkalinity of natural water is the result of bicarbonates and it usually expressed in the form of calcium carbonate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of alkalinity on planktons of lodha pond of Banswara district. In the present investigation, maximum values of alkalinity during monsoon and winter may be due to household detergents products added in the pond only in monsoon season due to use of bicarbonates by the pond biota directly for their load which leads to the depletion of bicarbonates in water resulting in low values of total alkalinity due to which planktons diversity and its growth getting effected

Processing and Analysis on Kombucha (Fermented Sweetened Tea)

Aye Aye Win, Pyie Phyo Maung, Min Min Han,Bo Bo, Hnin Ei Phyu, Zin Min Htwe, Khinthida Phyo, Khaing Zarlinand San Htwe Kyi

Kombucha is a fermented tea liquid and consumed as a sources of antioxidant activity, made from tea leaves, sugar and SCOBY(symbiotic colony of Bacteria and Yeasts).SCOBY was obtained from South Korea and used for the processing of fermented tea (kombucha).Black tea was used generally for making kombucha but other types of tea such as; green tea and yellow tea also used for kombucha making and analyzed and compared the finding results. During fermentation, pH dropped slowing before 14 days and showed below around 2.9, is a good fermentation for consuming kombucha. pH dropped during fermentation because of many organic acid productions during fermentation. In the analysis of sugar contents in kombucha, first high sugar contents were detected and dropped during fermentation period because some yeasts from SCOBY consumed sugar and converted into alcohol and then to some organic acid such as gluconic or glucuronic acid. In Kombucha making, the tea product is used as a raw sources and tea is a rich of polyphenol, thus polyphenol is also included in kombucha. For total polyphenol contents analysis, there is no significant different loss of total polyphenol contents during fermentation. According to the DPPH assay, all kinds of kombucha tea product possessed high antioxidant activity because many polyphenol, high organic acids included in kombucha. There was not found any toxicity after analysis with mices. Therefore, kombucha is a high antioxidant activity liquid beverages and consuming habit may give healthy effects for customers

Knowledge on Export by Orange Growers in Vidarbha

Tekale V.S. and Mano Sandesh V.V

The present study entitled “Knowledge on export by Orange Growers in Vidarbha” was undertaken in Kalmeshwar, Katol and Narkhed talukas of Nagpur district and Warud and Morshi talukas Amravati districts with sample size of the 120 respondent orange growers. Majority of the respondents were belonged to middle age group with education up to higher secondary school level, nearly half of them had farming occupation with a medium family size, belonged to medium land holding with annual income between Rs. 3,00,001 to 4,00,000. Nearly half of the respondents had medium social participation and mass media participation, one by third of the respondents had not received any training and more than two third of respondents had well/ tube well as their source of irrigation. In case of export knowledge majority of the orange growers had medium level of knowledge on export. Whereas, in case of export knowledge components more than half of the orange growers had medium knowledge about export standards and nearly four by fifth of the orange growers had low level of knowledge about export procedures. The export knowledge index shows that majority of the respondents (42.75%) belonged to medium category. In the correlation analysis of export knowledge with independent variables, the variables namely, education, mass media participation and training received bear positive and high significance (significance at 0.01 level of probability). The independent variables like family size and sources of irrigation were non-significantly related with export knowledge

Fluoride Contamination of Underground Water during Winter Season in Dindigul District, Tamilnadu

Prem Anand J, Ananthanarayanan L and Somasundaram N.

Fluoride is consumed by humans predominantly through drinking water. Eventhough, many reports published in the fluoride area, it is necessary to measure fluoride content time to time in the high risk parts of the country like Dindigul and Dharmapuri districts of Tamilnadu state to adopt remedial measures and creating awareness to the people living in the area. Due to population explosion in the prone places of employment opportunities and outskirts of the cities, particularly the high risk factor of reported fluoride endemic parts should be monitored periodically to understand environmental impact and the changes in physical parameters, chemical and geological aspects. In southern part of India, Dindigul district is found to be one of the high fluorosis affected places. Certain parts of the district were chosen randomly after going through the literature thoroughly as study area in particularly, the winter season. Many changes in the concentration level of fluoride have been expected due to rain water seepage, runoff from agricultural field, dilution of surface water, etc

Photocatalysis for Water Treatment

Chinniah V, Prem Anand J and Somasundaram N.[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.3.47884]

Among other advanced oxidation processes, TiO2 photocatalysis is found to be an easy handling, much more effective and economical method to suit for environmental remediation of organic dyes. To achieve maximum degradation of dyes were found to be at the optimum conditions; initial concentration of dye was 8mg/L, at pH 2.5, photocatalyst dosage was 4 g/L, and irradiation time was 4 h.. The photodegradation dyes such as methyl orange, methylene blue, malachite green, basic fuchsion  and rhodamine B were also tested, and the rate of degradation of dyes were found to reach 85% to 98%. The high reactivity, stability, retention of photocatalytic activity of the catalyst, TiO2 was well observed even after several runs">


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