JECET : Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering & Technology. E-ISSN : 2278-179X

      JECET : Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering & Technology

Research Papers in Archive

Climate Changes and the Expected Impact to the Transboundary Water Resources in Vjosa River Catchment, Albania

Matilda Merkohasanaj, Miriam Bogdani-Ndini, Eglantina Demiraj-Bruçi, Bashkim Mal Lushaj, Arvjen L

The climate impact in water resources and in turn for the Albania’s power sector, which is more than 90% dependent on hydropower for the energy and electricity supply is significant. Albania has currently experienced less rain than ever, therefore dryness of the reservoirs. Country can meet only 50% of its electricity needs. Albania is currently undergoing the deepest energy crisis reflected with shortage of energy supply. Given the importance for the country and high likelihood of significant climate impacts the Vjosa River Catchment’s has been selected as a pilot area. The climate changes scenarios for Albania project an average increase in annual temperature up to 2.0°C (2050) and 4.0°C (2100). A high warming during summer, up to 2.8°C (2050) and 5.6°C (2100) might be expected. As far precipitation, the annual scenario leads to a decrease of annual value (average) up to 6.1% (2050), and 12.4% (2100). A drastic decrease in precipitation total is likely to occur in summer. To evaluate the effects of Climate Change on the Vjosa Basin, a hydrological rainfall – runoff model was applied. The precipitation and temperature input into the model was spatially averaged over the basin using this method for precipitation and arithmetic mean for temperature. The model was calibrated with data for standard period 1961-2010. By the analysis results that the most important climate changes effect in the Vjosa basin is a change in the timing of stream flow through the year. In the study is investigated the trends in annual maximum river flow for the station of the Vjosa river basin using the peak-over-threshold (POT) method. Trends in POT magnitude and in number of POT’s per year are estimated. Studding the number of POT’s per year will reveal if floods are becoming more frequent or not.

Metal-ion Analysis of Drinking Water in and Around Samastipur District

K. Yadav

The metal-ion analysis of water samples from different parts of Samastipur District were carried out. The metal-ion concentrations have mean values (mg/l) Ca (106.28), Mg (37.60), Na (89.10), K (4.50), Cl (130.87), F (0.23), nitrate (13.17) phosphate (0.04) while heavy metals were not detected. These metal-ion values are within the acceptable value range in the World Health Organisation Guidelines value for Drinking Water Quality. 

Effect of nutrient source and rates on weed population, weed dry matter, growth and yield of egg plant (Solanum melongena L) in Anyigba Kogi State, Nigeria

Oyewole, Charles Iledun Oyewole, Ann Nnenna and Obaje Enemali Monday

Experiment was conducted during 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons at the Faculty of Agriculture Students’ Teaching and Demonstration Farm, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria. The experiment investigated the response of weed population and weed dry matter to soil amendment process using organic and in-organic sources in an egg plant enterprise. Laboratory analysis of the composite soil sample showed that the experimental site was critically limited by the various macro nutrients. Results of laboratory analysis of poultry manure indicate N value of 4.39 per cent, while mean P and K were 2.53 and 1.26 per cent, respectively. Analyzed data reveals significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in weed population with nutrients application over the control in both 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons. In addition, analyzed data also reveals significant (p ≤ 0.05) influence of nutrient application on weed dry weight, final plant height in egg plant, number of branches per plant, stem gilt and fruits per plant in 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons. In conclusion, while recommending higher rates of organic or in-organic nutrients efforts to made to control weed else the gains of fertilization may be lost in weed control process / competition with crop.

Physicochemical Characteristics and Water Quality Assessment of Overhead Reservoirs at Residential Buildings: A Case Study of Metropolitan Pune, India

S.P. Wathodkar and M.A. Jane

This study was mainly conducted to find out the physicochemical characteristics of potable water and its assessment with respect to the quality. There were two different sources were identified for water supply to the community i.e. Ground water as well PMC water supply. The study was carried out in different zones of Pune city. The monthly water sampling and analysis investigated that although the public water supply was of good quality, the storage practices are not at all safe in some areas. During this study, we have analyzed the water samples for Biological counts, Turbidity, Hardness, Chlorides, Residual Chlorine, Sulphate, pH & TDS. The main reason for reduction in quality of water is due to improper handling and storage of Water. 

Local Knowledge In Waste Management: A Study Of Takakura Home Method

Gan Huei Ying*and Mahamad Hakimi Ibrahim

The incorporation of local knowledge in environmental management encourages the sustainable use of local resources and the participation of local community in environmental decision-makings. In this paper, we bridge Takakura Home Method (THM) as a local knowledge-based composting method with scientific insights. The role of THM as waste management system at the local scale was explored. Focus was given on the utilization of local resources and how THM was developed and implemented based on the approach of local knowledge. The role of microorganisms and degradative enzymes in biodegradation process during THM composting was also explored. 

Effect of Different Types of Alternative Fuel Type on Air Pollution

Chendil Velan Kumarasamy, Saraju Nandi, R K Tyagi

Diesel engines have been widely used as engineering machinery, automobile and shipping power equipment due to their excellent drivability and economy. At the same time, diesel engines are major contributors of various types of air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and other harmful compounds. With the increasing concern of the environment and more stringent government regulation on exhaust emissions, the reduction in engine emissions is a major research objective in engine development. It is difficult to reduce PM and NOx and PM. Ethanol is a renewable energy, it can be made from many raw materials such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, corn, barley, sugar beets etc by using already improved and demonstrated technologies. The objective of this work is to find the maximum possible and optimum replacement of diesel fuel by ethanol and butanol and compare the emission of alcohol-Diesel blended fuels with diesel fuel. 

Role of Solar Photovoltaic Technology (SPVT) in Meeting the Power Demand

I. Nawaz, M. Emran Khan and M. Rafat

For obvious reasons, recent research in the field of energy has been motivated by environmental considerations. Energy consumption and production are controlled by factors beyond individual priority. The realization has dawned on everyone that to meet the ever increasing energy demands without adverse impact on environment, renewable sources of energy are needed. A very promising source among them is solar energy. Efficient methods for utilizing solar energy are therefore needed. One efficient method is the use of photovoltaic (PV) technology. The current research interest in this area is motivated by a search for lower assembly costs. At the same time, lower maintenance cost and increased efficiency are obviously desirable. Current research reports lead to optimism about the future of PV technology. In the present study, a survey has been attempted of the state-of-the art in this field. Advantages and disadvantages of current practices are enumerated. Such a survey helps in identifying specific areas where further research is called for. 

Identification and Validation of Arachinodate-5- lipoxygenase for Asthma using Insilco Studies

M. Padmavathi

Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disease of the conducting airways, affecting an estimated 300 million people worldwide. There is a particularly high rate of asthma sufferers amongst children, and in developing countries. The Aachinodate-5-lipoxygenase inhibition of the novel gene is expected to be a targeted intranasal treatment for asthma, delivered directly to the lungs. The identification and validation were determined by using insilico tools and computation studies. With the help of energy minimization, it was concluded that this can be used for the treatment of asthma. 

The Novel Approach of Matrix Converter Based Shunt Active Filter for Harmonic Load

Valsala.G. L, Padma Suresh.L,

This paper proposed a new shunt active filter, which based on a matrix converter without energy storage devices, to mitigate the current harmonics. By connecting the matrix converter output terminals to the load side, and the input side of matrix converter connected to a step up transformer to the supply side. Therefore, a matrix converter injects the compensation current point of common coupling, resulting in an efficient solution for mitigating current harmonics. Thus, the proposed topology has the ability to mitigate the current harmonics without energy storage elements. The space-vector modulation (SVM) used to control the matrix converter. Matlab/simulink based simulation results presented to validate the approach. 

An Analysis of Efficiency and Water Quality Parameters of Dye Effluent Treatment Plant, Karur, Tamilnadu, India

T. Marimuthu, S.Rajendran, M. Manivannan

Pollution of the water is evident by the colouration of water which in most of the rivers and streams. Low pH (between 2-3), high electrical conductivity, high concentration of ions of sulphate and iron and toxic heavy metals, low dissolved oxygen (DO) and high BOD are some of the physico-chemical and biological parameters which characterize the degradation of water quality. In this research work ,two water samples were collected (inlet and out of dye effluent treatment plant)from textile effluent treatment plant .The physic-chemical parameters were analysed and result this investigation findings reveal that out let water sample   had high TDS,EC,BOD ,COD& TH. The Textile bleaching and dyeing units and CETPs shall provide zero liquid discharge plant as recommended by the TNPCB. The discharge into to river system should be completely stopped.  Until implementing ZLD plant, the bleaching and dyeing units CETPs have to be thoroughly monitored 

Mini Review on Survey for Service Level Agreement in Cloud Computing

Ankush Narkhede, Ashwini Narkhede, Shraddha Mishra, Rohit Mishra, Pritam Kumar and Asutosh Kumar Pan

The Cloud computing uses the internet as the communication Media. When, look at the security of data in the cloud Computing, the vendor has to provide some assurance in service level agreements (SLA) to convince the customer on security issues. Organizations use cloud computing as a service infrastructure; critically like to examine the security and confidentiality issues for their business critical insensitive applications. Yet, guaranteeing the security of corporate data in the "cloud" is difficult, if not impossible, as they provide different services like Software as a service (SaaS), Platform as a service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a service (IaaS). Each service has their own security issues. So the SLA describes different levels of security and their complexity to make the customer understand the security policies that are being implemented. There has to be a standardized way to prepare the SLA irrespective to the providers.

Eutrophication Assessment Based on Set Pair Analysis -A Case Study in Sand Lake of Yinchuan Plain, China

Jie Chen, Xinsheng Lv, Zhihua Zhang and Hanting Zhang

Eutrophication assessment has been an indispensable part to evaluate water quality of lakes. After brief introduction of principle and visualized steps of set pair analysis (SPA) method, the eutrophication status of Sand Lake was assessed based on analyzing data from 2009 to 2012. Assessment results indicated that the water quality of Sand Lake almost reached to eutrophy, and total nitrogen was the significant index for water body. SPA method is worth promoting and it is a more reliable way to evaluate eutrophication of lakes.

Iterative Super linear-Convergence SVD Beam forming Algorithm for MIMO-OFDM Systems

Sankarayya.S and Jenopaul. P

In this paper, we propose singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm with superliner-convergence rate, which is suitable for the beamforming mechanism in MIMO-OFDM channels with short coherent time, or short training sequence. The proposed superliner-convergence SVD (SL-SVD) algorithm has the following features: 1) superliner-convergence rate; 2) the ability of being extended smaller numbers of transmit and receive antennas; 3) being insensitive to dynamic range problems during the iterative process in hardware implementations; and 4) low computational cost. We verify the proposed design by using the VLSI implementation with CMOS 90 nm2 technology. The post-layout result of the design has the feature of 0.48core area and 18mW power consumption. Our design can achieve 7 M channel-matrices/s, and can be extended to deal with different transmit and receive antenna sets.

Efficiency Evaluation of FBBR for Denitrification using Fly Ash

S. P. Burghateand N. W. Ingole

Nitrate has become one of the major environmental issues because of its implications on human and animal health. Therefore, for welfare of humankind it is necessary to remove nitrate from water resources. Biological denitrification is the most versatile option amongst the other methods for removal of nitrate. The FBBR (Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor) is one of the recent methods, which can be used for denitrification. The present study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of FBBR for denitrification using fly ash as a biofilm carrier media. The maximum average nitrate nitrogen removal efficiency observed was 95.98% at HRT of 30 minutes and optimum as 90.17% at HRT of 10 minutes. For nitrogen loading rates varying from 0.48 kg N m-3d-1 to 28.80 kg N m3d-1, the denitrification rates observed were varying from 0.45 kg N m-3d-1 to 17.84 kg N m-3d-1. The optimum nitrate nitrogen loading rate and denitrification rate observed were 10.08 kg N m-3d-1 and 9.09 kg N m-3d-1 respectively. This indicates that the FBBR is quite efficient for removal of nitrate. 

A Review on Electrochemical Decolorization of Dye Effluent

T. Marimuthu, S.Rajendran, M. Manivannan

The textile effluent treatment industry uses the electrochemical techniques in both textile processes & wastewaters treatments (color removal). Electrochemical reduction reactions are mostly used in sulfur and vat dyeing, but in some cases, they are applied to dye effluents decolorization. However, the main use of electrochemical treatments in the textile industries based on oxidation reactions. Most of electrochemical oxidation processes involve indirect reactions, which imply the generation of hypochlorite or when sodium chloride solution is electrolysed, positive chloride ion (Cl+) is produced.  It is highly reactive.  It decolourises the coloured material into colourless product.   or hydroxyl radical in situ. These elctrogenerated species are able to bleach indigo-dyed denim fabrics and to degrade dyes in wastewater in order to achieve the effluent color removal. The aim of this paper is to review the electrochemical techniques applied to textile industry. In particular, they are an efficient method to remove color of textile effluents.

Mini Review on Cloud Computing

Shraddha Mishra, Ranjana Khandare and Asutosh Kumar Pandey

Cloud computing is an extension of this paradigm wherein the capabilities of business applications are exposed as sophisticated services that can be accessed over a network. Cloud service providers incentivized by the profits to make by charging consumers for accessing these services. Consumers, such as enterprises, attracted by the opportunity for reducing or eliminating costs associated with “in-house” provision of these services. However, since cloud applications may be crucial to the core business operations of the consumers, it is essential that the consumers have guarantees from providers on service delivery. Typically, these are provided through Service Level Agreements (SLAs) brokered between the providers and consumers.

A review on comparative study of Wireless Networks: WiMAX Vs WiFi

M.A.Haque, Pritam Kumar, Asutosh K. Pandey and N.K.Singh

Usually broadband wireless access networks are considered to be enterprise level networks providing us with more capacity as well as coverage. We have seen that in remote inaccessible areas wired networks are not at all cost effective. Wireless networking has offered us an alternative solution for such problem of information access. They have definitely changed the way people communicate and share information among themselves by overcoming problems nowadays associated with distance and location. This paper provides a comparison and technical analysis of alternatives for implementing last mile wireless broadband services. It provides detailed technical differences between 802.11 (Wi-Fi) wireless networks with 802.16 (WiMAX), a new technology that solves many of the difficulties in last-mile implementations.

Analysis on Rainfall Variation over the Past 55 Years in Guyuan City, China

Zhang Zhihua, Liu Rui, Qian Hui Chen Jie and Zhang Xuedi

 Based on the rainfall series data collected from five meteorological stations in Guyuan City, the characteristics of rainfall variation over the past 55 years were analyzed with the methods of Kriging interpolation, Mann-Kendall nonparametric test, regression analysis and trend method. It can be found that the temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall is non-uniform in Guyuan City. Rainfall reduces gradually from south to north while the decreasing tendency increasing. Annual rainfall shows a decreasing tendency, but the decreasing amplitude is pretty smaller (3.7 mm/10a). According to the changing of seasons, the heaviest rainfall appears in summer, which accounts for 54.87%~57.35% of whole year rainfall. The lightest rainfall appears in winter, which accounts for 1.97%~3.97% of whole year rainfall. Rainfall has changed a lot with decades in Guyuan City. Annual average rainfall in 1960s is the heaviest. However, rainfall amounts reduced continuously since 1990s. After the year of 2000, annual average rainfall is the lightest. 

Mini Review on Designing of Press Tools for Sheet Metal Parts

Kailash Kumar Lahadotiya, Abhay Dinkar Kakirde and Asutosh Kumar Pandey

The model caters also for variation in the characteristics of the tool material, in the sense that a highly wear resistant tool is normally composed of carbide tips around its cutting profile Clearance plays important role in Punch design. A good clearance design not only increases the quality of product manufactured, but also reduces product’s burr. Hence it implies that there is need to design such press tool which can punch different shape than conventional type of punching and which can withstand stresses acting and can run for long life. 

Diversity of Fishes in Lower Lake Inrelation to its Ambient Abiotic Parameters

S. Bhargava, R. Chauhan, H. Vinayak and P. Shrivastava

The Capital city of Madhya Pradesh, "Bhopal" is also known as City of Lakes, in which more than fifteen wetlands are present in and round the city and most of the wetlands are eutrophicated due to multiple anthropogenic activities. This poor water quality has lead to the reduction of native fish species in their own natural habitat. The lake was built by creating in 1794 to beautify the city. The construction was commissioned by Chhote Khan, a minister of Nawab Hayat Muhammad Khan Bahadur. A number of earlier wells were merged in this lake. The bridge that separates the Lower Lake and the Upper Lake is called "Pul Pukhta" or Lower Lake Bridge. The lower lake has also been mentioned as "Pukhta-Pul Talao" in literature. The present paper deals with study of physico-chemical parameters of water and fish diversity. On the basis of different physicochemical and biological parameters, the status of lake is eutrophic in nature and during the period 10 fish species have been recorded and study. 

Variability of Water Quality Parameters in Ennore Creek during January to December 2008 in Tamil Nadu, India

J. S. I. Rajkumar

A detailed study was conducted to evaluate the surface water quality parameters in Ennore creek during January to December 2008 in the mouth region to evaluate the condition and status of estuarine water influencing the seawater. The water quality parameters were then compared with the quality standards. The central pollution control board standards comparison showed, except the phosphate and ammonia levels deviated from the marine coastal standards and other parameters were well within the criteria for marine life. The water quality standards are very crucial parameters for the marine life, since the estuary forms the breeding and nesting grounds for the juveniles. Regular monitoring and assessment of these parameters will therefore maintain the dignity and social value of the creek.

A Comparative Analysis of Firing Angle Based Speed Control Scheme of DC Motor

Ranjana Khandare, Pritam Kumar and Asutosh Kumar Pandey

The speed control scheme of DC motor and provides a comparative analysis of firing angle based speed control technique. The best control characteristics of DC motor have used in industries for different rang of loading condition. A dual converter comprised of two single phase AC-DC thyristor converter is proposed. Speed of DC motor is controlled by controlling the armature voltage. Armature voltage is controlled using AC-DC converter. This paper also describe the circulating operation of dual converter, in which rectifier 1 will be rectifying (0‹ αA‹900) and rectifier 2 will be inverting (900‹αB‹1800). The linear & non-linear regions are clearly visible in control characteristics. Firing control scheme improve armature voltage & also reduce ripple content & possibility of discontinuous conduction in circuit. The controlled performance exhibited is superior & also firing angle smoothly controlled with fast response. The dual converter simulation is done in MATLAB.

Displacements and Stresses in Fixed Thick Beams Using Refined Shear Deformation Theory

Ajay G. Dahake and Yuwaraj M. Ghugal

A trigonometric shear deformation theory for flexure of thick beams, taking into account transverse shear deformation effects, is developed. The number of variables in the present theory is same as that in the first order shear deformation theory. The sinusoidal function is used in displacement field in terms of thickness coordinate to represent the shear deformation effects. The noteworthy feature of this theory is that the transverse shear stresses can be obtained directly from the use of constitutive relations with excellent accuracy, satisfying the shear stress free conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam. Hence, the theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing differential  equations and boundary conditions are obtained by using the principle of virtual work. The thick isotropic beams are considered for the numerical studies to demonstrate the efficiency of the theory. It has been shown that the theory is capable of predicting the local effect of stress concentration due to fixity of support. The fixed isotropic beam subjected to cosine load is examined using the present theory. Results obtained are discussed with those of other theories.

Comparative Analysis of Some Carcinogenic Organic Compounds in Selected Petroleum Based Industrial Effluents in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

P. Audu , Y. Mohammed and A.O. Aliyu

Wastewater samples collected from four petroleum industrial sites coded: (KP, TL, OL (I) and OL (II) in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria, were evaluated, using GC-Mass Spectrometry for comparative analysis of the concentrations of some carcinogenic organic compounds. The results obtained gave the distribution and average concentration value of the detected carcinogenic organic compounds at the various sampling sites as follows: KP {oxirane (12.10 ppm), cyclohexanone (7.02 ppm), naphthalene (0.51 ppm), benzene (0.48 ppm), toluene (0.26 ppm)}, TL { oxirane (15.09 ppm), phenol (4.13 ppm), benzene (0.59 ppm), xylene (0.17 ppm)}, OL (I) {cyclohexanone (6.93 ppm), phenol (3.84 ppm), naphthalene (0.47 ppm)} and OL (II){oxirane (11.25 ppm), benzene (0.5 ppm), Toluene (0.07 ppm), xylene (0.05 ppm)}. Except for benzene, oxirane, naphthalene and phenol, all the compounds were within EPA acceptable discharge limits. 

Spatial Image Enhancement Techniques for Determining the Water Quality of Gomti River, Lucknow

Shivangi Somvanshi, Richa Dave, Renu Dhupper, Bhawna Dubey and P. Kunwar

The present study demonstrates the use of spatially enhanced IRS LISS III and PAN satellite data for monitoring of water quality in part of Gomti River, Lucknow. The spatial enhancement of different spatial data sets is often used in digital image processing to improve the visual and analytical quality of the data. The spatial image enhancement technique combines the spectral and high spatial resolution information from two different sensors into one image, which has both spectral and high spatial resolution. In order to improve the spatial resolution, the efficiency of six different spatial enhancement techniques viz. Principal Component,  Multiplicative, Modified IHS, HPF, Ehlers Fusion and Brovey Transform with standard deviation 5.721, 805.628, 1.567, 14.184, 10.657, 12.254 respectively were examined and evaluated. The Modified IHS spatial enhancement technique with higher standard deviation showing overall best result in compare to others in the analysis of water quality. 

Pertinent Energy Management with Power Factor Considerations: An Industrial review

Shaifali Jain, Nidhi Sharma, Ashu Gautam and Ragi Jain

In a supply system, to endorse the most favourable conditions, it is imperative to have a power factor as close to unity as possible. Poor power factor has a direct effect on the electrical system and on consumer’s electricity bills. The result proposed is based on the quantitative data collected from an industrial environment. This analysis gives an insight into improving the power factor and hence reducing the electricity bills. 

Forecasting of Rain Fall in Varanasi District, Uttar Pradesh Using Artificial Neural Network

Rajan Kumar and G.S. Yadav

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one of most importance modern tool used for data processing, forecasting in a rain fall, groundwater level and groundwater contamination and also used in many number of extremes. The feedforward neural network model was applied to the monthly rain fall and also trained with Levenberg-Marquardt Back Propagation Algorithm for forecasting of it in Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh. The Regression coefficient (R2) was measured for accuracy of developed neural network model and its value approximately one for each year.

A Modified FP-Tree Algorithm for Generating Frequent Access Patterns

Harendra Singh, Ashish Kumar Srivastava, Sitendra Tamrakar

Web Usage Mining is the application of data mining techniques to discover interesting usage patterns from Web server, in order to understand and better serve the needs of Web-based applications. Usage data captures the identity or origin of web users along with their browsing behavior from web sites. Web usage mining itself can be classified further depending on the kind of usage data. The proposed work is an efficient algorithm for generating frequent access patterns from the access paths of the users. This algorithm is optimized to takes less time compare to the existing algorithms and stores the access paths in the compressed format. The main aim of this algorithm is to reduce execution time and memory utilization as compared to the existing algorithms. The frequent access patterns show the sequence of web pages which are frequently navigated by the user. The proposed Algorithm is not generating any candidate sets, but more number of patterns will be generated, due to this the number of tree traversals will be more. The result obtained shows that the proposed algorithm takes 25% less  time compared to the Apriori algorithm in all instances. If the threshold of minimum support values the both algorithm execution time is less.   

Developing Drought Resilience of Agro Ecosystems and Communities of Bundelkhand Region, INDIA

Divya Agarwal and Manish Kaushik

The present paper is an attempt to enhance increased understanding of the nature, extent and severity of desertification, drought and dry land degradation, and develop more effective ways to increase the carrying capacity of the dry lands without narrowing their biodiversity, soil and water resources Understanding ecosystem dynamics Building on dry land traditions of diversification to develop additional income-enhancing agricultural options such as new crop, tree and livestock choices (both indigenous and introduced from elsewhere)—accessing new market opportunities to raise farmer incomes while rewarding more sustainable land management; and Study institutions and policies, both formal and informal and across scales (international, national, local) that constrain or foster sustainable dry land development. Disaster Management is an efficient tool to reduce the negative impacts of variety of disasters to agricultural ecology. 

Developing an ICT Learning Pedagogy for Human Conflict Management


This paper reports on the Education a panacea for human conflict management, with the purpose of Innovation in education and computing converging around the use of communication technology to enhance teaching and learning. This  paper  reflect on the development, delivery and evaluation  with the purpose of constructing a pedagogical approach to teaching and learning online that is appropriate for conflict resolution training. 

Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological assessment of Tap Water Used for Drinking Purposes in Zabid, Yemen

Mawhoob Noman Alkadasi , Abdulbaset A. Zaid , Abdulrahman S. Naji, Nada Almushafa and Gamal A. A-Ame

The present study was therefore undertaken to assess the quality of drinking water in some houses of Zabid district. Some physic-chemical and biological parameters were examined from twenty tap water. Among the tested characteristics, temperature values fluctuated between 29.2–29.8 C°, pH values varied between 6.7-8.7, turbidity values differed from 0.15–7.6 NTU electric conductivity values ranged from 338-1150 μs/cm, chloride ranged from 55.4-375.2 mg/l, total  hardness contents fluctuated between 120-442 mg/l, total dissolved solids ranged from 215-699 mg/l, nitrate ranged from 0.01-0.62 mg/l, Phosphate ranged  from0.01-0.15 mg/l, sulphate contents fluctuated between 68-171 mg/l, calcium contents fluctuated between 22.12-80.12 mg/l, magnesium level varied between 22.12-62.22 mg/l and dissolved oxygen ranged from 3.80-6.05. Similarly, E.Coli count ranged from 0.00-3.00 cfu/ml, so that the investigated samples were suffered from faecal contamination. The study revealed that the most of chemical parameters of tap water sources did not meet the permissible World  Health Organization (WHO) levels. Examining exceedence above the WHO standards, it  was revealed that most of the samples contained pH, levels above allowable WHO limits. It was recommended that tap water sources for domestic use should be protected from pollution sources. 

Offline Handwritten Sanskrit Character Recognition using Support Vector Machines

R. Dinesh Kumar and J. Suganithi

Despite of the advancements in technology, Computers are still far behind in language recognition. Most character recognition systems do not have the knack to read degraded documents and handwritten characters or words. Sanskrit (Devanagari), an alphabetic script, is used by over 500 million people all over the world. This paper deals about reconstructing handwritten scanned images into text. This includes following steps. At first, scanned image is subjected to segmentation using spatial space detection technique and images are converted into paragraphs. Then, histogram techniques are used to segment paragraphs in to lines, words and character. And then, it is further subjected to extraction procedure with Support Vector Machine (SVM) using supervised learning algorithm for classification and these classes are mapped onto Unicode for recognition. Finally the text is reconstructed using Unicode fonts which are subjected to readable and editable documents. 

Effect of Seed Pre-Treatment on Survival Percentage of Three Desert Tree Species


The effect of seed pre-sowing treatment and survival percentage of three desert tree species were studied. Seeds of Acacia nilotica, Albizzia lebbeck and Prosopis cineraria were germinated using cold and boiling water pre-treatments. Pretreatment included immersion in cold water for 6hr, 12hr and 24hr; immersion in hot water for 15min, 30min, and 45min; abrasion of seed coat and control. Experiments were carried out on Petri dishes containing moistened filter papers and incubated in plant growth chamber. Seed pre-treatment significantly (P< 0.05) affected survival percentage in all the three species studied. Generally, cold water pre-treatment resulted in the best survival and growth behaviour of three species. Hot water also gave good survival for the three species. Survival behaviour of cold water soaking pre-treatment was different compared to hot water pre-treatment. More also, increasing the time of soaking in cold water increasing the growth parameters along with survival rate, while in contrast survival percentage decreased with increasing hot water soaking pre-treatment. Soaking for 24 hours in cold water and 30min in hot water resulted in higher survival percentage. Highly significant interactions (P< 0.05) were recorded between seed pre-treatment and seed source. 

Unlicensed Mobile Access

Amandeep Kaur,Rejoinder Singh, Ranbir Kaur and Sukhjinder Kaur

Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) is the technology which provides access to GSM and GPRS mobile services by unlicensed spectrum technologies, including Bluetooth and 802.11. This is done by tunnelling GSM and GPRS protocols through a broadband IP network towards the Access Point situated in the customer site and across the unlicensed radio link to the mobile device. UMA technology offers an alternative to the cellular radio access network (RAN), which uses the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and General Packet Radio Service/Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution (GPRS/EDGE) core circuit, Data and IMS services through IP-based broadband connections. The idea of using unlicensed radio in mobile handsets for interconnecting with the core mobile network is interesting both technically and economically. The use of unlicensed radio spectrums is expected to give economical benefits both for the end users and to operators. In this paper we have present the UMA technology with their prospective in the future 3gpp and mobile communication. We have also discussed the pros and cons of the given technology in the conclusion.

Review Paper on Implementing Security on Android Application

Sarbjeet Kaur and Mandeep Kaur

in these days, android has become very popular operating system for smart  phones. There are some advanced features in android smart phones, with which user can easily share applications via online market store i.e. Google market store. Modern Smartphone operating systems have been developed with a greater  emphasis on security and protecting privacy. One of the mechanisms these systems use to protect users is a permission system, which requires developers to declare what sensitive resources their application will use, has users agree with this request when they install the application and constrains the applications to the requested resources during runtime. In this paper, it will be described that how security can be improve of android operating system so that users can safely used the android smart phones.

Simulation of Single-Phase Uninterruptible Power Supply Based On Z-Source Inverter

K Anil Kumar and Mr. Laxminarayana G

This paper proposes a topology of uninterruptable power supply (UPS) by using a Z-source inverter, where a symmetrical LC network is employed to couple the main power Circuit of an inverter to a battery bank. In this project, we suggested a new topology of the UPS is proposed by using a Zsource inverter. With this new topology, the proposed UPS offers the following advantages over the traditional UPSs: 1) The dc/dc booster and the inverter have been combined into one single-stage power conversion; 2) the distortion of the ac output-voltage waveform is reduced in the absence of dead time in the PWM signals; and 3) the system has achieved fast transient response and good steady state performance by adopting dual-loop control. This inverter use a unique impedance network (Z-source network), coupled between the power source and converter circuit to provide both voltage buck and boost properties, which cannot be achieved with conventional voltage-source and current-source inverter. To overcome the problem of traditional UPS VSource and I-Source Inverters we used impedance-source (or impedance fed) power inverter (abbreviated as Z-Source Inverter) and its control method for implementing DC-to-AC, AC-to-DC, AC-to-AC and DC-to-DC power conversion. The unique feature of the Z-source inverter is that the output ac voltage can be any value between zero and infinity regardless of the input voltage. That is, the Z-source inverter is a boost inverter that has a wide range of obtainable voltage With this new topology, the proposed UPS can maintain the desired AC output voltage at the significant voltage drop of the battery bank with high efficiency, low harmonics, fast response and good steady-state performance. Simulation results are presented to validate the advantage of the proposed Z-source based UPS by using MATLAB/SIMULINK model.

Design and Analysis of Nine Switch Z-source Inverter by using Space Vector Modulation

M.Chaitanya Bharathi and G. Laxminarayana

This paper proposes a SVM technique for minimizing harmonic distortion for a nine switch inverter at various stages. Nine switch inverter and nine switch zsource inverter have been proposed as dual output inverters. Inverters are used as dc to ac converters in transmission of power and power controller for ac load such as motor drivers. In recent decades, much research efforts have directed towards finding an isolated dc-ac converter that effectively process the energy. As a three phase inverter drives only one load it cannot control more than one load. In many cases there are two or more ac loads, which require independent control. There are two methods of controlling these ac loads. The first method is providing two separate inverters to drive each load and the second method is connecting the two loads in parallel and driving them with a single inverter. The first method makes an experimental apparatus complex and expensive; the second does not allow independent control of each load. This paper emphasizes a space vector modulation for nine switch inverter for independent control. In this paper, the space vector modulation (SVM) of nine-switch inverter and nine-switch-z-source inverter is proposed. The proposed method increases the sum of modulation indices up to 15% in contrast with the conventional scheme in which the sum of modulation indices is equal or less than one. Therefore, voltage amplitude of outputs is smaller, compared with two separate inverters .To remedy this problem, this paper proposes using an impedance source network in front of nine switch inverter as a dc/dc boost converter for a conventional inverter. Also, in order to further reduce the cost of power devices, thermal heat effect and to reduce the number of semiconductor switching, specific SVM switching pattern is presented. The performance of the proposed SVM for both nine-switch inverter and nine-switch-zsource inverters is verified by MATLAB/Simulink model. 

Process Parameters Modelling of Bamboo Internal Knot Removal Operation on Comprehensive Bamboo Processing Machine Using Dimensional Analysis and RSM Model

C.N. Sakhale

Enzyme Immobilization: The Fascinating Challenge in Biotechnology

V.Varalakshmi and D.Siva rama prasad

Immobilized enzymes are widely used for variety of applications. Based on the type of application, the method of immobilization and support material can be selected. The immobilized enzymes can be separated from the reaction mixture and reused and also immobilized in order to prevent the enzyme from being exposed to harsh conditions, high temperature, surfactants, and oxidizing agents etc. the immobilized enzymes are also widely used in food industry, pharmaceutical industry, bioremediation, detergent industry, textile industry, etc. Enzyme immobilization improves the operational stability and is also due to the increased enzyme loading which causes the controlled diffusion. Several hundreds of enzymes are immobilized and used for various large scale industries. Immobilization technique reduces the effluent treatment costs and this paper reviews the methods applications and recent advances of immobilized enzymes.

Gradient Middling Approach to Recover Missing Values

Swati Sharma and Sanjay Gaur

Data analysis is a fundamental stage of the data preparation for data mining. Missing values in the database is a common problem analyst face in the data mining. Missing data are a persistent problem that can cause partiality to unproductive analysis. Missing values in the data is makes difficult the data analysis and final or onsolidated result. It affects loss of accuracy of mediatory result and calculations. To solve the missing values problems or overcome this situation several sort of applied statistical techniques are required for the data preparation.  By the help of some statistical methods and techniques we can recover missing data and reduce uncertainties. In this paper, we introduce Gradient Middling approach by which missing attribute values are recovered. 

A Prelude Evaluation and Sediment Quality Assessment of Ponds in Palakkad District, Kerala

V.B Pratheesh and C.H Sujatha

The sediment quality and physico-chemical characteristics of sediments of ponds belonging to Pattenchery Panchayth (station-1) and Pudussery Panchayth (station-II) of Palakkad district, Kerala, India were scrutinised in the present work. The study determines whether the water from the selected sites are fit for the aquatic life and used as freshwater to meet the domestic purposes. Sediment Quality Assessment (SQA) of sediments were made using the sediment quality guidelines of Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and with this model, AA- SeQI & Ss-SeQI of both stations were determined. From the SeQI values, it was found that ponds belonging to station-I could better be used as an alternate source of potable water than that from station–II. The average concentrations (in mg/Kg) of metals in sediments of both Stations were determined. The concentration of all the parameters analysed was found to exceed almost twice in the station–II with the exception of Phosphorous. The particle analysis study found that most of the sediments are sandy in nature inferring a high concentration of metal. This assessment of sediment quality can be extended to other areas and water scarcity can be reduced by consuming the potable water from water bodies.

An Elegant Neural Network based draw near for currency Recognition

Rumi Ghosh and Rakesh Khare

Currency recognition is an image processing technology that is used to identify currency of various countries. The requirements for an automatic banknote recognition system have offered many researchers to build up robust and dependable techniques. A reliable currency recognition system is important for the automation in different sectors for a country. The focus of most of the conventional currency recognition systems and machines is on recognizing counterfeit currencies but it is not enough for practical businesses. Reliable Paper currency recognition systems should be able to recognize banknotes from each side and each direction. In this paper we have represented a currency recognition system using neural network that uses histogram based feature extraction and multilayer Perceptron model for classification. 

Trusted and Secure Model for Cloud Data Storage

Jitendra Singh Rajawat and Sanjay Gaur

Cloud Computing has been envisioned as the next- generation architecture of Information Technology enterprises. In contrast to traditional solutions, where the IT services are under proper physical, logical and personnel controls, Cloud Computing moves the application software and databases to the large data centers, where some times the management of the data and services may not be fully trustworthy. This unique attribute, however, poses many new security challenges which have not been well understood. Security challenges in Cloud Computing are authentication, integrity, confidentiality and many more. Data correctness and integrity are one of the prime issues related to some unauthorized changes without prior permission of the data holder. Sometimes these are violated through unsecured and none trusted authorities or due to lacking of efficient security algorithms. In this paper we pay attention to the security of the storage correctness in cloud computing. In that context we proposed an algorithm which is used to build an effective solution for solving data correctness and maintain integrity of data in cloud.

Dimensional Analysis and Mathematical Modeling of Blunt Trailing Edge Airfoil

Mrs.Smita Mattalwar and C.N.Sakhale

Dimensional analysis and sensitivity analysis conducted on blunt trailing edge airfoil with splitter plates at various angle of attack and velocities provides minimal conclusions on performance of flat back airfoils .The paper contributes to the study and analysis of the same tested on an educational Low subsonic Wind Tunnel under ambient conditions. Performance through a sweep of angles was needed to etermine the behavior of the airfoils at low angle of attack. Dimensional analysis is a practice of checking relations among physical quantities by identifying their dimensions. The sensitivity analysis is the study of how the uncertainty in the output of a athematical model or system can be apportioned to different sources of uncertainty in its output. It also helps to understand the relationship between input and output variables in the system or model. 

Performance Improvement of MANET by IRED Algorithm

Sarita Simaiya, Anurag Shrivastava and Narayan Prasad Keer

In MANET Congestion during a network happens once the demand on the network resources is bigger than the obtainable resources and owing to increasing match in link speeds caused by intermixing of heterogeneous network technologies. With in the communication, in the main uses the RED formula to unravel downside of congestion. However in RED formula the packet loss rate is linear with the average queue length. The result's that the packet loss rate is higher once the network congestion isn't a lot of serious, and therefore the packet loss rate is lower once the network congestion is a lot of serious.That reduces the Congestion management and depredates performance. For those reasons, the RED formula is improved by dynamical lead expression, once the common queue length is close to the minimum threshold value, the expansion of packet loss rate is comparatively smaller, close most threshold value, and therefore the growth of packet loss rate is a lot of, to avoid the world synchronization of the network. Simulation with NS2 simulators confirms that the IMPRED (Improve RED) formula will improve network turnout, scale back delay disturbance, and create the network a lot of stable and also improved performance. 

Role of Artificial Neural Networks in Digital Image Processing: A review

Sitendra Tamrakar and M. R. Aloney

Many studies have been done proving that artificial neural networks can perform significant role in processing of image. Here we will focus the application of artificial neural networks in image processing domain. We will discuss on how back propagation neural network (BPNN), Radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), General Regression Neural Network (GRNN), Probabilistic neural network (PNN), Complementary Neural Network (CMTNN) and Self-Organizing Map (SOM) are used for image processing for specific task. Key functions of artificial neural networks were discussed.

Development of expert system for four Bar Mechanism

R.Saravanan and Magadum Sunil

In this study, an expert system was developed for a quadricycle four bar mechanism with control of transmission angle. Different types of available synthesis methods are studied and the suitable synthesis procedure is selected for developing the expert system.

Vital Repercussion of Nano Technology: A Biomedical Approach

Shaifali Jain, Nidhi Sharma, Ashu Gautam and Ragi Jain

Nanotechnology is a new area of science and this technology is expected to create innovations in various biomedical applications. Drug delivery, gene therapy, molecular imaging, biomarkers etc. are a few usages and many more are yet to come. The purpose of this paper is to highlight about the various biomedical applications of nanotechnology in use and the future prospective.

A Study of Conceptual Framework of Information Technology and Their Laws and Regulation

Sunil Kumar Jangir

The last decennary of 20th century had witnessed information technology rise as the most popular technology to have a revolutionary affect on the lives of people across the world. During this tense, Indian engineers and savant have earned a high degree of reverence around the world for their highly professional and innovatory role to the technological advancements in this zone. Large numbers of developed countries like United States. Recognizing the deposition of Indian software professionals in United States, countries like Germany and Japan have recently shown liking in hiring Indian software processionals to their countries.

Vitamin Characteristics of Multifloral Honey of Indigenous Bee Apis Florea and Apis Cerana Indica from Plains, Hills and Western Ghats of Karnataka

Balasubramanyam, M.V.

Multifloral honey of giant honey bee, A. florea (wild) and Indian hivebee,A. cerana indica (apiary) was collected from the plains, hills and western ghats of Karnataka and vitamin characteristics were determined during April 2011 to March 2012. Six vitamins viz., thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), panthothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6) and ascorbic acid (C) were analyzed in honey of wild and apiaryhoneybees. B1 (0.07 μ gms) and B6 (1.80 μ gms) of A.florea honey was minimum and maximum from hills and Western Ghats respectively. Similarly A.cerana honey had lowest of B5 (0.08 μ gms) and highest of B6 (1.62 μ gms) from hills and Western Ghats respectively. B2 (0.12 μ gms - 0.20 μ gms), C (1.32 μ gms - 1.55 μ gms) and B3(0.43 μ gms – 0.55 μ gms) of honey demonstrated variations in wild and apiary honeybees. The vitamin C and B6 of honey was significant at 1% (p<0.01) level in plains, hills and western ghats while B1, B2, B3 and B5 of honey was not significant at 1% (p<0.01) level in plains, hills and Western Ghats of Karnataka. All the six vitamins tested in A.florea and A.cerana displayed quantitative fluctuations in different geographical areas which are discussed in ensuing paper. 

Phytochemical Screening and Larvicidal Efficacy of Calotropis Procera Flower Extract against Culex Sp. And Anopheles Sp. Mosquito Larvae

N.Md.Azmathullah, M.Asrar Sheriff, A.K.Sultan Mohideen

Mosquito larvicidal efficacy and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extracts of the flowers of Calotropis procera, a common weed plant were evaluated in the present study. Phytochemical screening of the flower extracts of C.procera indicated the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, phenols, tannins, terpenoids and flavonoids which are known to possess medicinal and pesticidal properties. Larvicidal effects of the flower extract of C.procera on the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles sp. and Culex sp., which transmit malaria and filariasis was investigated. Results revealed a dose and time dependant effect of the extracts on Anopheles sp. and Culex sp. larvae. Culex sp. larvae were more resistant to the larvicidal effects of the flower extract compared to that of Anopheles sp. indicating differential susceptibility of the species and mosquito life stages. The potential use of C.procera extract as an effective eco-friendly, bio-control agent against mosquito larvae is discussed.


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