JECET : Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering & Technology. E-ISSN : 2278-179X

      JECET : Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering & Technology

Research Papers in Env Science

Application of Image Segmentation Methods in Municipal Solid Waste Management

S. K. Maity

Solid waste management is a statutory function and (Bidhan Nagar) Municipal Corporation is responsible for the management of MSW generated in the city. In Salt Lake area, waste collection is inadequate, in which a large percentage about 10% remains either in the places where it originates or staying longer in the collection points leading to a number of environmental and health hazards e.g. dust, smell, smokes from burning etc. Primary and secondary data were collected to propose options for better solid waste management for Salt Lake City. Random questionnaire survey was conducted at the study area with collecting Geographic Position System (GPS) of existing waste bins, containers and illegal disposal sites using GPS device. We classify the existing segmentation algorithm into region-based segmentation, data clustering, and edge-base segmentation. All of them expand each region pixel by pixel based on their pixel value or quantized value so that each cluster has high positional relation. in this study we have applied one of the most simplest type of segmentation approach i.e. Region growing method on same type of waste generation map of Bidhannagar Municipal area as in previous one. In this Region growing approach, neighboring pixels are examined and added to a region class if no edges are detected. Once the waste management department is aware of the total function of the GIS system, it will get acquainted with its effectiveness. Then there will be an entire record of all the things related to the waste management and suitable logistic management and spatial planning can be achieved . 

Biological Denitrification – A Review

S. P. Burghate, N. W. Ingole

Nitrogen is present in most of the water resources. It exists in various oxidation states. Out of these, NH3, N2O3, and N2O5 combine with water and form water soluble species – ammonium, nitrite and nitrate respectively. These will cause the problems like toxicity, oxygen depletion, diseases, eutrophication, chlorine demand, etc. Considering these problems, it is necessary to remove nitrogen species from water. For the removal of nitrogen, various processes are available. Viz. ion exchange, reverse osmosis, breakpoint chlorination, nitrification and denitrification. In this paper denitrification process along with its microbiology and stoichiometry is reviewed. Denitrification is the process in which nitrate is reduced to nitrate and correspondingly nitrite to nitrogen gas. Heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification is also reviewed. 

A General Review on Various Treatment Methods for Textile Wastewater

Vikas Dinkar Gosavi and Sandip Sharma

Textile effluent are abundant source of colored pollutant that present an enhancing the environmental danger. So that color present in textile effluent is that major  concern of researcher today. Dyestuff present in textile effluent is mainly xenobiotic in nature and not easily self biodegradable. Intensive treatment is necessary to degrade the dyestuff and reduces the COD and turbidity of textile effluent. The present work is an attempt to review the all possible treatment methods for remove dyestuff from textile effluent. The proposed studies in this paper summarize the capability and potential of conventional treatment for degradation of dyestuff from textile effluent. Conventional method for treatment of textile effluent has own certain limitations that can be well overcome by advance oxidation processes (AOPs).

Fish Faunal Status of River Johilla, Madhya Pradesh

Ameen Khan, Vivek Kumar Pandey, Tariq Zafar, Kamesh Borana

River Johilla is one of the important water bodies of Shahdol division. The River drains the 3 districts of the division namely Shahdol, Anuppur and Umaria. There are number of rural tribes and peoples depend on the River for their Drinking, Domestic and also for irrigation purpose. During present investigation, total 33 different fish species were collected which represents 06 orders and 12 families and 26 genera. The study period starts from January, 2011 and continuous upto December, 2012). Cyprinidae family contributes 16 species and shows its dominance at all the sampling station at River Johilla. 

Removal of Oil Using Egg Shell as a Natural Adsorbent

Geetha K.S and Belagali S.L.

Removal of plant based oil (triglycerides) and hydrocarbons like Hexane, Benzene, Kerosene, Petroleum ether and Toluene was carried out using Egg Shell. The Egg shell was activated using HCl (2N) & it is washed and dried in hot air oven at 150o C for 2 hrs. The pH and heat have no effect on oil as it is inert to the same at room temperature. The contact time and dose have effect which increase the adsorption by increasing the time and dose. The XRD analysis was carried out before and after adsorption, which revealed the adsorption. The percentage removal of oil was calculated. 

Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in the Soil of Industrial Area

D.Shiva Kumar, S.Srikantaswamy, Shakunthala Bai, and B.M.Kiran

This research work involves ten representative soil samples from the industrial area of Mysore city, Karnataka, to determine the total heavy metal content and general properties related to fertility of the soil. For digestion of heavy metals triacid mixture method was used. The results showed that, the iron content is higher at the range of 2.5gm/kg to 6.03gm/kg in rainy season and 3.3gm/kg to 6.0gm/kg in premonsoon season, for copper it ranges from 13.55mg/kg to 20.15mg/kg and 14.5mg/kg to 18.9mg/kg for rainy season and pre-monsoon season respectively. Chromium is also present in the concentration of 6.3mg/kg to 18.3mg/kg in rainy season and 6.9mg/kg to 22.5mg/kg in pre-monsoon season, zinc concentration varies from 61.9mg/kg to 109.4mg/kg and 64.3mg/kg to 112.3mg/kg for rainy season and premonsoon season respectively and presence of nickel varied from 9.1mg/kg to 16.05mg/kg in rainy season and 11.4mg/kg to 17.2mg/kg for and pre-monsoon season. From this study, finally we concluded that, the heavy metal concentration is little more in pre-monsoon season than that of rainy season and the heavy metal concentration is in the sequence of Fe>Zn>Cu>Cr>Ni. It reveals that presence of heavy metal has been observed from the different industries with different processes in which the industries have involved so many operations during production of materials and improper disposal of waste materials.

Solid Phase Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron in Various Environmental Samples Using 4-Dimeth

L.Ramesh Babu and K.Kiran

The author successfully synthesized 4-dimethyl amino benzyl thiourea and it yields a light green colored complex with iron metal solution at pH 4.5. The 1:2 (M:L) complex has maximum absorption at 460 nm and is stable for twelve hours. The effects of various factors such as pH, reagent concentration, and choice of the solvent, foreign ions effects have been studied in order to develop a sensitive and rapid extractive spectrophotometric method for iron ion. This method is successfully applied for the determination of Iron in various environmental samples. 

Assessing Hot Water Treatment Effect on Germination and Vigor of Melon Seeds

M. Divsalar

Regarding fast development and expansion of organic farming the alternative methods instead of chemical application in seed treatment should be seriously considered. Hot water treatment of seeds can be used to rid seeds of some seed borne pathogens while remain the seed viable. In order to estimate hot water treatment on seed germination and vigor an experiment was conducted as factorial based on complete randomized design in 3 replications on melon seeds of variety Samsuri in Seed and Plant Certification and Registration institute of karaj in 2013. The treatments were temperature in 4 levels( 45,50,55˚C and control) and time of treatment in 4 levels(10,20,30 minutes and control).The measured traits were germination percent, germination rate, radicle length and shoot length of seedlings, seedling dry weight, seedling length vigor index. The results showed there was a significant difference in all traits among temperatures except of shoot length, and a significant difference was observed at interaction of time and temperature in germination percent and length vigor index. 

Comparative Analysis of Information Access among Fish Farmers in Oyo North Agricultural Zone, Oyo St

Eniola, P. O., Siyanbola, M. F. and Alade, O. A.

This study was undertaken to comparatively evaluate access to information among fish farmers in Oyo north agricultural zone, Oyo State, Nigeria. Fish farmers were purposely selected through snow balling method. Thus, 27, 25 and 40 fish farmers were interviewed in Saki West, Atisbo and Saki East, respectively. All the 18 fish production practices data submitted by the 92 respondents were analyzed. The results were analyzed using simple descriptive tools, chi-square and analysis of variances. Majority (92.4%) of respondents were male, 54.4% were between 40 and 49 years of age. About 46.8%, 41.2% and 37.5% of the total respondents had very easy access to information on marketing, weed control and feeding technique, respectively. However, 37.0%, 37.0% and 34.8% of respondents did not have access to fish production practices on transportation of fingerlings, liming and water quality parameter, respectively. About 59.8% of respondents had high level of access to information on fish production practices in the study area. However, 64.0% respondents from Atisbo had low access to information on fish production practices. Whereas, 77.5% from Saki east and 55.6% from Saki west had high access to information on fish production practices. Significant relationship existed between sex (X2 =1.458), marital status (X2 =8.121), number of years of formal education (X2 =27.433) and fish production practices in the study area. Significant differences existed in the level of access to information on fish production practices between the local government areas under consideration (F= 2.044). Training and workshop/seminars for farmers to improve their production were recommended. 

Solar and Geomagnetic Activity Effects on Climate at Regional and Global Scales: Case Study- USA, Ja

Abdel-Halim. A.A, El Mallah. E.S, Thabet.A.A, El-Borie.M.A

In this study we investigate the effects of solar and geomagnetic parameters on the mean surface air temperatures (MSAT) recorded at countries which covers a wide range of geographic latitudes from 20º N to 71º N. In this case, we select three countries located in the northern hemisphere which are; USA, Japan, and China for the period 1880-2004. From Correlation analyses we found that Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) has the greatest effect on the climate change and independent on the temperature group classification, a small change in energy flux that reached the Earth may play an important or a leading role in climate changes in such countries. In addition the earlier changes of solar parameters may partially affect the present changes in temperatures. The excess of solar energy stored and accumulated for few future months (or even years) in the near-Earth system, lead to the temperature variability. Power spectral density (PSD) of the monthly values for solar and geomagnetic indices and the mean surface air temperature (MSAT) of USA, Japan, and China at different altitudes G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 have been performed. PSD show that the 22 yr solar magnetic cycle (Hale cycle) is more effect on MSAT than solar activity cycle. Generally, our results display that the solar variability parameters play an important role in climate changes and cannot be excluded from the responsibility of continuous global or regional warming. 

Variations in phytoplankton abundance with respect to pollution profile of Kabini river at Nanjangud

Rajanna A.H and Belagali S.L

The present work assessed the composition and seasonal variations of phytoplankton abundance in relation to hydrochemistry. For the present study, three sampling sites were selected along the Kabini river at Nanjangud industrial area. Kabini river was collected on a monthly basis for two years and segmented with respect to different seasons, like monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. Variations of algae with respect to physico-chemical parameters like, temperature, pH, EC, turbidity, BOD, COD, total alkalinity, sulphate, phosphate and nitrate for water samples and pH, EC, TKN, sulphate, phosphate for sediment samples were carried out following standard methods. The study revealed that, 4 families consisting of 14 genera were recorded. Degree of phytoplankton abundance in entire study period was recorded in the sequence of Bacillariophyceae>Chlorophyceae > Euglenophyceae> Cyanophyceae. Whereas number of species in the entire study period recorded in the order of Bacillariophyceae>Chlorophyceae>Cyanophyceae> Euglenophyceae. Percentage compositions of the phytoplankton in the study area recorded in the order: Bacillariophyceae(77%)> Chlorophyceae(16%)> Euglenophyceae (6%)> Cyanophyceae (1%). Algae belonging to Bacillariophyceae were dominated and were maximum during pre-monsoon season. Most of the physico-chemical parameters like, pH, total alkalinity, phosphate, sulphate, BOD, nitrate have high concentrations in the sampling stations of W2 and W3 and sulphate, phosphate and TKN were also shown high concentrations in SD2 and SD3 sampling stations. Meanwhile, pollution tolerant species of Cyanophycean family and others are also recorded in the same sampling stations. It clearly indicated that, distribution of phytoplankton and their variations at different zones of water body was known to be influenced by physico-chemical parameters of water Cyanophycean members were recorded at W2 (2305/L) sampling station during monsoon season, which is the influx point for sewage and industrial effluents. It was clear that, the variations in physicochemical parameters with respect to nutrient level were responsible for the fluctuations in quality and quantity of phytoplankton of the river. 

Farmers’ Diversification into Mining in Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria

Adegboye, M. A.; Oluyomi, M. S. and Yisa, K. M.

Despite the confirmed negative effect of mining on the land, people  (including farmers) still carry out mining in Jos plateau. Then this research was conducted to determine farmers’ diversification into mining in the study area of plateau state. Stratified sampling technique was used in the study. Each of the 4 districts in the area was considered as a stratum from where 30 respondents were selected through random sampling technique to obtain a total of 120 respondents. Majority of the respondents (85.0%) had been farming for over 10 years and 76.7% had their personal land for farming. Majority (55.0%) of the respondents were involved in mining and 27.5% were involved because their farmland has been taken over by mining. Majority of the respondents (54.2%) identified declined productivity of land as the major arable land problem. Significant relationship at p < 0.05 existed between sex (χ2=19.200), age (χ2 =37.333), education (χ2=4.467), marital status (χ2 =58.800), primary occupation (χ2 =154.133) and diversification into mining. Similarly, arable land problem has significant relationship with the diversification into mining (χ2 =94.583, p < 0.05). In conclusion, many of the farmers were discovered to have diversified into mining with the  excuse that their farmland has been taken over by mining. Therefore, both state and federal governments should help reclaim the devastated land to encourage those already drifted into mining come back to farming. Also, farm settlement scheme can be established by the state government to accommodate the displaced farmers.

Research on Spent Engine Oil on Soil: A Case Study of Elekahia Mechanic Village Port Harcourt Rivers

Ugbebor J. N, Ntesat B. and Okafor P. I.

This study investigated the impact of spent engine oil on the soil in Elekahia Mechanic Village. The samples were bored randomly using an auger and collected at varying depths. Samples were properly labeled A1- D1 (0-15cm) and A2 - D2 (16- 30cm). Samples were sieved, weighed, dried and subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) for trace metal. Analytical results shows that metal concentration in (mgkg-1) were above background levels in upper 30cm soil profile of Elekahia mechanic village, collectively ranges from 9.03-44.06 mgkg-1 (22.96±3.42 mgkg-1) for Mn; 2.85-54.33 mgkg-1 (25.56±6.37mgkg-1) for Pb; 3.10-19.71 mgkg-1 (13.14±2.56 mgkg-1) for Cu and 2.82-29.33 mgkg-1 (20.51±3.79 mgkg-1) for Zn. The abundant trace metal of environmental concern is Pb. The order of abundance was; Pb>Mn>Zn>Cu. Test of homogeneity in mean variance of levels of the trace metals across the sampling points revealed significant heterogeneity (Sig.F=0.000) at P<0.05 and Pb (5.02 and 2.85 mgkg-1), Mn (17.13 mgkg-1) and Zn (2.82 and 7.67 mgkg-1) were most responsible for the observed heterogeneiety. It was observed that the level of Pb exceeded the EPA and RSMENR standard. For proper waste management and environmentally friendly mechanic villages, mechanic villages should have concrete floor workshops; to reduce the inflitration of contaminants to the soil, tarred roads and drainage linked to sewer system Best Management Practices (BMPs). 

The Status of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) Development in Ghana

Rogerson Anokye, George Adu

Non-Timber Forest Products play a significant role in the socio-economic development of many developing nations. This paper presents a report on the Non- Timber Forest Products development in Ghana. It includes resources such as bamboo, rattan, straw, medicinal plants, honey, mushroom and animals and animal parts like grass-cutter, hide and skins and many others. Utilization and products and marketing of NTFPs’ resources were also discussed. It further discussed some of the researches carried out on the resources in the country as well as the policies made so far to develop and to help in the sustainability of the NTFPs in the country. 

Study on Environmental Degradation by Retting Activities in Back Waters of Kodungallur, Thrissur Dis

K. Manoj, M.A.Suraj, P.R. Shidhi, H. Hidesh, K. Sheeja, P. Pradeep and P. Jisha

Coir industry is one of the important cottage industries in Kerala. Retting of coconut husk is brought about by releasing various organic compounds in to the surroundings which inturn act as a medium for the growth of various microorganisms. Retting activity has polluted the highly productive estuarine environment. The present study carried out in PullutKole lands of Azhikode estuary revealed the high pollution load of back waters and also indicates the irrecoverable damage of productive estuarine part of Azhikode estuary. The water analysis indicates that quality of water in retting zone is highly deteriorated. A lowvalue of Dissolved Oxygen (1.52mg/l) and high level of H2S (11.10 mg/l) in retting zone has eliminated almost all aquatic organisms especially micro and macrophytes. Even though the coir fibre from natural retting is good and strong, the impacts retting activities on water bodies should be assessed in an urgent manner and alternative non polluting retting process have to be implemented for the safeguard of such precious and productive ecosystems. 

Urban Waste – A Hazard to Health – A Case Study of Medium Sized City of India

Salahuddin Mohd.

Ever- increasing population due to both natural growth and migration from rural to urban areas, changing lifestyles, extensive use of disposable articles in day to day life, lack of awareness, lack of infrastructural facilities for proper disposal of garbage etc. are some of the major problem faced by the Indian cities. Accumulation of garbage and littered public places are a few manifestations of indifferent attitude and lack of sensibility of people in general and the municipal bodies in particular, towards environmental issues. The quantity of waste being generated in the cities poses serious threat to the quality of environment and also to human health. In this paper an attempt has been made to identify the waste related risk factors and examine its relationship with associated diseases in Aligarh city. The study is based on primary sources of data collected through city and household surveys. Households belonging to different income groups were selected and sampled. The total sample size consists of 3,258 households. The results showed that the sampled households reported of being exposed to waste related risk factors and occurrence of associated diseases because of inadequate collection and disposal of solid waste and waste water resulting in accumulation of waste and water logging conditions. Waste dumps and stagnant water formed ideal breeding grounds for pests (mosquitoes, houseflies, cockroaches) which are carriers of disease. Association between waste related risk factors and occurrence of diarrhoeal diseases, infectious hepatitis, typhoid fever, cholera, malaria, etc. was observed. As always seems to be the case, it is the lower income household who are most vulnerable and suffer the most. 

Air Quality Status and Seasonal Variation of Ambient Air Quality Pollutants Level around JK White Ce

Sunil Tiwari, Rashmi Arnold, Arti Saxena, Sunil K. Pandey, Neeti Mishra and Seema Tiwari

Air pollution has become a major threat to the survival of plants in the industrial areas. Air pollution has been described as an additional stress on plants since they often respond to atmospheric contamination in the same way as they respond to drought and other environment stress. While industrial development almost inevitably creates more employment in the region the possibilities of adverse effects on the environment in that area also increases if these adverse effects are not properly mitigated. This paper includes research work done on environmental pollution with special reference to the problems created by the prolific expansion of the Cement industries.

A review on Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth): A water weed can be managed by using it for human

Monika Kumari

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a free floating freshwater plant considered one of the world’s worst water weeds. It gets spread throughout Southeast Asia, the south-eastern United States, central and western Africa, and Central America. It is found throughout India blocking rivers, sewages, water reservoirs. Threat from this plant is that it forms large, dense mats that degrade water quality and clog waterways. These dense mats prevent air and light diffusion, altering and even killing native plant and animal communities. Water hyacinth can be a problem economically as it negatively affects fisheries, slows down or prevents water traffic, impedes irrigation, reduces the water supply, obstructs water ways, and slows hydropower generation. All the efforts of scientists and technocrats all over the world to eliminate these weeds by chemical and biological means have met with little success. Water hyacinth is used to treat waste water from dairies, tanneries, sugar factories, pulp and paper industries, palm oil mills, distilleries, etc. The water hyacinth have been found to have potential of use as phytoremediator plant, paper, organic fertilizer, biogas production, human food, fiber, animal fodder. In this review the distribution, botanical description, impact and the utilization of Eichhornia are presented to bring attention towards management of this weed by constructive approach which will be beneficial for human beings as well as for environment instead of a chemical approach of its control.  

The Use of Planning for Sustainable Disaster Management

Kawuwa, A.S., Dodo, Y.A. & Ishaku, D.D.

Disasters and emergencies have turned back the hands of development clock by destroying years of efforts and labour and by so doing perpetuating poverty and underdevelopment through the destruction of infrastructure and other socio-economic investments. Inform of reconstruction efforts from both local and international monetary funds. The paper examined the use of town planning tools for sustainable disaster risk reduction and management. It discusses the general concepts; in integrated development, disaster planning, disaster resistant communities and mitigation techniques for sustainable disaster risk reduction and management. It concluded that use of town planning allows for a futuristic projection of potential disaster and then allow us to formulate how we can mitigate it before it occurs. It suggests that to create sustainable disaster resistant communities and environment, formal disaster risk assessments and planning need to be part of the major physical development approach.  

Diversity and Abundance of Phytoplankton Population in a Freshwater Body of Aligarh

Shazia Ansari and Asif A. Khan

Study of a water body of Aligarh was carried out to determine its limnology, and diversity and abundance of phytoplankton population. Main water supply is rain  water and surface runoff from surrounding areas. Species diversity ranged from 3.038 (January, 2007) to 3.280 (March, 2007) whereas Species dominance ranged from 0.071 (February, 2007) to 0.117 (October, 2006). Species Evenness ranged from 0.873 (April, 2007) to 0.931 (February, 2007) and Percentage similarity ranged from 84.37 (August and September, 2007) to 92.75% (March and April, 2007). 

Adsorption of Oil from Waste Water by Using Human Hair

Nitin W. Ingole, Sanju S. Vinchurkar, Sachin V. Dharpal

The removal of oil from waste water using human hairs (gents & ladies hairs) was investigated in batch process. Column experiments were also done to evaluate the continuous removal of oil. In batch studies the behavior of the adsorption was investigated through studying the influences of pH, contact time and adsorbent doses. The oil removal rate increased with a decrease in pH. The maximum removal of oil achieved at pH 1.0 at 30oC temperature. The maximum adsorption obtained from the batch process was 13.88 mg/g for gent’s hair and 9.80 mg/g for ladies hair adsorbent. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to fit the equilibrium isotherm. Freundlich model is best suitable. The effect of bed heights (10 cm), flow rates (1 ml/min) and inlet oil concentration 15.2 g/lit on the breakthrough curve were studied using gents & ladies hair. The break through point has been observed after 60 min. for gents and ladies hair and exhaustion point observed after 300 min. for gents’ hair and 270 min. for ladies hair. 

Foliar Dust Deposition in Plant Species Growing at Different Sites around JK White Cement Plant Gota

Sunil Tiwari, Rashmi Arnold, Arti Saxena, Neeti Mishra, R. M. Mishra and Seema Tiwari

Agricultural crops can be injured when exposed to high concentrations of various air pollutants. Injury ranges from visible markings on the foliage, to reduced growth and yield, to premature death of the plant. A greater loss in total chlorophyll content of plant species growing at polluted sites has also found. The Plant species Acassia catechu, Azadirachta indica, Cassia fistula, Dalbergia sissoo, Mangifera indica, Tectona grandis and Zizyphus maurtitana at different sites around the JK White Cement Plant, Gotan have been observed for impact of air pollution on Foliar dust loads of Plant species of their leaves for two consecutive years i.e. 2008 to 2010. 

Evaluation of Water Quality Index of River Bicchiya

Sunil K. Pandey

Water quality parameters of three different water stations along the Bicchiya River were collected to determine its water quality on the basis of water quality index. It has been made with an emphasis on the physico-chemical assessment of water quality. The widen of Bicchiya river contained in the Maoganj is extending up to 12 km downstream to the confluence of Redwa river and again joining together with Beehar river near Rewa city. The river flow spans up to approximately 55-60 km in Rewa district. Three sampling stations viz., Station Anear confluence of Redwa River (Khaira village), Station B-near Kasthar Nath temple (Gurh Township) and Station C-near Rewa city were established for the collection of water samples during June 2011 to May 2012. Ten important parameters pH, total alkalinity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, Chemical oxygen demand, Electrical Conductivity, Silicate and Sodium were considered for Water Quality Index (WQI). The WQI was  assessed using a weighted arithmetic index method. The results revealed that there was monthly variation in physicochemical parameters. The water quality indicates that the river water in the area is good but can become polluted if appropriate measures are not taken in proper time.

Municipal Solid Waste Management by NMSHS

Syeda Azeem Unnisa

Abstract: Solid waste management systems adopted in Indian cities/towns are highly inefficient and outdated, lacking public participation. This paper presents urbanization challenges in India and initiatives taken to address them and to highlight one of the initiative i.e. National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC) 2010 which is categorized into eight missions and one of the eight missions is the National Mission for Sustainable Habitat Standards (NMSHS) which address solid waste management issue to make it sustainable and give legal recognition to the informal sector on the other hand one of the deliverables of the Mission is the formulation of National Sustainable Habitat Standards. For improving solid waste management practices in urban areas, it is essential to incorporate suitable mandatory provisions in the state laws and frame municipal bye laws to ensure Stake Holders’ active participation and minimum level of service delivery by Municipal Authorities.

Preliminary Assessment of Designated Usages/ Effective Wetland Management Strategies (EWMS) in Wetlands of irbhum District, West Bengal, India

Santanu Gupta and Debnath Palit

Abstract: Wetland ecosystems are beauty of nature and wealth for future. Wetland ecosystem forms an important environment for aquatic, semi-aquatic and moisture loving floral and faunal associations. This study represents an indepth assessment of key designated usages in 20 wetlands of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India during 2013 to 2014. Promotion of fisheries, traditional agricultural practices, duckery, tourism activities, poultry farming, floriculture are some Effective Wetland Management, Strategies (EWMs), ensuring sustainable use of these wetlands. Our significant findings include formation of wetland protection group and initiation of mass awareness programme for local stake holders concerning wetland bio-resources which may lead to wise use of wetlands in this developing country.

Studying the land use change for Understanding Old European colonies in Present Era of India

Dhwanilnath Gharekhan and Shaily Gandhi,[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.1.06069.]

Post the era of colonialization of India, there is a rapid growth in the concentration of population in urban regions. It has become vital to study the patterns through which these growths occur. A deep insight in the terms of economics and every changing patterns of the city can be understood. Considering two old era colonies of Goa (former Dutch colony) and Puducherry (former French colony) differ. While one lies on the east coast as a state and another as a small union territory on the west coast. The understanding from such a study defines how the two port cities on either side have a varied pattern of expansion. Though very different from one another, the study attempts to understand the expansion patterns, similarities and different flows of growth using Urban sprawl approaches


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