JECET : Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering & Technology. E-ISSN : 2278-179X

      JECET : Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering & Technology

Research Papers in Env Science

Spatial Analysis of River Inundation and Flood Risk Potential along Kogi State River Niger-Benue Basin Using Geospatial Techniques

Emmanuel Udo A and Aniekan Eyoh

Recently, flooding is one of the major challenges facing global communities. Nigeria experienced devastating flood in 2012 that warranted federal disaster declarations. Kogi, State was among the states categorized in group (A) in national impact assessment rating (IAR) because the event brought untold suffering on the residence of the area. Flood risk communication with the general public and the population at risk is getting increasingly important for flood hazard management, especially as a precautionary measure. Flood risk mapping and analysis are vital elements in appropriate land use planning for flood prone areas. The objective of this paper is to dearcate flood risk potential areas and determines the spatial impact of 2012 flooding in kogi state. Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometre (MODIS) data of NASA terra satellite, SRTM, land use/cover map, hydrological data and geographical information system (GIS) were used for this purpose. Five indexes of flood risk identification, namely, elevation, proximity to the river land use, population density, slope and flow accumulation were used for flood risk zonation of the study area. Each of these parameters was reclassified into four which included high risk, moderately risk, low risk, and no risk through the ranking process. The objective was to define areas with the highest risk inducing factors (most likely to flood) and assess how closely these locations are to the actual flooded areas reported during the 2012 flood. Flood risk map (FRM) was later generated by overlaying the reclassified maps of all the parameters using addition operator. This study revealed that the areas flooded in the 2012 disaster are the areas identified as high risk zones. Quantitatively, the flood risk map shows that the highly risky places covered area of 4937.055 square kilometers (17%) while moderately risky covered 6709.55 square kilometers (23%), the lowly risky areas covered 6979.02 square kilometers (24%) and no risk covers 10310.36 square kilometers (36%). This analysis further proved that 559368, 760192, 790743, and 1168164 persons are within the high, moderate, low, and no risky zones. These values corresponds to 17.06%, 23.19%, 24.12% and 35.63% of the total population of the state While a total area of 2960 square kilometers of land was inundated this constitute 10.230% of the land mass of kogi state.

Levels of Awareness on Legal and Regulatory Framework Governing Forest Resource Management in North Rift Conservancy, Kenya

Salome Kimaiyo, Grace J. Cheserek and Michael N. Wabwile

This study examined respondents’ levels of awareness in Kenyan law and policy on forest resource management, North Rift conservancy. Forest management is faced with competing demands for various users such as government preserving economic potential of renewable resource and local communities need for wood fuel, construction material, food, fodder and land settlement. Integrating these competing imperatives requires improved understanding of how communities actually derive economic benefits from forests under community-based natural resource management as well as improved conservation of forest resources. This study attempts to review legal and policy framework for forest management in Kenya. A field study and primary data collection in North Rift conservancies were used to investigate levels of awareness on legal and regulatory framework governing forest resource management. The study established that whereas there is adequate legislation and institutional apparatus for forest resource management in Kenya, major challenges remain in the aspects of implementation of law and policy. As a result of weak and ineffective implementation of the forest resource management law and policy there is widespread encroachment on forests, depletion of forest cover and illegal logging. The study recommends urgent need for capacities building to enable existing institutions effectively fulfill their mandates. Performance gaps can be addressed through creating effective partnerships between local community forest users groups and government agencies. Such partnerships should clarify priorities and objectives for forest management law, stipulate restrictions on permitted forest use activities and entrench programs and work-plans for continuing multi-stakeholder engagement in forest resource management. There is also need to strengthen the field presence and operational capacity of forest surveillance units and the Kenya forest service enforcement teams.

A Study on Maritime Search and Rescue Infrastructure of Taiwan and Neighboring Coastal States

Fu-Chiang Yang Cheng-Yu Lin

The purpose of this paper is to offer a concrete suggestion to the authority, through comparison of the Maritime Search and Rescue (MSAR) system between Taiwan and neighboring coastal states, from dimensions of command chain, dispatching, equipment, training and human resources. The following points were discussed: (1) Taiwan’s MSAR facilities for further enhancement; (2) The policy for Taiwan Coast Guard Administration to upgrade its MSAR facilities and efficiency.

Fluoride Distribution In Drinking Water of Arid Zone (Balotra,District Barmer) of Rajasthan, India

Sanwal Ram1 , Dr S K Pramanik2 , Dr Raviraj Singh2 , Vimla Chowdhary1

Some environmental samples of drinking water were analysed for the determination of fluoride content. All samples were collected from various locations of Balotra, Distric Barmer, Rajasthan. Drinking-water is typically the largest single contributor to daily fluoride intake. Fluoride has both beneficial and harmful effects on the human health depending upon its level. There is a need to assess the concentration of fluoride in drinking water. The average fluoride concentration in 35 drinking waters samples was 0.3.0mg/l -3.0 mg/l the level of dissolved fluoride and all samples compared with WHO (limit value of 1.5 mg/l for fluoride in drinking water) permissible values and IS 10500. The maximum fluoride concentration (3.0 mg/l) was found in drinking water of the Roopadevi, while minimum (0.3 mg/l) was found in Asotara region. Hence its conclude that the concentration of fluoride in drinking water are not uniform in the area of different location.

Investigation of Heavy Metals in Various Genre of Chicken Tissue in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Hossain Md. Sakhawat, Rahman Md. Mizanur, Ali Md. Farhad, Nasif Tahsin Eahteshum4 and Hasan Md. Kamrul

Heavy metals occur naturally in environment and can find in close to all plant, animal and food substances. Now a day’s meat consumption is increasingly becoming a largest part of diets worldwide. On the other hands the Bioaccumulation of toxic metals from anthropogenic pollution is potential health risk to human health through food chain. The risk associated with the exposure to heavy metals present in food product had aroused widespread concern in human health. Improvements in the food production and processing technology and increased the chances of contamination of food with various environmental pollutants, especially heavy metals. Ingestion of these contaminants by animals causes deposition of residues in meat. This study was focused to detect the levels of selected heavy metals cadmium, chromium, lead and zinc in fresh meat from five types of chicken generally (gallus gallus) found in Bangladesh. The considered samples were liver, gizzard and brain. The samples were been digested by acid digestion procedure. The detection procedures were been operated by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Analysis (FAAS). The levels of metals in the chicken samples were ranged between (0.998) mg/kg to (2.497) mg/kg for Cd; (0.499) mg/kg to (8.732) mg/kg for Cr; (1.198) mg/kg to (49.008) mg/kg for Pb and below destructive level to (619.648) mg/kg for Zn. The concentrations of heavy toxic and essential metals in the collected sample were high and exceeded legal limits set by many health authorities. The obtained results show that human consumers in Bangladesh may be suffer a healthy risk-to some extent-from consumption to meats and meat products when compared with levels stipulated by several health authorities.

Geomatics Technique on Climate Change and Its Impact on Groundwater Table Fluctuation in Mysuru District, Karnataka State, India

Manjunatha M.C and Basavarajappa H.T

Average global temperatures are higher than they have ever been during the past millennium and the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have crossed all previous records. The earth’s climate is most affected by difference in temperatures on land, sea, water and topography. Climate is the average weather conditions with a minimum period of 30 years including temperature, rainfall, and wind. The present study aims to generate the primary data to map the rainfall trends and its impact on groundwater level fluctuation through geomatics techniques. Efforts have been made to evaluate a total of 40 representative rain gauge station samples and analyzed the seasonal rainfall variation over a period of 32 years (1983- 2014). 50 representative groundwater well samples are collected to study the season-wise groundwater fluctuation of about 14 years (2001-2014). Rain gauge stations are plotted on a base map with their respective amount of rainfall, and then the contours of equal rainfall (isohyetes) are drawn using GIS software. The average rainfall between the successive isohyets taken as the average of two isohyetal values is weighed with the area between the isohyets. Climate change and certain human activities threatened directly the groundwater resources globally. The final results highlight the capability of geomatics technique in analyses of impacts of climate over groundwater level fluctuation in typical Precambrian rocks of Mysuru District, Karnataka, which is a suitable model in similar geological conditions. 

A critical study on seasonal variations in some metal content from Vadaj Dam of Maharashtra, India

Mane P. C., Kadam D. D., Chaudhari R. D. , Kamble G. G., Sayyed S. A. R., Sarogade S. D., Abhang K. D., Varpe D. M., Suryawanshi V. R., and Dhobale S. N.

Aquatic ecosystem can be well protected and preserved by continuously monitoring the water quality. Biotic components of any freshwater resource solely depend on physico-chemical conditions. The present study deals with the assessment of trace elements and metals from Vadaj dam, one of the important freshwater reservoir in Junnar Tehsil, Pune District. The concentration of trace elements and metals was evaluated from three sampling sites namely S1, S2 and S3. The study was carried out for one year that is September 2015 - August 2016. The highest amount of Iron was recorded as 1.02 mg/lit and lowest amount as 0.42 mg/lit; the highest amount of Manganese was found to be 0.72 mg/lit and lowest amount as 0.34 mg/lit, while in case of Selenium highest amount was recorded as 0.105 mg/lit and lowest amount as 0.047 mg/lit. The concentration of other metals viz., Zinc, Nickel and Chromium was found to be well below their permissible limits.

Water Quality Evaluation of River Gomti at Lucknow (UP) India

Sadhana Chaurasia, Poonam Tripathi and Tulsi das Sharma

The Rivers in India have religious importance. Healthy soil, clean water and air are the soul of life. Often soil, water and air are no longer clean and pose human health risks. Water, especially river water subjected to pollution due to direct discharge of domestic sewage, industrial waste, agricultural run-off, etc. into the river. Most of the major towns are located on the catchment area of river systems, discharging their wastewater directly or indirectly into surface water bodies e.g. rivers, etc. The River Gomti passes through Lucknow, India and is the main source of drinking water for the city. Gomti River originates from Madhoganj Tanda village in Pilibhit district, U.P. It passes through the district of Shahjahanpur, Kheri, Hardoi, Sitapur, Lucknow, Barabanki, Sultanpur, Jaunpur and ultimately merges in Ganga. Gomti receives huge quantities of untreated sewage, agricultural runoff, brings lot of pesticides, fertilizer, street washouts bringing oil, asphalt, sediment and many types of heavy metals. From industrial effluents to domestic discharge, the river becomes more of a flowing dumping yard. The present study was carried out to access to the water quality of river Gomti at Lucknow. Ten sampling sites were selected between Gaughat to Boat Club. Parameters like Temperature, Total suspended solids (TSS), Total dissolved solid (TDS), pH, Hardness, Dissolved oxygen (DO), Nitrate, Nitrite, Chlorine, and Total Coliform were determined. Pollution sources in the river considerably deteriorated the quality of water in the selected stretch of River Gomti.

Physico-Chemical Analysis and Evaluation of Quality of Groundwater of Kanpur City, Uttar Pradesh, India

Satish Chandra Dixit,Anshul Gupta, Avanish Tripathi and Sudhir Tripathi

To evaluate the groundwater quality of Kanpur City, ten sampling sites were selected representing industrial, domestic, agricultural and MSW dumping areas. Physico-Chemical analysis of the groundwater samples was carried out in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon for one year.  The majority of the groundwater samples showed the different parameters values which are within the prescribed limit of Bureau of Indian Standards(BIS) and in addition to this more than 70% values are within the prescribed limit of ICMR and WHO standards too.

An Overview on Environmental Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing and Its Mitigation Measures

Dr. Priya Duggal

The exploration and exploitation of hydraulic fracturing also known as ‘fracking’ has been generating intensive public discussion. Such discussion has focused especially on the potential impacts on the environment and on human health – in particular, on how the techniques and substances used in fracking can affect the environment and human health. Increasing number of hydraulic fracturing operations necessitates paying more attention to the safety and environmental considerations of this technology. In depth understanding of the complex nature and root cause of incidents related to hydraulic fracturing operation is prerequisite for any proactive risk mitigation strategy. The present paper describes the environmental impacts of fracking, and the potential risks for people, along with the additional findings and knowledge that are needed in order to properly assess such impacts and risks and also the mitigation measures that can be adopted to carry out this operation in safest and most environmentally conscious manner.

Carbon Stock Sequestered by Trees in Sadhu Vaswani Garden, Ulhasnagar

Shital Gharge and Geetha S. Menon

In the recent years CO2 is the major gas contributing to global climate change. Urban vegetation, in addition to the aesthetic value also plays a major role in reducing the level of atmospheric CO2 by storing carbon. An urban garden-Sadhu Vaswani Garden, Ulhasnagar was selected to study the total carbon stock sequestered by the trees in the garden. This garden occupies area of 2.5 acres (approximately 1 hectare plantation) with a tree density of 493 trees belonging to 42 genus and comprising of 22 families. The biomass of trees was estimated along with the above ground biomass (AGB), the belowground biomass (BGB), total biomass and organic carbon of the standing live trees by non-destructive method. The total biomass of the tree plantation in this area was 1275.4667 Kgs (1.2754 tons ha-1). Total carbon stock sequestered by the trees was 2.3912 tons ha-1. Samanea saman showed highest biomass (507.715 Kgs) and also sequestered maximum CO2 (930.33 Kgs) as compared to other trees in the study area. The rate at which the tree sequestered CO2 was directly dependent on the age of the tree though the potential of individual tree varied with the tree species. A 25 years or older tree of Polyalthia longifolia sequestered 375 times more CO2 than a 5 year old tree of its kind and also was higher than when compared to similar aged Eugenia jambolana (29 times). The urban trees are important to protect the developing world from the adverse effects of climate change and global warming.

Enhanced Rate of Fish Production by Inducing Probiotics in Wastewater Aquaculture Ponds In East Kolkata Wet Lands, West Bengal, India: A Brief Study

S. Nandi , Dr S.K.Ghosh and Dr T.K. De

West Bengal is dominated by Bengali community and consumes a major amount of both marine and freshwater fish production in India. Fish farming is an age-old practice here. One significant area of its capital Kolkata is the East Kolkata Wetland (EKW) where fish farming takes place in large scales utilising the wastewater generated from the megacity. This utilisation of wastewater provides a large scope of recycling for the nutritional elements in the ecosystem. This unique work focuses on the enhancement of fish production rate by inducing some probiotics in the fish farming ponds. For this purpose, majorly chemical parameters of water were measured before and after the induction of probiotics and a comparative study had been done. The Hydrological parameters include pH, Salinity, Productivity, BOD5 and dissolved nutrient parameters like Ammonia-N, Nitrate-N, Nitrite-N, Phosphate-P, Silicate-Si, etc. These similar parameters were again measured in a normal fish farming pond without inducing probiotics and comparative study had been concluded. The results showed higher values of nutrient parameters helpful for fish growth. It was also found that use of probiotic hadavery high influence on these parameters ranging from 130% to 210% due to enhanced nutrient regeneration through decomposition of wastewater. Biomass increase is about 51% more than normal conditions. The findings may be useful in enhancing the rate of waste recycle under EKW as well as boosting wealth generation for local population through bioremediation. 

Analysis of Groundwater for Trace Metal Contamination using ICP-OES

Satish Chandra Dixit and Anshul Gupta

The present investigation has been undertaken to assess the trace metal contamination of the groundwater surrounding the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites/ dumping sites in Kanpur Nagar, India. Sudullahpur groundwater site is polluted with Cr, Pb and Fe due to its very close proximity with the MSW dumping site. The values for Cr, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn for the other six sampling sites are within the permissible limits prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards: 2012 and WHO: 2011. The values also show that deep boring and distance of the sampling site from the MSW landfill sites also plays very important role in deciding the impact of MSW landfill site on the quality of the surrounding groundwater.

Effect of probiotics on ice blue cichlid (Maylandia greshakei) Reproduction under captive conditions

P. Ambika and J. Ronald

The present investigation was carried out to find out the effect of probiotics on the reproduction of ice blue cichlid. The probiotic feed R1-fed fish exhibited the maximum average fecundity per female (20.23 ± 10.29), followed by R2 (19.9 ±9.46), R3 (18 ± 9.39) and R4 (17.81 ± 9.5) when compared to control group (R0) (15.23 ± 7.39). The fish fed with the probiotic feeds (experimental groups R1, R2, R3 and R4) recorded significantly higher (P<0.05) hatching rate, survival rate, weight and length of fry. Likewise, the GSI of fish fed the probiotic feeds R1, R2, R3 and R4 were also significantly higher (P<0.05) than fish fed the control feed.

Temporal and Spatial distribution of Rotifera in a Polluted Water body

Shazia Ansari and Santosh K. Singh

Study of a polluted waterbody was carried out to assess the temporal and spatial distribution of rotifer in Aligarh. Rotifers are the most important soft bodied invertebrates in the fresh water plankton and characteristically inhabitants of inland waters. The members of this group are known to exhibit worldwide occurrence from the Arctic and Antarctic regions to the tropics. About 95% of the known rotifer species, belonging to superclass Eurotatoria, inhabit freshwaters which is regarded as their original habitat, while only a small group of the superclass Seisona were recorded from saline waters of brackish and marine environs

Effect of Soil Conservation on Humic Acid Content and Soil Organic Matter in a Small Catchment of Northern Part of Popa Mountain, Myanmar

Ngyein Min Zaw, Ngu War Nwe, ZawKhaingOo

Soil organic matter (SOM) is recognized to be one of the most reactive components of soil and is extremely important in maintaining soil fertility and productivity and also in protecting soils from degradation and contamination. The redistribution of the soil after the erosion lead to the increased amount of organic carbon associated with eroded soil aggregate at the depositional sites. Being an important constituent, humic acid was of great interest in studies of soil organic matter. In the present study, the SOM accumulation and humic acid content of different land use in a small catchment of the northern part of Mt. Popa located in central Myanmar were studied. A total of 99 soil samples were collected from five different locations - i.e., two cultivated lands that had been changed from forest land over 50 years ago, where soil conservation with the stone terraces by local farmers was found, a forest land, two deposited sites where sediments are accumulated in a narrow stream and a shallow pond, for the determination of soil texture, soil pH, soil bulk density, soil moisture content, SOM concentration and humic acid content. The results indicated that SOM and humic acid content generally decreased with increasing soil depth and significant differences existed among the three soil layers under study (0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm, p <0 .05). The means of SOM and humic acid content of the forest site was significantly higher than those of other sampling sites, p < 0.001. The results from the statistical analysis of the three parts, upper, middle and lower, of the slope of two cultivated lands showed that the lower part, where soil conservation with stone terrace was found, had significantly higher SOM and humic acid accumulation than the upper part and middle part, indicating that the soil conservation had positive impact on SOM and humic acid concentration. The comparison of soil samples from the soil conservation sites, forest land, deposited sites revealed that soil conservation was not sufficient enough to compensate the negative impact of deforestation, although positive potential in soil was found out in soil conservation sites. In conclusion, the use of stone terraces as a soil conservation measures can reduce losses of SOM and humic acid content of the cropland, thereby maintaining soil fertility and productivity in agricultural industry, while protecting the forest area would be the best way to reduce the loss of carbon into the atmosphere in global scale.

Optimum Conditions for the Removal Activity of Lead from Semi-synthesis Wastewater by Using Isolated Bacterial Strains with Activated Coconut Husk as Biofilm

Sa Aung Ko Ko, Saw Sandar Maw, Zaw Khaing Oo

Wastewater pollution is the major problem, especially in developing countries. Wastewater contains many pollutants and toxic heavy metals such as lead, zinc, copper, cadmium, chromium and other metals. These metals can cause many diseases to aquatic life and human. There are many processes for solving wastewater pollution problems but most processes are high cost. Biological wastewater treatment process is low cost and used many microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, algae and plants can be used for the removal of toxic heavy metals. In this process, naturally agricultural by-products can be used as support materials for some microorganisms or absorbent. Coconut husk is a by-product of agriculture waste but it is useful in biological wastewater treatment processes because it posses own absorption activity and can use support material for some bacteria. In this experiment, ten isolated bacterial strains were isolated, identified and screened their microbial tolerant activities with different concentration of three metal (lead, zinc and cadmium). These isolated bacterial strains were used to remove toxic metal (lead) and to treat semi-synthetic industrial wastewater with activated coconut husk that can be used as support materials for isolated bacterial strains. To find the optimum conditions for treatment process, isolated bacterial strains were treated with different weight of activated coconut husk, different treatment time and different Pb(NO3)2 concentrations in laboratory scale. After the treatment, the treated wastewater were examined the amount of toxic metals remained by the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) and calculated with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. According to these results, Langmuir adsorption isotherm was the well fitted with the experimental results.  

Performance of UASB Combined with DHS on Distillery Industry Spentwash

The` Yu Win, Zaw Khaing Oo, Hnin Hnin Htun

Distillery spentwash called wastewater effluent create a major course of water pollution in Myanmar. The science and engineering of wastewater treatment has evolved significantly over the last century the distillery effluent is characterized by dark brown color, offensive smell, extremely high BOD, COD, pH and organic loading. In present study, a promising system consisting of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was investigated for distillery wastewater treatment. Before operation, methanogenic bacteria were inoculated to make a starter culture with cow manure and activated sludge in UASB reactor and sponges with fungal microorganisms as solid support medium were added to make fungal consortia in DHS reactor. Both UASB and DHS reactor were operated at room temperature with hydraulic retention time 8hr and 12 hr respectively. The results obtained and indicated 12hr retention time was more efficient for BOD and color reducible efficiency and 8hr retention time was more efficient for COD and concentrations of solids. Although the treated effluent is lower BOD, COD, solids and lighter color compared to untreated spentwash, it needs proper dilution or post-treatment with another UASB-DHS reactors prior to discharge.

Resistance of Chalcopyrite Bioleaching Bacteria to Copper and Zinc

Khachatryan A. and Vardanyan N.

Resistance of microorganisms to metals is of great scientific and practical interest which is caused by the problem of obtaining strains of metal leaching bacteria resistant to high concentrations of metals for application in biogeotechnological processes. In this paper the influence of copper and zinc on the oxidation of iron by Leptospirillum sp. str. 64 and Acidithiobacillus sp. str.13Zn depending on substrate concentration was studied. It was shown that the tolerance of Acidithiobacillus sp. 13Zn to copper and zinc was much higher than that of Leptospirillum sp. str. 64. It was revealed that the increase in the concentration of the substrate led to the decrease in the inhibitory effect of copper and zinc on the oxidation of Fe2+ by Leptospirillum sp. str. 64 and Acidithiobacillus sp. str.13Zn. Thus, the increase of substrate concentration will allow in some ways to overcome the inhibitory effect of copper and zinc. It was established that with the growth of bacteria the decrease of inhibitory effect of metal ions was observed. It is assumed that during their growth bacterial cells form biofilm consisting of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which significantly increases the resistance of bacteria to heavy metals.

Impact of Industrialisation and Urbanisation on Algal Growth in the South Zone of Kanpur City.

Abhilasha Srivastava

The present study deals with the distribution of blue-green algae in paddy fields which were present in the South zone of Kanpur city and their disappearance with urbanization and industrialization of that area. For the last three decades the area of South Kanpur has been subjected to tremendous stress of urbanization and industrialization. Before that the area was well known and popular for rich growth of paddy crop because of water-logged conditions, which support paddy cultivation. But today the developmental factors have pushed the natural habitat towards the periphery. The urban land is still intercepted by puddles, pools, canals and in some places, permanent or temporary water reservoirs as found before urbanization and industrialization. In these fields, algae play the important role of asymbiotic N2- fixation. Besides this, they cause purification and oxygenation of H2O and form a biological film to maintain water quality. Some algae secrete organic substances and cause turbidity and colouring of H2O, some cause allergic reactions and lethal diseases in human beings and cattle, creating serious health problems. Stresses caused by industries, civil and agricultural waste affect the water quality and algal community adversely, but response of algae to various physico-chemical attributes make them useful as biomonitors. These biomonitors are the de best indicators of water quality which had been changed due to urbanization and industrialization hence they exhibit cumulative response to a wide spectrum of environmental factors. So this study deals with the role of algae in biology, self purification, pollution of waters and its exploitation for use as tools for environmental up gradation.


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