JECET : Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering & Technology. E-ISSN : 2278-179X

      JECET : Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering & Technology

Research Papers in Env Science

Introduction of Raw Material for Pulp and Paper Industry

Dr. Hemlata Raikwar, Dr. Anita Chouwbay [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.2.15155]

There are about 6.5 billion people living on planet earth. Worldwide paper consumption in this century has increased 4 times faster than pollution. Paper and worldwide will reach 400 million tonnes is 2011 and  640 million tonnes in 2020  with world population of 8000 million people and per capita consumption of paper and paperboard of 80 kg. There are about 500 Kraft mills and many thousands of other types of pulp and paper mills in the world. The Indian paper industry is among the top 15 global players today, with an output of more than six millions tonnes annually with an estimated turnover of Rs. 150,000 million. Project demand of 14 million tonnes.

Hyperspectral Estimation of Soil Salt Content Using Partial Least Square Regression Method: A Review

Tejas U. Padghan, Ratnadeep R. Deshmukh, Jaypalsing N. Kayte., Pooja V. Janse. [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.2.15661.]

Soil salinization becomes universal problems mostly in arid and semiarid irrigated agriculture areas. Soil salinity is a process which affects the quality of soil and reduces crop yields and agriculture production. The soil salt content adversely affects the soil physical property including soil water content. The Visible and Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy provides improved estimation of soil salinity as fast approach to the characterization of soil salt content with spectral resolution of 350-2500 nm. The Partial Least Square Regression Method (PLSR) is frequently used to determine Soil Salt Content (SSC) obtains from the spectral data. This reviews on the estimation of salt content (SC) using Vis-NIR spectroscopy.

Tidal dancing of hydrological parameters in the lower Gangetic delta region

Prosenjit Mitra, Prosenjit Pramanick, Pardis Fazli and Abhijit Mitra [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.2.16275.]

A study was undertaken during May 2017 to monitor the impact of tidal actions on the hydrological parameters of the Hooghly estuary. The water quality reflects the impact of Bay of Bengal (sea) water almost on all the variables as revealed from the significant difference of parameter values in high and low tides (except surface water temperature and K). The 12 selected stations from the upstream to downstream regions exhibited uniformity with respect to surface water temperature. Significant spatial variations (at 5% level of significance) were observed with respect to parameters like surface water salinity, pH, alkalinity, DO, BOD, COD, NO3, PO4, SiO3, extinction coefficient, SO4, Na, K, Cl and total N. Along with tidal influences, the anthropogenic factors contributed by the adjacent cities and towns exert a regulatory influence on parameters like BOD, COD, NO3, PO4, extinction coefficient, SO4 and total N.

Assessment of Ground Water Quality Using Water Quality Index and Hydro Chemical Facies around Industrial Areas of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

D Mallikarjuna Rao, P.Pavitra, L.Vaikunta Rao, Ch. Ramakrishna [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.2.17690]

The study was assessed out to know the hydro-geochemistry and groundwater quality in the Visakhapatnam City of Andhra Pradesh. The major objective of this study was to assess the groundwater quality for domestic and another purpose in industrial zone Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. A total number of twenty (20) samples were collected in 2014 covering the pre and post-monsoon seasons.  The groundwater quality was examined by water quality index technique by using major physicochemical characteristics and important trace metals such as pH, Electrical conductivity, Chloride, total alkalinity, Total dissolved solids, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Sulfate, Nitrate, phosphate, Iron, copper, chromium, Nickel, Lead. The Results were estimated and compared with drinking water standard as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS, 2012) guidelines for drinking water. The results showed that the Concentration of heavy metals Iron (80%), chromium (10%) copper and nickel in some areas shows exceed the permissible limit. Nine suitable parameters were taken for calculating the water quality index (WQI). The WQI during the pre-monsoon season varied from 28 to 88 and in post monsoon 25 to 78. 60% and 48%of water samples show poor water quality in pre and post-monsoon respectively due to municipal wastewater, inadequate sanitary facilities. Polluted by industrial effluents, lack of proper environmental norms.  It revealed that water is not suitable for human consumption. The rock–water interface was the main geochemical method controlling the chemistry of groundwater. The study results revealed that the quality of the groundwater in Visakhapatnam City area was of abundant concern and not right for human consumption without sufficient treatment. Therefore, monitoring should be given the highest priority Indigenous technologies should be adopted to make water fit for domestic use and the purpose of drinking after treatment.

Different behavioral patterns of Indian Grey Hornbill (OCYCEROS BIROSTRIS) from Chandigarh, India

Neelam K. Sharma, Dalip Kumar, Sushma Gupta, Rashmi Kohli [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.2.19106]

During survey of hornbills at various places it was found that Indian Grey Hornbill, Ocyceros birostris is found predominantly in Chandigarh. Indian Grey Hornbill is arboreal and commonly sighted in pairs. They have grey feathers all over the body with a dull white brownish belly. Hornbills are farmers of the forest as they disperse the seeds of many tropical trees and keep the forests alive. Besides this, three pairs oriental-Pied Hornbill were found during studies in the months of November and December. These pied Hornbills are bigger in size, sit and feed on lower branches of trees (Plate 1, 2, 3). Indian Grey Hornbill feeds on leaves and fruits of many trees. The bird takes the fruit or leaves in the beak then jerks its head so that it can gulp it inside. During survey it was also observed that the numbers of Indian Grey Hornbill are more in some areas than others. More roosting sites were found in Northern sectors. It was also observed that in certain areas it is present throughout the year. Maximum number was found in February however, from March to June there were more males as the females were incarcerated. The Indian grey hornbill could be seen preening its feathers (Plate 7). The bird uses its beak, moves its neck backwards towards the hind end and keeps on touching the bases of the feathers again and again during mating season, male and female preen feathers of each other (Plate 8). Even the younger birds after leaving their nest, preen their feathers and can be seen having puffed body. The aim of this study is to highlight the preening and feeding behavior of the Hornbill.

Contribution to the Study of Some Forest Herbaceous Plants with Ornamental Virtues in the Locality of Soa-Yaounde

Tchapda Charly; Ngodo Melingui Jean Baptiste, Kono Léon Dieudonné, Essono Damien Marie, Mvogo Christian [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.2.20722]

The flora of Cameroon is rich and diverse as evidenced by numerous inventories already carried out. Furthermore, the architecture of the species of this flora is known. However, ornamental species have remained the same and sometimes are exogenous to Cameroon. The overall objective of this study, whose purpose is to “contribute to the determination of some herbaceous forest plants with ornamental virtues”, was to enrich the ornamental flora of Cameroon. The study was conducted in 2016 in the locality of SOA-Yaoundé. To achieve this, field visits were conducted during which pictures were taken. During the field trips, plant material was observed and harvested after a selection. The selection was based on the ornamental features of the plant including the growth habit, shape, arrangement and colour of leaves; shape and colour of the flowers as well as the shape and colour of the fruits. The horticultural aptitudes of the selected species were tested in the nursery to find out their temperament and resistance to pest attack. The results reveal six potentially ornamental forest species, namely Culcasia dinklagei; Recktophyllum mirabile (Araceae), Commelina sp., Pollea condensata (Commelinaceae), Bolbitis sp. (Lomariopsidaceae) and Leptaspis cochleata (Poaceae). The development and use of these ornamental forest species would certainly contribute to the reduction of the importation of ornamental plants into our country and to the development of our horticultural sector through further studies on this theme in larger ecosystems in the forest areas of Cameroon.

Biosorption of Lead from Industrial wastewater using Immobilized Marine Green Algae UlvaLactuaca

S. Venkateshwara kumar, A.Prabhakar, Meena Vangalapati [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.2.22327]

Lead1 is an especially unsafe chemical, as it can effect individual organisms, in whole nourishment but moreover chains. Lead is one out of four metals that have the most harming impacts on human wellbeing2. Because of high quantity of toxic metals like lead, nickel etc, open water treatment frameworks are now required to carry out pH-adjustments in drinking water3. Here, the removal of lead is considered to be essential to removal at an high extent to maintain healthy environment.Immobilization4,5 is a process in which cells/enzymes of the process are entrapped in a gelatinous material suspended in the solvent where its activity retains for further process like production, deterioration6. In the present study, the deterioration of lead is carried away using immobilized algae entrapped by sodium alginate beads7.

Estimation of Physico-chemical Characteristics of Hussain Sagar Lake before and after treatment with CV Technology, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

N. Vasantha, Srujan K, Srinivas, C. Venkateshwar [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.2.22837.]

This present Paper tries to study the Physico-chemical Parameters of Hussain Sagar lake water subjected to CV Technology. The study was carried out for a period of one year. Water samples were collected regularly from tank water and analysed for pH, Electric conductivity, Total hardness, Alkalinity, TDS (Total dissolved solid), chloride, DO (Dissolved oxygen) on monthly basis. This study was aimed to estimate current status of Physico-chemical characteristics of Hussain Sagar lake water before and after treatment with CV Technology 2016 at Osmania University

Hyperspectral Signature Study Finds Corundum Alters to Diaspore Influence of Climate Change of Dharwar Craton Arsikere Band of Haranahalli, Hassan District, Karnataka, India

Basavarajappa H.T and Maruthi N.E [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.2.23846.]

Arsikere of Hassan District, western Dharwar Craton is composed of Precambrian basement rocks and active dynamic geological setting with prospects of many different kinds of economic mineral deposits, including variety of gemstones particularly in different Cratanic Archaean group of lithological contact zone of Green Schist belts and younger granites and granitoids of the Karnataka. Corundum is a rock-forming mineral occurs in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.Corundum (Al2O3) is a different precious and rare mineral species with high water content influence of climate change due to airid condition in nature Corundum alters to Diaspore [Al(OH)O]. its defect-induced weaknesses such as fragility, splintering, and cracking become apparent since the temperature of the mineral species may be increased to high temperatures during the process. These deformations may be broadly related to water loss (molecular(H2O) andhydroxyl(OH)group). In this study thermal properties and thermal stability as dehydratial behaviors of gemquality diaspore, including some associated mineral inclusions, were studied by petrochemical and spectral signature study using advent high-tech tools of Spectro- Radiometer (Spectral Evolution SR-3500) instrument, Thesepatterns indicated that the weight losses of the diaspore were due to the water loss only and that these losses occur in the temperature ranges between about about 5920C and 7180C in diaspore. The present study aims to charactrize the spectral behavior of Diaspore and associated rocks. Spectral radiometer instrument bring out diagnostic features on lithological contact for better discrimination of gemstones and altered minerals. The final results Highlight the spectral characters of corundum and associated rocks for better mapping in similar terrains of Arsikere band of Haranahalli on Precambrian basement rocks of Karnataka State.

Composition and distribution of aquatic insect community of a non-stocked pond of Banco National Park (Côte d’Ivoire, Western Africa).

Michel Laurince YAPO, Soumaïla SYLLA, Yalamoussa TUO, Boua Célestin ATSE & Philippe KOUASSI [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.2.24759.]

Composition, abundance and distribution of aquatic insects collected in a non-stocked pond of fish farm of Banco National Park (Southern Côte d’Ivoire) were studied. Monthly samplings have been conducted from December 2007 to November 2008. A total of 10010 individuals belonging to 62 taxa, 30 families and 8 orders (Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Heteroptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Megaloptera and Diptera) were collected. Among these eight orders, Heteropterans and Dipterans dominated quantitatively and qualitatively aquatic insect’s community structure. In order Heteroptera, families Notonectidae and Pleidae recorded the highest abundance while in order Diptera, the highest abundance was recorded by family Chironomidae. A spatiotemporal variation was observed for the different recorded parameters (abundance and diversity). Abundance, Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness indexes were higher during the rainy season in all sites. Seasonal trends in aquatic insect community composition were also related to changes in environmental characteristics of the pond.

Diversity of freshwater planktons at Haro Dam, Ghatol, Banswara (Rajasthan).

Manish Kunwar Sisodiya, Lalit Choudhary, Pooja Joshi and Seema Bharadwaj [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.2.26065.]

Plankton diversity is one of the most important ecological parameters in water quality assessment. The distribution of planktons depends on a complex of factors such as, change of climatic condition, physical and chemical parameters and vegetation cover. The present study deals with the qualitative and quantitative study of Zooplanktons and Phytoplankton’s in “Haro Dam” of Ghatol Banswara (Rajasthan). In the present investigation an attempt has been made to analyze the percentage variation among all planktons collected and identified for the period of January 2017 December 2017.

A Study of Spent Black Liquor from Kraft Pulping Process

Dr. Hemlata Raikwar, Dr. Anita chouwbay [DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.2.27478]

Approximately 7.1 tonnes of black liquor are produced in the manufacture of one tonne of kraft pulp. The spent black liquor is an aqueous solution of lignin residue, hemicellulose and the other organic chemicals used in the process. The black liquor the comprises 15 % solid by weight of which 10.1 % are organic chemicals and 4.9% are inorganic chemicals. Hardly the organic in black liquor are 40-49.9 % soaps, 35-45.4 % lignin, sulphur content at 1-1.9 %, sodium content at about 6% and 10-14% other. The Kraft chemical recovery process is a mature effective technology that provides for recycling of the pulping chemicals, efficient generation of stem and electrical power from the fuel value of the black liquor and effective disposal of dissolved wood substances. Forest bio refinery is an alternative approach for the pulping industry and aim to produced value –added products from lignocellulose.

Quantification of Cr (VI) by Spectrophotometric and Atomic AbsorptionTechnique in Industrial Effluent

Dr. Kishore Kumar Tiwari, Vandana Agrawal, Dr. S.K.Chaterjee,Dr.Deepak Sinha

A simple sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantification of chromium. Given method is based on the reaction of chromium (VI) with acidified potassium iodide to liberate iodine. The liberated iodine selectively oxidises leuco malachite green to malachite green in the presence of sodium hydroxide. This dye shows maximum absorbance at 590nm. The system obey’s Beer’s law in the range of 0.4 to 2.0μg chromium (VI) perml.The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 2.04x104 l-1mol-1cm-1& 0.0051μg cm-2.Proposed method is successfully applied for the determination of chromium in industrial effluent samples and results are compared with AAS method

Statistical Analysis of Inorganic Nitrogen near Shumen (Bulgaria) Using R

NinaPhilipova, Vesselin Koutev, Marina Stoyanova, Olga Nitcheva

Coding in R gives good opportunities for calculating the descriptive statistics for modeling and visualizing the data in order to analyze the data. In this paper is considered the inorganic nitrogen of the soil in the maize field near the Shumen in North-eastern Bulgaria. The objective of this paper is to perform statistical analysis of the observed variable. For this purpose the descriptive statistics and the Shapiro-Wilk test of normality have been calculated. Some graphics have been plotted such as:  index plot, box-plot, histogram, probability density approximation, quantile-quantile plot and empirical cumulative density function versus standardized normal distribution which present a good way to visualize and analyze the data. On the basis of the calculated statistics we conclude that the observed variable has normal distribution. In this paper an opportunity for normalizing the data by means of the Box-Cox transformation is presented in case the hypothesis of normality is not fulfill. Variogram model is determined and the parameters of variogram are calculated. Classifying and analyzing the inorganic nitrogen is of an importance for the optimal fertilizer scheduling.


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