Punjab state had the advantage of irrigation hence the impact of green revolution is clearly visible on the agricultural development in the state. Another point which remains is the impact of green revolution or different size of holdings. The operational holding determines the use of technology and in turn the production and farm income. The size of operating unit affects the income from agriculture which is the main source of income of people. The increase in holdings size further pushed the trend towards rice and wheat cultivation as these crops have higher possibility of use of modern technology. Thus, Punjab experienced two major changes due to productivity changes. First, the most of the gross cropped area was devoted to rice and wheat cultivation, and size of operational holdings has grown over time, which also means lower share of Marginal and Small Holdings.
Raghu Babu, K. and Ragaranjan, D.K.,
Electro Kinetic Potential technique also called zeta potential technique is one of good methods for ore beneficiation. In this method, the required ore material is kept at Electro Kinetic potentials by adding respective chemical to maintain pH. The CaCO3 is kept at electro kinetic potential of pH 9.5 by adding NaOH, which makes the other impurities to attain ionization. This solution is passed through anion and cation resins. The metal impurities of pH less than 9.5 will be trapped in the resins by ion exchange principle and the neutral CaCO3 will be passed along with the solution. Dewatering is done by membrane filtering and pressing techniques. The saturated resin beds can be reactivated and reused.
Kiran B.M, Srikantaswamy. S, Pallavi H.V, Manoj .V and Tahera Tasneem
This work includes the utilization of groundnut shell, which is a low cost biosorbent for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Biosorption is a process that utilizes low-cost biosorbents to sequester toxic heavy metals. Biosorption has distinct advantages over the conventional methods, which include reusability of biomaterial, low operating cost, selectivity for specific metal, short operation time and no chemical sludge. The mechanism of biosorption is complex, mainly ion exchange, chelations, adsorption by physical forces, entrapment in inter and intrafibrilliar capillaries and spaces of the structural polysaccharide network because of the concentration gradient and diffusion through cell walls and membranes. Equilibrium studies and kinetic studies conducted by varying parameters like pH, dosage, concentration. , it was observed that for a contact period of 12 h, the removal efficiency and specific uptake of Cu (II) depends on type and quality of the biosorbent. The percentage removal of Cu (II) using groundnut shell powder as a biosorbent of varied amount from 5 to 50 g/L was 30.4% to 68.2%. This shows that with the increase in concentration of biosorbent, the removal efficiency also increased. Further increase for dosage beyond 50 g/L, there was a negligible increase in percentage removal.
Pallavi.H.V, Srikantaswamy.S, Kiran B.M, Vyshnavi.D.R and Ashwin.C.A
This study aims at converting these agricultural wastes to char, by an ecofriendly, continuous batch process. The char thus obtained can be briquetted into a solid fuel form and later can be used as an efficient, clean source of fuel. Therefore, bagasse and coffee husk selected as a raw material for the carbonization that helps in mitigating both economic and environmental problems. Results obtained shows that the calorific value of briquettes produced from bagasse and coffee husk found to be 10439 KJ/Kg and 11389 KJ/Kg respectively. The briquette produced from the mixture of bagasse and coffee husk in the ratio 3:1 had a calorific value of 11126 KJ/Kg. Briquettes produced from coffee husk have greater calorific value. The calorific value of wood charcoal was found to be 8269 KJ/Kg, which is lesser, compared to the briquettes produced. Hence, briquettes have better physical properties and combustion rate than the initial waste. Production of briquette charcoal helps to ease the pressure on the forest cover, there by solving the deforestation problem.
Dwelling Units Improvement Using the General Guidelines for Healthy Simple House in Kalisari Timur Fishermen Village in Surabaya
Katerina, Reza Fernando, Dyah J. Anindyajati, Happy R. Santosa
Kalisari Timur fishermen village area in Surabaya is one of the settlements in the city of Surabaya which is located in the coastal area and the majority of the population work as fishermen. The economic condition of the population of this area is still low and it impacts to the environment and the condition of the dwelling units, that still not quite feasible in accordance with the Indonesia’s general guidelines for healthy simple house. This paper aims to identify existing problems in the majority of the population dwelling units and to provide solutions to improve the condition of the dwelling area. The research begins with the survey directly to the Kalisari Timur fishermen village to collect the data such as pictures (photographs) to determine the physical condition of the dwelling unit and its environment. Further interviews were conducted with local leader using questionnaires that have been provided previously to know more clearly about the problem. Once the entire contents of the questionnaire have been answered, the next step is to make a percentage of the quantitative benchmarks to draw a conclusion from the condition of the Kalisari Timur fishermen village as a whole. According to the general conclusion, the dominant issues in this area was the dwelling units that are not in accordance with the general guidelines for healthy simple house. The last step to do is to provide solutions on improving dwelling units in the area based on general guidelines for healthy simple house.
Adoption of Oil Palm Production Technologies in Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria
Ugwumba, C. O. A
This study specifically examined level of adoption, determinants and constraints to the adoption of oil palm production technologies by oil palm farmers in Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were respectively used to select five communities from the local government area and 50 oil palm farmers from the five selected communities for the study. Copies of structured interview instrument were administered to the respondents for data collection. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used in analyzing the data. Highest level of adoption (76%) of the oil palm production technologies was achieved with ring weeding technology, while use of fertilizer scored 62% to become the least adopted production technology. Level of adoption was statistically, significantly and positively determined by membership of social organization, farm size, educational level and annual farm income. The greatest constraints to level of adoption of oil palm production technologies were high cost of the technologies and lack of finance. The provision of subsidies and financial supports, as best suggested solutions to the problems by the farmers, would enable purchase of the technologies and improvement their levels of adoption.
D. M. Pathak , N. S. Joshi, M.S. Dulawat and N. V. Patel
Sesame or Til (Sesamum indicum L.) belongs to family Pedaliaceae is one of the principal oilseeds in common use in India. Among the several diseases infecting sesame, phyllody seems much prevalent in Gujarat and especially in Saurashtra region. The incidence of phyllody during kharif and summer seasons ranged from 0 to 1.5 per cent and 0 to 4.7 per cent respectively, in scattered manner and spread of disease was very slow and first affected plant was observed at 40 days and maximum at 75 days after sowing.
Siti Norhafizan Hibadullah, Nurul Fadly Habidin, Nursyazwani Mohd Fuzi, Auni Fatin Nadia Chiek Desa
In the globalization era, ISO 14001 and Environmental performance (EP) are increasingly implemented in the automotive industry. The implementation of Environmental Management System (EMS) specified by this International Standard. It specifies the requirements for an EMS, which provides a framework for an organization to control and monitor their environmental impact of company activities, products and services for improving environmental performance continually. The purpose of this study is to proposed structural relationship ISO 14001 and environmental performance model for Malaysia automotive industries. The conceptual model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has been proposed. Base on the proposed conceptual model and reviewed, research hypotheses are being develop, the paper culminates with suggested future research.
C. P. Kumar
The surface water and groundwater resources of the country play a major role in agriculture, hydropower generation, livestock production, industrial activities, forestry, fisheries, navigation, recreational activities, etc. Traditionally, India has been an agriculture-based economy. Hence, development of irrigation to increase agricultural production for making the country self-sustained and for poverty alleviation has been of crucial importance for the planners. The rainfall in India shows great variations, unequal seasonal distribution, still more unequal geographical distribution and the frequent departures from the normal. In view of the existing status of water resources and increasing demands of water for meeting the requirements of the rapidly growing population of the country as well as the problems that are likely to arise in future, a holistic, well-planned long-term strategy needed for sustainable water resources management in India.
Study on Water Requirement of Maize (Zea mays L.) using CROPWAT Model in Northern Transitional Zone of Karnataka
Thimme Gowda P., Manjunaththa S. B., Yogesh T. C. and Sunil A. Satyareddi
Appropriate strategies for planning and management of irrigated farmland. One of the major practices adopted by the researchers for estimating water requirement of crop is modelling. For determination of crop evapotranspiration and yield responses to water, CROPWAT model is used, which was developed by the Land and Water Development Division of Food Agricultural Organization (FAO). It includes a simple water balance model that allows the simulation of crop water stress conditions and estimation of yield reductions based on well established methodologies. An experiment to study water requirement of maize (Zea mays L.) for under rainfed condition at Dharwad was conducted during kharif season of 2011 in field deep black soil at Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad. The field experimental data with the two dates of sowing of maize i.e June 16, 2010 and July 30, 2010 were collected and analyzed. The total water requirement of maize sown at an early date was 116.0 mm and that of sown at late date was 183.8 mm. As a result, the water demand was more as compared to early sown maize. Therefore, water requirement of maize varied with planting dates.
Yogesh, T.C., Viswanath, A.P. and Thimmegowda, P.
An experiment was conducted in the Zonal agriculture research station at V.C.Farm, Mandya during kharif 2008 to study the yield and economics of aerobic paddy cultivation with application of zinc, iron and microbial inoculants. The results of the experiment revealed that among the different treatments RDF + FYM 10 t ha-1 + ZnSO4 @ 20 kg ha-1 + VAM + Azospirillum + PSB recorded significantly higher grain yield (43.63 q ha-1), cost of cultivation (Rs. 14165 ha-1), gross returns (Rs. 44637 ha-1) and net returns (Rs. 30472 ha-1) but application of RDF alone recorded higher B:C ratio (2.28).
A Review: The Description of Three Different Biological Filtration Processes and Economic Evaluation
M.Sakunthala, V.Sridevi, M.V.V.Chandana lakshmi, K.Vijay kumar
Biofiltration is an emerging air pollution control (APC) technology that provides a cost-effective alternative to the state-of-the-art technologies, including carbon adsorption and catalytic/thermal oxidation processes. Although biofiltration has been used to control odors for more than four decades, its industrial application for eliminating volatile toxic air pollutants has only been developed during the past fifteen years. This review presents an overview on comparison of three vapor phase bio filtration processes and economic evaluation of biofiltration technology.
Virendra Kumar Maurya, Dharmendra Pal, Rashmi Raghav,Avnish Burman, Ruchika Khare and Apoorva Tripa
This paper provides the components of a standalone photovoltaic system. The word standalone refers to the fact that the system works without any connection to an established power grid. We have presented the basic concepts of the generation and storage of photovoltaic solar energy. We have also provided a method for designing a functional solar system with limited access to information and resources. This paper discusses the use of solar energy for the direct production of electricity (photovoltaic solar energy). Solar energy can also be used to heat fluids (thermal solar energy) which can then be used as a heat source or to turn a turbine to generate electricity.
Fluoride Concentration in Ground Water samples and its long term effect in Sawai Madhopur Town Rajasthan
Fluoride intake has significant effect on human health. Analysis of ground water samples from Sawai Madhopur town collected during November and December 2010. 17 ground water samples were collected from different places of Sawai Madhopur town. The quality analysis has been made through the pH, EC, TDS, Total Hardness, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride and Alkalinity. It was found that fluoride concentration was ranging from 0.10 to 3.6 mg/l. The permissible limit of Fluoride is 0.5-1.5 mg/L. High Fluoride concentration may cause dental, skeletal and non skeletal fluorosis. Low concentration of fluoride 0.5mg/l have shown to intensify the risk of tooth decay.
Abhinav Kumar, Pushpendra Vikram Singh, Amit Sharma, Lekha Nain Saxena, Jai deep
This paper presents causes of noise generation in transformers and its mitigation. The ministry of environment has specified noise level for different areas i.e. industrial, commercial and residential. In this paper there are three causes of noise generation in transformer i.e. core sound, load sound and sound by cooling fans & pumps. Various methods are suggested in this paper in order to mitigate the sound in transformer.
Vinod Kumar Agrawal and Sukhveer Saini
Rajasthan state economy is based on agriculture. In the state, land holding is very small. Most of the farmers are either small or marginal. Land records constitute vital element both in anti poverty strategy and for modernization. Majority of our people are under its direct control by way of their possessing even a small piece of land. Historically Land Records Administration is one of the oldest and traditional Government departments. Patwari at village level maintains record of land. With the traditional way of working and record storing, searching and updating has increased manifold and these methods have become inadequate to cope up with the situation. Basic record of ownership details are maintained in Jamabandi. Land transaction is a regular phenomenon. Today one piece of land owned by one, tomorrow it may be with other. The legal transformation of land takes place by mutation. Based on mutation, transactions are marked in Jamabandi where it affects the ownership. As per the act, one fourth of total villages of each tehsil, new Jamabandis are written every year by rotation, which is quite cumbersome & time consuming. The enormity of the problem can be ensured by the fact that majority of tenants are not much literate and do not know of anything until the time their land rights are jeopardized. Therefore, to bring efficiency into the system computerization needed and it has naturally a direct and immediate impact on majority of the people, particularly rural population. A Pilot project for land record computerisation was started in Jaipur and Barmer district of Rajasthan in 1995. Later on, it was implemented in all the tehsils of the state. A case study was conducted of Chomu tehsil to know the status of Land Record Computerisation in the month of August 2012.
Rajneesh Kakar and Shikha Kakar
The aim of the present paper is to investigate the surface waves in a nonhomogeneous, isotropic, viscoelastic solid medium of nth order including time rate of strain. The theory of generalized surface waves has firstly been developed and then it has been employed to investigate particular cases of waves, viz., Stoneley, Rayleigh and Love type. The wave velocity equations have been obtained for different cases and are in well agreement with the corresponding classical result, when the effect of viscosity, magnetism as well as non-homogeneity of the material medium are ignored.
Mayank Jha, Archana Singh, R.K Tyagi and M K Verma
The aim of this work is to find out composition of exhaust gases from I.C engine when CNG, LPG, Petroleum are used. The main consequence of exhaust gases are environmental pollution. The environmental pollution depends upon presence of pollutants like CO, NOx, HC & PM. This paper aspires to find out the fuel that emits minimum pollution when used in the same automobile, thereby finding a cleaner, environment friendlier fuel. The results presented in the project are obtained from an experimental study carried out on a Maruti Alto Car. Experimental investigation indicates that CNG, LPG and petrol have significant effect on exhaust gases. In spark ignition engines, the output parameter is achieved by controlling various input fuels. This paper discusses the effects of various input fuels on exhaust gases.
M.I.Khan, Abhinav Kumar, Amit Sharma, Pushpendra Vikram Singh
Energy security has an important bearing on achieving national economic development goals and improving the quality of life of the people. The level of per capita energy consumption has for long been considered as one of the key indicator of economic growth. In this paper an attempt has been made to present potential of non-conventional renewable energy sources in India. Different renewable energy technologies (RET) and their advantages are also discussed.
Neeraj Shukla and Anuj Kumar
Neural networks, with their remarkable ability to derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, can be used to extract patterns and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer techniques. A trained neural network can be thought of as an expert in the category of information it has been given to analyse. Concerning image processing it is very interesting to recognize the human gesture used for general life applications. For instance, observing the gesture of a driver when he/she is driving and alerting him/her when in sleepy mood will be quite useful. Human gestures can be identified by observing the different movements of eyes, mouth, nose and hands. Here we are focusing on the human face for recognizing expression. Many techniques are available to recognize face. This paper planned facial expression recognition using back-propagation of neural network. The procedures are image capturing, face detection, filtering, facial feature extraction and recognition using neural network. The proposed method can recognize the facial expression from image captured well.
To Study the Domestic As Well As Community Storage Systems With Respect To Quality of Water and Health Status of the Common People
M.A.Jane and S.P.Ingole
This study has investigated domestic as well as community storage system with respect to quality of water & health status of common people. The type of storage container & hand contact with stored drinking water has been associated with increased incidence of diarrheal diseases. There is also circumstantial evidence of linking such factors as the sanitary conditions in the domestic environment, cultural norms & poverty with the pathogen load of household stored drinking water & hence the risk of diseases transmission. Drinking water provision indicated that the community was exposed to water related health risk when consuming the water supplied. The study indicated that although the public water supply was of good quality, the stored water, once fetched from the standpipes, deteriorated the quality which often was not safe for human consumption.
Monthly water samples were collected from containers kept inside the houses & overhead tanks of selected families. Parameters were analyzed mainly TDS, sulphates, chlorides, hardness, residual chlorine, biological parameter (MPN). The reason for the deterioration varied from poor container hygiene & open containers subjected to environmental pollution, to the manner of handling of water by individuals in households.
A.K.Pandey, Jamaluddin, Rashmi Dubey, A.K.Awasthi and Amit Pandey
Isolation of soil mycoflora from sugar industries of M.P. was carried out by soil dilution method. Forty three soil samples were collected from different sites of various sugar industries of m.p. during winter season. About different species belongs to various groups viz. zygomycotina, ascomycotina and deuteromycotina were identified with the help of relevant literature. In investigation period 136 colonies were observed, a total of 45 taxa belonging to 19 genera were isolated. The maximum percentage contribution was of Aspergillus niger (100 %) followed by A. flavus and A. lucheunsis. The minimum contribution is of Curvularia lunata (1.39 %). the maximum of species belongs to anamorphic fungi.
D.Shiva Kumar andS.Srikantaswamy
Metals are considered as important toxic pollutants and there is extensive literature concerning their accumulation in ecosystems. Metals are continuously released into the biosphere by natural processes like volcanoes, weathering of rocks and also by various anthropogenic activities, such as mining, combustion of fuels, industrial and urban sewage and agricultural practices. On a global scale there is now abundant evidence that anthropogenic activities has polluted the surrounding environment with heavy metals from the poles to the tropics and from the mountains to the depths of the oceans. Once metals are introduced and contaminate the environment, they will remain. Metals do not degrade like carbon-based (organic) molecules. The only exceptions are mercury and selenium, which can be transformed and volatilized by microorganisms. However, in general it is very difficult to eliminate metals from the environment. Traditional treatments for metal contamination in soils are expensive and cost prohibitive when large areas of soil are contaminated. In this present studies on metal pollution in industrial area of Mysore city has been taken. Also, metal speciation, bioaccumulation in biota, as well as abiotic and biotic factors affecting their bioavailability, and ecological effects of heavy metal pollution will be studied. The geochemical behaviour of heavy metals were analysed through speciation studies. Studies show that the metals mobility is less in the heavy metals mobility is little low in the Exchangeable metal fraction and Carbonate bound metal fractions. But in the Fe– Mn oxide metal fraction and Organic and sulfide metal fractions mobility of the metals is comparatively little higher than the other fraction. The final residual metal fraction has the total remaining metal content in the sample In this study period, the industrial surrounding area soil has lost their natural fertility with the addition of some heavy metals by physico-chemical analysis.