Comparative Analysis of Leakage current and Ground Bounce Noise using MTCMOS combinational circuit

Garima Mittal and Nidhi Bajpayee


This research presents the comparison of leakage current of different sizes of transistors and ground bounce noise of different sizes of transistors with the help of MTCMOS (Multi Threshold CMOS). The simulation has carried out on tanner tool using 90nm CMOS technology. The circuit consists of Low Vth block (1 bit full adder) and high Vth block (different combination of NMOS and PMOS transistors). Leakage current and ground bounce noise are evaluated for Tri-mode, Dual switch and Tri-Transistor techniques. The power results are satisfying low power consumption of recent technology. MTCMOS is used to reduce the leakage current. MTCMOS has high threshold voltage and low threshold voltage MOSFET’S on a single LSI.

The novel approach of Matrix Converter Based Shunt Active Filter for Harmonic Load

Valsala.G. L and Padma Suresh.L,

Kinematic synthesis and analysis of four bar Mechanism using expert system

R.Saravanan, N.Kapilan and Magadum Sunil


A considerable amount of research has been carried out on the synthesis of mechanisms with linkages. Such mechanisms can be used in many ways and in
general, synthesis is carried out with reference to input positions and output positions. In this study, the expert system analyzes the four bar double rocker mechanism for given set of inputs which includes the distance of the ground pivots depending upon the space constraint for the mounting of the mechanism, the angles of swing of the input link and the angle of swing required by the output link. The results of the kinematic synthesis and analysis module of the expert system have been compared using a standard problem.

Fingerprint based for ATM Services by Using another Alternate Security

R. Vithish Kumar, G. Ambika and M. Lakshmi

Optimizing the CRM Process in Product Marketplace by Using Associations Rules Mining Techniques

D. Ananthi, E. Karthiga and R. Vithishkumar


The expeditious progress of computers technology and consummation of database systems enable companies to store data about customers and transactions for future use. Data mining, by its simplest definition, is the process of discovering new relevant patterns form large data sets. Product marketing deals with marketing mix, called seven P’s: Product, Pricing, Place, and Promotion, Packaging, Positioning and People. In order to find out how best to release the product, data mining is regarded as an effective tool to solving problems within product marketing. Data mining helps marketing users to target marketing campaigns more accurately; and to align campaigns more closely with the needs, wants, and attitudes of customers and prospects. Customer relationship management (CRM) is a process for managing acompany’s interactions with customers, clients, and sales prospects.

Data Transmission Using Wire Communications Support to Ad Hoc Network

M.lakshmi, K. Arthi and D. Daniya


We study multipath routing with traffic assignment in personal networks. Multipath routing, in which more than one path is used to transmit data for the same source-destination pair, has been studied in both wired and wireless networks. In this paper, we focus on the approach that traffic is scheduled to be transmitted among all its available paths such that the system. This type of network select to some path routing. Then transmit is going to successful. At the same time the all route path a high traffic. The select route path four terminals. There are A, B, C, and D. A’s send to B. Then B’s send to C. But C’s will not send to D. Because this terminal some hardware problem .so it will not sent to transmit data. This time problem started. Crucial solutions get using to ad hoc network device. 

Tamil Font Encryption Standart by Using Tamil Computing Techniques

K.Ravikumar, S. Mangaiyarkarasi and K. Kavinila


Nowadays most of the effective conversations in the internet services are in English language. Tamil computing, a latest emerging technology, which has a method of using Tamil, scripts in internet services. This paper suggests the theoretical approach of designing interfaces, methods applications, and database usage in tamil computing. Tamil consists of twelve vowels and eighteen consonants. Grammar rules are quite specific, reading out Tamil will pose some initial difficulties. The essential idea here is that people will be able to use computers to deal with information given in Tamil. The basic philosophy is to extract the features using mel frequency cepstral coefficients from the spoken words that are used as representative features of the speech to create models that aid in recognition. The models chosen for the task are hidden Markov models and auto associative neural networks. The HMM is used to model the temporal nature of speech and the AANNs to capture the distribution of feature vectors in the feature space. The created models provide a way to investigate an unexplored speech recognition arena for the Tamil language. The performance of the strategy is evaluated for a number of test
utterances through HMM and AANN and the results project the reliability of HMM for
emerging applications in regional languages.

Current status of catch distribution, gear-wise catch and fishing grounds of two commercial shrimp species i.e., Penaeus monodon and Fenneropenaeus indicus in India’s largest brackish water lag

S. K. Karna, D. K. Sahoo and S. Panda


An attempt was made to observe the status of catch distribution, gear-wise catches and fishing grounds of two commercial shrimp species i.e., Penaeus monodon and Fenneropenaeus indicus in Chilika lagoon. The study was carried out in a complete year from October 2007 to September 2008. In the process, GPS Data logger (Model- TMS 20) survey was carried out to find out the ecological features in the fishing grounds in relation to their catch and the gears used. Finally the maps of the tracks of fishing boats, catch distribution among fishing grounds of the species were prepared by using the GIS, “Marine Explore (Version 4.7)”, and the satellite image. During first week of every month, a total of 10 GPS Data loggers were fitted to 10 mechanized fishing boats (each boat with one Data logger) those were to go for their daily fishing to different fishing areas in the lagoon. It was observed that the main fishing grounds are central to eastern part of the lagoon, especially, the area between Nalabana Island and the offshore of Magarmukh for both the species. The main fishing gears used for harvesting the shrimps was Khonda nets (set-net) and gill nets.

Biosorption Potential of Indigenous Fungal Strains for Municipal Solid Waste Leachate Management in Jabalpur city

A.K. Pandey, Jamaluddin, A.K. Awasthi and Amit Pandey


Over the past few decades, pollution has become a major threat to human and environmental health because of rapid generation of municipal solid waste especially leachate which contains variety of heavy metals viz., Zn, Cu, Pb and Hg. The present study was carried out with biosorption potential of indigenous fungi. They play a significant role in biosorption of heavy metal from Municipal Solid Waste leachate. In this study, heavy metal resistant fungi were isolated from the leachate samples of municipal solid waste dumping site, and the biosorption of Zn, Cu, Pb and Hg by these fungal strains were characterize to evaluate their applicability for heavy metal removal from Leachate. The optimum pH and temperature conditions for both the growth and heavy metal removal were determined for potential strains. The optimum pH for fungal strains was 6. The tolerance data with high range of heavy metal concentration revealed the Zn, Cu, Pb and Hg resistant fungi. Results indicate the applicability of the isolates Trichoderma harzianum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus or the removal of Zn, Cu, Pb and Hg from MSW leachate.

Cowpea growth and nitrogen fixation responses to nutrient management in a contrasting semi-arid environment

Jacinta M. Kimiti and David W. Odee


We investigated the response of cowpea (Vigina unguiculata (L.) Walp) to integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) on nodule formation, growth and nitrogen fixation in two field sites with contrasting rainfall amounts in a semi-arid environment. Treatments used included an unamented control, manure, TSP and manure+TSP. Results indicated that nutrient amendments were most effective during the drier rain season compared to the wetter season. In addition, combination of organic and inorganic amendments was more effective during the drier rain season. Further, low rainfall severely reduced nodule and shoot biomass but not root biomass. So far we concluded that nutrient addition could be necessary for cowpea growth during drier seasons. Assessment of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) revealed a BNF of between 46 to 53% with significantly (p<0.05) higher N fixed in wetter compared to the drier study site. We further concluded that BNF was reduced by low rainfall amounts which also lowered nodulation and shoot biomass. 

Human Intoxication of Microcystins

M. Padmavathi


Microcystins are one kind of hepatotoxins produced by freshwater cyanobacterial species, primarily Microcystis aeruginosa. Microcystins are chemically stable, but suffer biodegradation in reservoir waters. The most common member of the family, microcystin-LR. Human illness is due to microcystins include gastroenteritis and allergic/irritation reactions, the primary target of the toxin is the liver, where disruption of the cytoskeleton, causes massive hepatic haemorrhage. To remove these from water helps to prevent these diseases. The present paper provides the information on cyanotoxins, their impacts and remedial methods.

Reverse Engineering of Software and Types Hazards

Lalita M .Lokhande and N.V. Kalyankar


The paper based on various hazards based on experiment of reverse engineering programs. Reverse engineering processes was used as part of a software development, an implementation of a better program and upgrade the existing documentation. The development, design information was extracted from the source codes and entered into a software development environment. The valuated design information was used to implement a new version of the software program. The experiments carried out by recovering the information and it will implemented, dealing with some incomplete part of information and reverse engineering. The reverse engineering process used to recover the design; hazards and the experience gained during the study are reported.

Moringa oleifera – Household Alternative Coagulant for Water Treatment

Majithiya H. M., Gidde M. R. and Maithiya A. H


Coagulation-flocculation followed by sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, often by chlorine, is use worldwide in the water treatment industry before the distribution
of treated water to consumers. The term coagulation is use to mean first stage in the formation of precipitate while flocculation consist building up the particles of floc to a larger size that can be removed by sedimentation. A series of experiments was conducted on three synthetic raw water turbidities viz. 50, 150, and 450 NTU representing low, medium and moderately high range, respectively to investigate the effects of dosage using shelled blended M. oleifera distilled water extract as coagulant and shelled blended oil extracted distilled water extract and for comparison with Alum also used as coagulant, residual turbidity was used as the parameter to judge the performance of the process. Increase dosage of Moringa oleifera lead to decrease turbidity upto the optimum dosage after which the residual turbidity increases due to floc restabilization. 

Importance of Fuzzy logic in Multiple Powers Generating Area over PID

Suresh Chand and Vinod Kumar Singh


Fuzzy logic and probability are different ways of expressing uncertainty. While both fuzzy logic and probability theory can be used to represent subjective belief, fuzzy set theory uses the concept of fuzzy set membership (i.e., how much a variable is in a set), and probability theory uses the concept of subjective probability (i.e., how probable do I think that a variable is in a set). While this distinction is mostly philosophical, the fuzzy-logicderived possibility measure is inherently different from the probability measure, hence they are not directly equivalent. However, many statisticians are persuaded by the work of Bruno de Finetti that only one kind of mathematical uncertainty is needed and thus fuzzy logic is unnecessary. On the other hand, Bart Kosko argues that probability is a sub theory of fuzzy logic, as probability only handles one kind of uncertainty. Fuzzy logic controllers (FLC’s) have the following advantages over the conventional controllers: they are cheaper to develop, they cover a wider range of operating conditions, and they are more readily customizable in natural language terms. A self-organizing fuzzy controller can automatically refine an initial approximate set of fuzzy rules.

A Study of Physicochemical, Statistical and Drinking Water Quality Analysis of Groundwater of Kankrej Taluka of Banaskantha District of Gujarat State (India)

Kiran V. Mehta


As a supplementary resource to surface water, groundwater is a precious natural resource for drinking water. Like the other natural resources, it should be monitored sporadically and citizens should be made aware of the quality of drinking water. For the present study, different samples of groundwater were collected from the various locations of Kankrej taluka of Gujarat state of India and their physicochemical parameters like temperature, colour, odour, turbidity, electrical conductance (E.C.), pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity and concentrations of ions like fluoride, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium sodium and potassium were assessed. The results were compared with the drinking water guidelines of Indian Standard (IS) and World Health Organization(WHO). For the statistical studies, values of mean, standard deviations and correlation co-efficient (r) were calculated to determine the strength of relation between variables.

Analysis on tie-line control of grid solar system

Rituraj Jalan, H. P. Agarwal, Virendra Kumar Maurya , Rishi Asthana and Dharmendra Pal


The human activities contribute to the global warming of the planet. As aresult, every country strives to reduce carbon emissions. Numbers of efforts are being
undertaken by the Governments around the world to explore alternative energy
sources and to achieve pollution reduction. Solar electric or photovoltaic technology
is one of the biggest renewable energy resources to generate electrical power and the fastest growing power generation in the world. The main aim of this work is to
analyze the interface of photovoltaic system to the load, the power electronics and the method to track the maximum power point (MPP) of the solar panel. Then main
emphasis is to be placed on the photovoltaic system, the modeling and simulation
photovoltaic array, the MPP control and the DC/DC converter will be analyzed and
evaluated. The step of modeling with MATLAB and Simulink of the photovoltaic
system is shown respectively and simulation results are provided.

Analysis on Micro Grid using Solar Cell / Photovoltaic- Fuel Cell for Energy Supply in Remote Areas

Virendra Kumar Maurya, H.P. Agarwal, Rituraj Jalan,Rishi Asthana and Dharmendra Pal


This paper aims to investigate how sustainable electricity generators such as fuel cells and photovoltaics and appropriate storage elements like batteries and supercapacitors are best integrated in energy systems suitable for domestic application. Research topics in this context include bidirectional and multiport dc-dc converter topologies, modeling and control of power converters, means for storing energy, system power flow management, public utility interconnection system, and power quality control Solar energy can be exploited for meeting the ever-increasing requirement of energy in our country. Its suitability for decentralized applications and its environment-friendly nature make it an attractive option to supplement the energy supply from other sources.A generation system can simultaneously be operated as an active filter to deal with local harmonic-producing loads. MATLAB simulations perform comparative tests of two popular MPPT algorithms using actual irradiance data. The thesis decides on the output sensing direct control method because itrequires fewer sensors. This allows a lower cost system. Each subsystem is modeled in order to simulate the whole system in MATLAB. It employs SIMULINK to model a DC pump motor, and the model is transferred into MATLAB. Then, MATLAB simulations verify the system and functionality of MPPT. At last we present the implementation of a generalized photovoltaic model using Matlab/Simulink software package, which can be representative of PV cell, module, and array for easy use on simulation platform. The proposed model is designed with a user-friendly icon and a dialog box like Simulink block libraries. This makes the generalized PV model easily simulated and analyzed in conjunction with power electronics for a maximum power point tracker. Taking the effect of sunlight irradiance and cell temperature into consideration, the output current and power characteristics of PV model are simulated and optimized using the proposed model. This enables the dynamics of PV power system to be easily simulated, analyzed, and optimized. The integrated hybrid green energy system with key subsystems are digitally simulated using the Matlab/Simulink/Sim-Power software environment and fully validated for efficient energy utilizations and enhanced interface power quality under different operating conditions and load excursions.

Input Expenditure, Productivity and Rate of Return

Jagdeep Singh and H.S. Yadav


The present paper analyzes the farm size, productivity and profitability in districts of Mansa and Jalandhar. The main reason behind wheat and paddy being major crops is less risk involved in production as well as sale due to minimize support prices. Cotton though less popular is cultivated in Mansa mainly due to non- uitability of soil for paddy cultivation and low water availability. The result of survey show that the cost of cultivation is higher for marginal and small farmers compare to medium and large. Potato and maize are labour intensive crops, which render these crops suitable for marginal and small farmer. The higher return on potato provide an extra incentive to marginal and small farmers however it may not attract medium and large farmers as they are already getting similar level due to their cost advantage in cultivation of wheat. 

Cyber Threats and Security for Wireless Devices

Mahendra Singh Bora and Amarjeet Singh


In today’s increasingly interconnected and social world, mobile devices are an integral part of people’s lives. From smart phones to tablets to feature phones, mobile usage is growing steadily, fuelled by the popularity of social networking, mobile and Internet apps, multi-media entertainment, online banking and ecommerce. As the growth in mobile devices creates new opportunities for consumers and businesses alike, there are also new threats emerging. The growing popularity and convenience of digital networks, however, come at a cost. As businesses and societies in general increasingly rely on computers and internet-based networking, cyber crime and digital attack incidents have increased around the world. The first major instance of cyber crime reported in 2000, when a mass-mailed computer virus affected nearly 45 million computer users worldwide. This paper examines the quickly evolving mobile landscape, Cyber Crimes, Business and Technical Decisions and Tradeoffs Companies, which will have to make to address the risk of fraud in the mobile channels.

A new approach to Artificial Intelligence

Ankush Narkhede and Asutosh Kumar Pandey


In this paper, we outline our approach to incrementally building complete intelligent creatures. The fundamental decomposition of the intelligent system is not into independent information processing units, which must interface with each other via representations. Instead, the intelligent system is decomposed into independent and parallel activity producers, which all interface directly to the world through perception and action, rather than interface to each other particularly much. The notions of central and peripheral systems evaporate everything is both central and peripheral. Based on these principles we have built a very successful series of mobile robots, which operate without supervision as creatures in standard office environments.

Distribution of Helminth parasites in Bagridae Catfishes (Order Siluriformes)

Nadia Maika, Pinky Kaur and Kamlesh Borana


Present study was conducted to investigate the distribution of helminth parasites in catfishes belonging to family Bagridae. Four species namely, Sperata seenghala, Mystus cavasius and M. tengara belonging to family Bagridae were screened for the occurrence of helminth parasites. Five helminth species were recorded during the investigation period, which includes two digenetic trematodes, one species of cestode, and two species of acanthocephalan. The maximum prevalence (100%) was showed by Mystus tengara followed by Mystus cavasius (80%) and minimum (36.36%) by Sperata seenghala. Thus, variation in distribution or prevalence of parasites in a particular host fish which may depend on their feeding habit or immunity of fish.

Conversion of an old, abandoned chestnut forest into simple coppice and coppice forest into orchards through the wise using of the agroforestry practices and estimated energy potential

Admir Seci, Sunitha N. Seenappa, Bashkim Mal Lushaj, Arnisa B. Lushaj, Arvjen B. Lushaj, Klodian Sin


The chestnut massive of Tropoja district is one among the biggest massifs in the
Balkan region with a total surface of 2408.5 ha. It covers the city of Bajram Curri that is located between the Alps of Albania. Unmanaged chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) forests that exposed todiseases, infestations, and abiotic stress since 1960 to 1980 were considered for the sustainability in Tropoja District of North Albania, Europe. During the year 1981 permanent plots of 2.1ha of 10 numbers were established in two regions of Gashi and Krasniqe. Forest conditions (existing)
recorded-number of chestnut trees, number of chestnut sprouts/saplings,  bservable diseases and infestations like blight disease (causal agent Cryphonectria parasitica), ink disease (causal agent Phytophthora cinnamomi) and yellow mistletoe. Of the ten plots, five plots were taken as control for the studies as coppice stands after removal of old and abandoned chestnut trees (of 90%) at an av. of 142-143 trees/ha, in the year 1982 at av. of 110 trees/ha and up till 2002 at av. 17-18
trees/ha were allowed for simple coppices then transformed into orchards from 2003 to 2008. Thus, maintained plots were ready for harvest in the beginning of the year 2013. The project has shown increased quality of timbers apart from eight-fold increase in growth and yield. As per the records in the year 1982 av. 4025 sprouts/ha were allowed. Simple coppice maintenance with relative rotation time of every five years, at 1983, 1988, 1993 and 1998 were done to record and observe the improvement of health of trees, by grafting and stimulation of crowns. As wise agrosilvicultural practices, thinning at every five years removed about 50% sprouts/ha by razor cutting for the benefits of fruit yielding. Reduced number of sprouts accounted av. 4025 to av. 1005 and further reduced to av. 225 trees/ha. The principal aim to convert simple coppice into orchards by removal of young trees that were unimportant in terms of fruit yield and timber growth. The chestnut trees were harvested during the beginning of year 2013 and the estimated trees/ha is av. 255 to av. 127-128 trees/ha, through the wise agroforestry practices. Planting of
new orchards were carried out cover 50 ha higher than in the year 1981. At the same time was necessary to estimate the energy potential from biomass residues from chestnut and other cultures, and animal wastes, and to increase farm income.

Agricultural Regional Disparity in Indian States: (An Inter Temporal Analysis)

Jaspal Singh, H.S. Yadav,Kulvinder singh and Nirmal singh


Agriculture forms the backbone of the Indian economy; this sector provides
employment to around 65 percent of the total work force in the country. The regional
agricultural disparity remained a serious problem in India. The present study mainly
focus on disparity in use of modern Agriculture inputs and overall level of agricultural
development of Indian states during 1993-1994 to 2003-2004.

Vermicast from Cattle/Goat Manure as Fish Pond Fertilizer and Effect on Water Quality

Rosnani Resdi , Jessy, R.S. and Mahamad Hakimi Ibrahim


Vermicast as organic pond fertilizer can be a good option for pond manuring as they
do not pose long term harm to the soil like chemical fertilizer. Organic pond fertilizers used in this study were cattle dung and goat manure vermicasts, raw cattle dung and raw goat manure. This work focused on evaluating the application of vermicast derived from cattle dung and goat manure as fertilizers in fish ponds apart from the correction of pH on Pangasius hypophthalmus aquaculture wastewater. The substrates had been dried and passed through a 2 mm sized sieve
before treatment. The lowest C:N ratio and highest total phosphorus have been found in goat manure vermicast (8.9, 3390 mg/kg), followed by cattle dung vermicast (10.8, 2925 mg/kg). Five different doses of organic pond fertilizers varied around 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 g/L. Based on the results, 25 g/L doses in all treatments did not differ significantly and they found fit in maintaining the electroconductivity and dissolved oxygen level (respectively at 1600-1700 μS and 4.36-4.48 mg/L) of Pangasius hypophthalmus wastewater. For pH parameter, at 25 g/L raw goat manure treatment significantly different with other treatments (cattle dung vermicast, goat manure vermicast and raw cattle dung). The mean values of pH at range 6.3-6.5 when 25 g/L doses of cattle dung vermicast, goat manure vermicast and raw cattle dung were applied. Meanwhile, application of 25 g/L dose of raw goat manure in aquaculture wastewater was at pH 8.2 which is higher than other treatment. As the application of raw goat manure in aquaculture wastewater increased, the pH and electroconductivity was increased until 9.2 and 3500 μS respectively.

Emissions of Green House Gases is a risk for Carbon Footprint

M. Padmavathi


Carbon footprint is very dangerous effect in the environment to cause ill health in humans. It is mainly caused by the green house gas emissions released from the natural events or persons. To prevent this condition there are some of the remedies to measure this carbon print to protect the people from this harmful effects. The present study shows how this carbon print can be measured and the best ways to protect the human health from very simple steps to be learn by every citizen. 

OHSAS 18001 Performances Efforts and OSHAPerformance in Malaysian Automotive Industry

Auni Fatin Nadia Chiek Desa, Nurul Fadly Habidin, Siti Norhafizan Hibadullah, Nursyazwani Mohd Fuzi


The purposes of this paper are to identify the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001 and Occupational safety and Health Performance (OSHAPM) measures for Malaysian Automotive Industry and to develop research model of the OHSAS 18001 and OSHAPM measures. These paper are review what does OHSAS 18001 efforts and OSHAPM in Malaysian Automotive Industry. A structural relationship model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has been proposed. This model will be used to study the relationship between OHSAS 18001 and OSHAPM in Malaysian automotive industries. Based on the proposed conceptual model and reviewed, research hypotheses are being developed. The research ends with suggest future research work.

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance studies of layered HSLT and its Copper Doped Derivatives

Dharmendra Pal, Shahanshah Haider Abdi, Ghanshyam Tripathi, Sageer Ahmad Khan, Jitendra Kumar Yadav


Sintered ceramic samples of pure and some copper doped layered sodium lithium tri-titanate (NaLiTi3-XCuXO7-X) materials with different dopant molar percentages (0.0<X<1.0) have been prepared. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations of all the copper doped derivatives at room temperature (RT) and at various low temperatures for 0.05 molar percentages doped derivative have been carried out. The distortion of TiO6 octahedra due to the substitution of copper as Cu2+ at Ti4+ sites in the lattice is proposed in this paper. The mechanism of conduction in the intermediate region is associated interlayer ionic conduction and in the highest temperature region is associated modified interlayer ionic conduction.

Effect of enzyme extracts on bacterial degradation of Garage petroleum oils

John Barnabas, Suvro Saha, Vijaya Singh and Satyajeet Das


Studies were conducted to analyze the presence of biodegrading bacteria on the sites of garage oil spills with abundance of hydrocarbons. Contaminated soils and oils were collected from these rich hydrocarbon sites and bacteria were isolated from samples using regular bacterial media enriched with petroleum oil. These  solates were characterized for their efficiency to utilize petroleum oil as their energy source and then the most common isolate was characterized. Further investigations determined the enzymatic effect on bacterial degradation of the oils; extracellular and the intracellular enzymes extracted from the isolate were used to determine the efficiency of oil degradation and uptake by the isolate in the presence of these extracts. Three formulations of the enzymatic extract were used; the extracellular, the intracellular and the mixture of extracellular + intracellular. Significant findings emerged, as the effect of extracellular enzyme in oil degradation and utilization was found to be higher than the effect of the other two formulations.

Crop Diversification in Punjab Agriculture: A Temporal Analysis

Jaspal Singh, H.S. Yadav and Nirmal Singh


Agriculture is the backbone of Punjab economy and agricultural development is central to the strategies for planned development. State of Punjab, which has earned name“Food basket of country” & “Granary of India, is a little big state of India: Little becauseonly 1.5 percent geographical areas occupied by the state and big state because two third of the food grains of the country are produced by the state. Punjab's has 85 percent area under cultivation and cropping intensity is around 185 percent. Major crops of grown in the state are wheat, rice, and cotton. Very recently, the priority is being given to sugarcane, oil seeds, horticulture and forestry. In present study, main objective of the author is found out the diversification trends in Punjab agriculture.

Load Frequency Control of Multiple Powers Generating Area-Using PID

Suresh Chand and Vinod Kumar Singh


This paper presents the development and application of an analytic framework for the formulation and evaluation of control performance criteria in load frequency control (LFC). The framework constructed to explicitly represent the uncertainty in the measured variables in LFC and to use metrics that are meaningful for the structure of the problem. The main objective of Load Frequency Control(LFC) is to
regulate the power output of the electric generator within an area in response to changes in system frequency and tie-line loading .Thus the LFC helps in maintaining the scheduled system frequency and tie-line power interchange with the other areas within the prescribed limits. Frequency transients are minimized and zero steady-state error is obtained The same technique is then applied to control a system composed of two single together through a power load variations can happen independently m both units. Both neural controllers are trained with the back propagate through- time algorithm Use of a neural network to model the dynamic system is avoided by introducing the Jacobean matrices of the system in the back propagation chain used in controller training..