Seasonal Variation in Water Temperature on the South East Coast of Tamil Nadu, India

John Peter Paul J.


The present investigation was carried out to assess the water temperature at different stations of Kanyakumari region in the south east coast of Tamil Nadu from January 2007 to December 2010. The surface water temperature ranges between 24.32 to 29.36 °C. The maximum water temperature was observed in the summer season and the minimum water temperature was recorded during the post-monsoon season in all the selected stations. In the present study Vattakottai was found to have the maximum temperature and minimum temperature was observed in Kanyakumari station. 

Techniques for Controlling Lake Eutrophication

Peter Osei Boamah, Jacqueline Onumah and Tayari Salifu


Lake Eutrophication is a global environmental issue used to express the ageing of a lake. It occurs naturally in the environment and the associated time span can be measured in the geological timeframe. Recently, man has rapidly increased his use of nutrients especially in agricultural fertilizers and detergents, many of which end up in waterways and accelerate the process of Eutrophication. Population increase, industrial growth, intensification of agricultural production, river-basin development, recreational use of waters, and domestic and industrial exploitation of shore  properties have made the problem of Lake Eutrophication more crucial. This review seeks to review literature on eutrophication process, types of Lake Eutrophication, Lake Eutrophication sources/causes, role of agriculture and wastewater in eutrophication, effect of eutrophication and techniques for controlling eutrophication processes. 

Spray Drying as an Appropriate Technology for the Food and Pharmaceutical Industries - A

Afoakwah A. N. , Adomako C., Owusu .J , Engman N. F, Hannah A. A


Spray drying is a method used to produce dry powder from a liquid or slurry by rapidly drying with a hot gas and it is mostly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. This paper covers the parameters of spray dryer, principles of spray dryer, basics of spray drying, dryer configuration, collection of dried powder, and flow of drying gas, process design and control. Spray dryers can dry a product very quickly compared to other methods of drying. They also turn a solution or slurry into a dried powder in a single step, which can be advantageous for profit maximization and process simplification. Spray dryers employ atomizer or spray nozzle to disperse the liquid or slurry into a controlled drop size spray. The commonest of these are rotary disks and single-fluid high pressure swirl nozzles. Spray drying offers multiple opportunities that no other single drying technology can claim. Besides spray drying offers unique opportunities in particle size engineering. 

AC Conductivity Studies of Lithium Mixed Layered Potassium Tetra Titanates (K2-XLixTi4O9) With EPR and XRD Analysis

Dharmendra Pal, Shahanshah Haider Abd , Ghanshyam Tripathi , Virendra Kumar Maurya , Sageer Ahmad Kh


Lithium mixed Potassium Tetra Titanates with 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 molar percentage of Li2CO3 (general formula K2-XLiXTi4O9) have prepared by a high temperature solid-state reaction route. The XRD results indicate that Lithium ions enter the unit cell maintaining the layered structure of solid solution. The crystals are monoclinic for x= 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5. EPR analysis, high temperature range (373-798K) in frequency range 100 kHz-1MHz ac conductivity measurements were carried out on prepared sample. The Lithium ions are accommodated with the Potassium ions in  the interlayer space. The EPR spectra of Lithium mixed Potassium Tetra Titanates confirm the partial reduction of Ti4+ ions to Ti3+. Four distinct regions have identified in the LnσT vs 1000/T plots. Various conduction mechanisms, which dependence on concentration, frequency and temperature are reported in this paper. 

Assessment of Target Hazard Quotients and Hazard Indices for Heavy Metals Contained In Edible Leaves of Gnetum Africanum and Gnetum Buchholzianum Harvested in Cameroon

Robert M. Nemba and Jean F. Sabouang


This study has been focused to the of the EDXRF qualitative and quantitative investigation of mineral elements contained in the leaves of Gnetum Africanum (GA) and Gnetum Buchhholzianum (GB). The results obtained reveals in both plant species an identical presence of four non metal elements: K, Ca, Rb, Sr and six metallic elements: Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr. The mean concentrations in ppm on dry weight basis, found for K, Ca, Rb and Sr were: 13322 ± 789, 6656 ± 400, 35 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 in GA and 12233 ± 722, 17544 ± 1000, 30 ± 2, 42 ± 3 in GB. The mean concentrations found for Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr were respectively: 1232 ± 67, 391 ± 23, 21 ± 1, 9 ± 1, 6 ±1 and 4 ±1 in GA and 1578 ± 99, 488 ± 30, 19 ± 1, 9 ± 1, 6±1 and 5 ± 1 in GB. The averaged values of target hazard quotients (THQs) for five non carcinogen heavy metals Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr were: 0.4908, 0.0038, 0.0131, 0.0170 and 0.0001 in GA and 0.6278, 0.0036, 0.0128, 0.0158, and 0.0002 in GB. The hazard index (HI) measuring the aggregated risk due to the heavy metal uptake via the consumption of GA and GB leaves were respectively: 0.5248 and 0.6602. The THQ and HI values generally less than 1 throughout the nine sampling sites, suggest that the consumption of these vegetables could be considered safe and without risk to human health. 

Analysis of the Water Quality of Wetlands in Mainpuri District (U.P.) India

Amita Sarkar and Bhavna Upadhyay


Wetlands are probably the earth’s most important fresh water resource and are also the most threatened .They having intrinsic ecological and environmental values. The present investigation was carried out to analyse the physico-chemical parameters of wetlands, viz- Site-I (Markandeshwar), Site-II (Bhamwat Canal), Site-III (Saman ), Site IV(Sauj) and Site-V(Kirithua) in Mainpuri District. The survey of these wetlands was done between April 2011 to February 2012.Here, we discuss-O.R.P. Sodium,Potassium ,Magnesium,Nitrite Nitrogen, Nitrate Nitrogen,CO2,Chromium,Cadmium,Copper and Lead.The results of the present investigations were compared with literature values and investigation reveals that, there is fluctuation in the physico-chemical characters of the water due to the various biotic and abiotic factors. Saman and Sauj(Site-III and IV) are IBAs(Important bird areas) under Important Bird Areas Programmes of BNHS and Bird Life International. 

Socio-economic Impacts of Fadama Development Programme on the Participating Farmers of the Two Zones of Kebbi State Agricultural and Rural Development Authority

Ango, A. K., A. I. Illo and F. Y. Jibrin


The research was conducted in the year 2000 to examine the socioeconomic impacts of the Fadama Development Programme on the life of the participating farmers. Two zones out of four zones of Kebbi State Agricultural and Rural Development Authority (K.A.R.D.A) was selected for the study. A Sample of 120 participating farmers were randomly selected in the two zones. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data generated with help of SPSS 16.0 Version. The results of the study revealed that majority (85.8%) of the participating farmers were males and were within the age range of 41-50 years with farm sizes of 2-3 hectares. The findings of the research also reveals that most of the participating farmers were involved in the planning and execution of the programme and only registered farmers of Fadama Users Association (FUAs) were found to benefit from the provision of the agricultural inputs by the fadama development programme. The finding of the research indicated that the income generated from the rice and vegetable production among the participating farmers was found to be profitable and the land ownership of the farmers had increased after participating in to the programme. The study also revealed that the participating farmers were allowed freely to plant crop of their choice. The Chisquare test result indicates that the demographic characteristics of the farmers are not significantly associated with the fadama programme (χ²=0.6157, P < 0.92239) except farm size (χ²=31.763; p<0.001). The Pearson Product Moment Correlation test on the input provided and project participation status revealed that the technology provided to the farmers by the project has significant influence on the socio-economy of the farmers (r = 0.2479, P <0.001). It is recommended that farmers should be more involved in the programme planning and should be provided with agricultural inputs irrespective of being a registered member of the fadama users association or not. 

Studies on Influence of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Cadmium Chloride on GonadoSomatic Index (GSI) of Air-Breathing Fish Heteropneustes Fossilis

Shivani Sharma, Sadhna Tamot, Vipin Vyas, Pinky Kaur, Rumeet Kaur Raina and Rekha C


Present study evaluates the sub lethal effect of cadmium chloride in the gonado -somatic indexes of the air-breathing fish, Heteropneustes fossilis which were kept in aqueous solution of cadmium chloride (sub-lethal concentration of 6 mg/l and 9 mg/l) for 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Results showed significant reduction in the gonado-somatic index after long term exposure (45-60 days) exposure while a mild effect on short term (15-30 days) exposure of cadmium chloride to the fish was observed.

Pathogenicity of some species of Achlya and Saprolegnia on Indian Major carps viz. Catla catla, Cirrihinus mrigala and Labeo rohita

Rekha Chauhan, Pinky Kaur and Shivani Sharma


An investigation was conducted on fungal infected Indian Major Carps viz. Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita collected from Sarangpani Lake. During the study period from July 2011 to December 2011, total seven species of fungi have been isolated from the lesions and affected muscles of infected fishes. These fungal isolates were cultured under laboratory conditions and identified as Achlya americana, A. klebsiana, A. orion, A. prolifera, Saprolegnia diclina, S. ferax and S.parasitica. Pathogenicity of all the seven species of fungi was tested on different major carps. All the isolates were found pathogenic to fishes but A. prolifera and S. parasitica were found to be most virulent showed 100% mortality of the experimental fishes. Percentage prevelance of infection have also been found out. Maximum percentages of infections (47.4%) were recorded in Catla catla in the month of December and minimum (8.9%) in Cirrhinus mrigala in August.

Remedial Measure in Overlays and Mass Concretecracking



An overlay can be constructed by placing mortar or concrete over a concrete surface. The use of overlays has rapidly increased since the early 1970s. Overlays can be divided into three groups. If the base slab is relatively crack free, or if the overlay is sufficiently thick and strong to resist the extension of cracks in the original slab, a well-bonded layer with matched joints is generally the best approach. There are many causes for developing cracks in overlays. Long-term observations of many overlays have shown that cracking due to differential shrinkage is the most common problem. Structural cracking can result from individual loads or load combinations, such as gravity, liquid pressure, and severe impact. Structural cracks are of any width but generally align in a structurally possible direction. The formation of hairline or wide crack usually indicates the existence, before the crack’s formation; of principal tensile stress perpendicular to the crack. There are two measures that can minimize cracking. To ensure both the owner's and the engineer's satisfaction with the results, it should have the arrangement for inspection either by the owner's personnel, the engineer, or a reliable professional inspection service that will ensure that the construction is performed on the same basis, as it was bid.

Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in Industrial Areas of Rajasmand and Udaipur Districts

B. R. Bamniya, C.S. Kapoor, Smita Jain and K. Kapoor


Weather and climate have integrated impact on human activities resulting in worldwide concentration of the particulates of environmental pollution, viz., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxide, lead and several other dust and gaseous particles. The present study was conducted at Rajpura Dariba mines of Rajasmand, Hindustan Zinc Smelter, Debari, Madri Industrial Area and Sukher (marble processing Industrial area) of the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. The air quality monitoring conducted around industrial plants at above sites indicated that the pollutant  concentration were highest at sampling station 1 which was closest to the factory.

A Generalized PV Model and Array Developed with Matlab/Simulink

Virendra Kumar Maurya, Rituraj Jalan, Hanuman Prasad Agarwal


A generalized PV model which is representative of the all PV cell, module, and array has been developed with Matlab/Simulink and been verified with a PV cell and a commercial module. The proposed model takes sunlight irradiance and cell  temperature as input parameters and outputs the I-V and P-V characteristics under various conditions. This model has also been designed in the form of Simulink block libraries. The masked icon makes the block model more user-friendly and a dialog box lets the users easily configure the PV model. Such a generalized PV model is easy to be used for the implementation on Matlab/Simulink modeling and simulation platform. Especially, in the context of the SimPowerSystem tool, there is now a generalized PV model which can be used for the model and analysis in the filled of solar PV power conversion system.

On Optimal Trajectory in Space Flight

S. Orlov


Are investigated a trajectory of new type in distant, space flights Unlike usual trajectories of direct flight to heavenly object (Moon) it is supposed to use asymmetry of a gravitational field and to carry out flight bypassing the most power gravitational impact on the spacecraft. It leads to economy of power for 20-30 %.

Acidic Precipitation: An Emerging Cause of Variation in the Engineering Properties of Soils

Pankaj Sharma, Sameer Vyas, N.V.Mahure, R.P.Pathak and Devender Singh


Acidification of rain is caused by air pollutants like sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen etc. which reduces its pH as low as 4. Although the H+ concentration of acid rain falling for a short duration is very low in comparison to cation exchange capacity of soil yet its effect on the physical, chemical and engineering properties of soil needs to be studied. Ever growing industrialization/pollution will increase frequency, persistence and intensity of acid rain. This will certainly enhance the rate of leaching of cations from the soil to a great extent. Absorption of H+, SO4 2-, NO3 - and CO3 2- by the soil particles is likely to alter its engineering properties. Therefore it is imperative to examine the properties of soils eroded due to acid rain in order to augment understanding of its influence on geotechnical engineering particularly when used in fields, embankment or in earth fill dams. Objective of this study is to find degree of variation in the engineering properties of soil of different plasticity when exposed to acid rains having different pH. Soil samples were collected and acidified with varying probable simulated strength of acid rain equivalent to normality 0.005N, 0.01N, 0.02N and 0.04N of H2SO4 / HNO3. The consistency and strength characteristics of the samples are determined for the soil fraction passing 425 μm sieves. The paper presents the observed degree of variation in these properties under varying strengths of acid rain.  

Computational study of Day lighting Hours for Different Climatic Zone

Pravesh Kumar, Nishu Singh and Gaurav Kumar Rastogi


This paper presents a literature review concerning the effects of Daylight on energy use. The objective of this paper is to evaluate maximum and minimum sunshine hours for different climatic zone in India and abroad. The solar Energy Application are directly depends on the sunshine hours for better estimation of Heat Flux calculation. The computational results presented in this paper shows that the sunshine hours are different for different climatic zones and also follow the condition of equinox of sun. The computationally investigated maximum sunshine hours neglecting cloudiness effect for Meerut, Leh in India and Boulder in USA are 13.9 hrs, 14.26 hrs and 14.50 hrs in June respectively while the minimum sunshine hours for Meerut, Leh in India and Boulder in USA are 10.14 hrs, 9.43 hrs and 9.15 hrs in December respectively. The maximum sunshine hours are for June 21st and minimum for December 21st 

Dynamic Analysis of a Shaper Machine Cutting Tool and Crank Pin

R. K. Tyagi, M.Verma, and Sukanya Borah


in this article simulation of Whitworth quick-return mechanism has been done by using MSC ADAMS software. ADAMS software helps to study dynamic analysis and animation of shaper machine parts. In this paper velocity and acceleration of cutting tool w.r.t time is discussed. Force and torque versus time for crank pin are also discussed with the help of MSC ADAMS software. 

Software designing of Laser communication and Security system

Ashwani Kumar Chaudhary, Dharmndra Pal, Vijay Kumar Gupta, Virendra Kumar Maurya and Prakash Chandra


The Laser communication system is compact, efficient, reliable and inexpensive, which can be associated as one of the form of optical communications system. It can used for inter and intra-building communication, closed circuit TV’s, PC, LAN’ etc. It is suitable for the study of optical communication specifically laser based communication. It has achieved a high-speed rate communication up to megabits per second and a reasonably low error rates. it enables communication unto several hundred meters and this technology can be extended in future to enable longer distance communication by using parabolic light reflector. It can also be utilized as a security system. The receiver circuit provides an audio-visual indication of the interruption by sounding an alarm. Laser communication has many advantages over traditional radio communication especially in high data rate. 

Sustainable Development of Ecotourism in Lalzi Bay as Biodiversity Conservation: For Challenges and Opportunities

Arnisa Lushaj, Arvjen Lushaj, Sunitha N. Seenappa, Georgia Butina-Watson, Bashkim Lushaj, Vera Malsi


Tourism and coastal lines are the business sectors since centuries especially in the European Nations and Albania is one such spots. However, in recent decades tourism is experienced as vulnerability of the surrounding ecological conditions of air, soil, water, land and the communities that are dependant and sharing the ecosystem among flora and fauna. Experts opine that apart from the maintenance of near-originality of ecological biodiversity the  tourism rather known as ecotourism an indigenous socio-cultural maintenance of indigenous/traditional knowledge of the local people must be well cared in order to sustain on sustainable grounds. As a general tendency, growth of tourism has been affected by the deterioration in the economic conditions on one aspect and unsustainable ecological areas affected since human interventions earlier to this has negative impact on futuristic tourist spots. However, tourism in Albania as of now is 11% of GDP and coastal regions accounting to 2-4%. An amicable Mediterranean climate with 300 sunny days similar parameters of Greece and Spain throws up sustainable ecotourism in future decades provided public services namely, transportation, road safety, lodging, food availability, recreational regiments, banking accessibility are as per the World Tourism Organizations’ protocols. Thus as of Albanian situation, classification of ecotourism activities to safe-guard the localities with its maintenance of ecological land, water and  climate has become a paramount importance with a wanting and satisfactory options through harnessing human energy for profit and fitness of ecological flora and fauna. A check on anthropogenic wastes and their safer utilizations inclusive of agricultural and industrial operations in line with Lalzi Bay Coastal Line are of utmost importance for the reason that the Adriatic Sea Coast is the one long stretch of Albanian Lifeline. The present work is based on the methodology of the sustainable management of the same issue. 

Albania: Tracing the Paths of Biomass Energy

Ervin Buçpapaj, Arvjen Lushaj, Arnisa Lushaj, Sunitha N. Seenappa, Bashkim Lushaj, Orjeta Jaupaj


Current innovative biomass energy is a better option to replace fossilized fuels to make every country self sufficient and Albania is towards it to utilize its woody and non-woody biomass with its natural resources - hilly ranges, forests, rainfall, agricultural sector, rural manpower and rivers. Another sector of feedstock that Albania can make best utilizations is agricultural, agro-industrial and animal husbandry’s bio-wastes through drying, burning, pyrolysis and oxidation. Albania’s estimated energy potential is 1800 toe/year for farm wastes, 2100 TJ for animal wastes and urban wastes 9.5 Mtoe by 2050. In the current paper the authors call for bio-energy generations for Albania on sustainable way with mandatory regulatory systems of reforestation, safe-guard of ecology and food sector. Albania can utilize 48% of the rural manpower out of 3.2 million through co-operative and/or big farm establishments with incentive policies from the government. There is lack of knowledge on renewable energy production as resource to increase farm income among the agrarian communities. Agricultural Institutions and Departments of Animal Husbandry with Forestry and Engineering faculties must march hand-in-hand to tackle eco-friendly bio-energy productions by utilizing Albania’s natural replenish able resources without altering the food productions but to safe-guard and strengthen.

Impact Assessment of Fertilizer Industry Waste on Environment

R.P. Prajapati and Rashmi Singhai


The rapid growth of industrialization and urbanization during last three decades has resulted in degradation of environment, not only in developing countries, but also in advanced countries of the world. All over the world particularly in the advanced countries e.g. U.S.A. and European countries, the burning topic of the day is environmental pollution by Industry. In the race for industrialization these countries over looked its adverse effect on the environment. Fertilizer industry is one of the major industries in the India. The industry is uniformly scattered in throughout the country. Globally, fertilizer consumption has over the past few decades increasingly shifted towards developing countries. The main forces responsible for this shift are the introduction of environmental legislation restricting the use of fertilizer in many developed countries and a significant growth in fertilizer demand in developing countries, as a result an unprecedemented growth in population in most of these regions, particularly in Asia. Nitrogenous fertilizer industry utilizes a combination of natural gas naphtha, fuel oil and filler sand at varying condition for the production of different formulation of fertilizer products viz liquid ammonia and urea. More than 99% of world nitrogen fertilizer production is based on ammonia. Ammonia is basically produced from water, air and energy. Each production process result in the release high concentration of ammonia, urea, air emission SOX, NOx COX and SPM), ETP sludge and spent catalysts wastes into receiving aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These industrial hazardous wastes are considered highly toxic, therefore disposal of such wastes need proper attention so as to reduce possible environmental hazards. Industrial growth has resulted in  generation of huge volume of hazardous wastes in country. Hazardous waste management (HWM) is very important issues and is assuming significance globally. Scientific disposal of hazardous waste has become a major environmental issue in India. 

Zooplanktonic and Fish Fauna of Lake Pichhola in Relation to its Trophic Status

Vipul Sharma, Bhoopendra Kumar Verma and Madhu Sudan Sharma


During the study, water samples, zooplanktons and fishes were collected at seasonal interval of two years in Lake Pichhola. The water remained moderately alkaline (pH 7.8) while electrical conductance (0.4112 mS/cm), TDS (247.5ppm), chloride (165ppm), hardness (194.33ppm) and alkalinity (221.26ppm) showed low mean values. Average dissolved oxygen levels were at 5.9ppm while average nitrate and phosphate levels were 3.52ppm and 2.64ppm respectively. On the basis of water quality parameters in general, Lake Pichhola was found to be eutrophic. A high rate of primary production (312.08mgc/m2/hr), zooplankton (105 forms) and fish (14 species) were also observed during the study period. In this present study nearly all major taxonomic groups of zooplankton community represented by protests that include Protozoa and heterotrophic flagellates, Rotifera and two subclasses of Crustacea i.e. Cladocera and Copepoda have been taken into account. 

Theoretical study of ultrasonic velocities in binary liquid mixture containing o-xylene at different temperatures

Sk. Fakruddin, Ch. Srinivasu, K. Narendra, and N.T.Sarma


Experimentally determined values of Ultrasonic velocities are compared with Nomoto’s relation, Van Dael ideal mixing relation, impedance relation, Rao’s specific velocity relation and Junjie’s theory in the binary mixture containing quinoline and o-xylene at 303.15, 308.15, 313.15 and 318.15 K over the entire composition range. A good agreement has been found between experimental and theoretical ultrasonic velocities. For non-ideality in the mixtures, U2exp/U2imx has also been evaluated. The results are explained in terms of molecular interactions occurring in this binary liquid mixture. 

Symptom Cluster Associated to Immunological Biomarkers of Occupational Workers: An Exploratory Study

T. Tunsaringkarn, K. Zapuang and A. Rungsiyothin


The symptom cluster study is interesting in immunological field in attempt to mprove the quality of life of occupational workers who have risk of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exposure. The aims of this study were determined the revalence of symptoms and the association between symptom clusters and immunological biomarkers of occupational workers. One hundred and five gasoline station workers were included for interview and blood collection for baseline physical laboratory examinations. The results showed that most prevalence of symptoms were headache, dizziness and fatigue at 35.2%, 27.6% and 20.0% respectively which they showed strong correlation (Pearson’s correlation, p<0.001). Most of immunological parameters were higher than normal range except platelets. Headache was  significantly associated with lymphocytes, monocytes and platelets (Logistic regression analysis, p<0.05, p=0.05 and p<0.001 respectively) while dizziness was significantly associated with lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils at p<0.05. But fatigue did not show association with any immunological biomarkers of gasoline workers. Conclusions, the symptom cluster of headache, dizziness and fatigue was associated with immune system. Platelets should be specifically associated with headache symptom while eosinophils may be specifically associated with dizziness.

Computational Technique to solve structure problems

A.K. L. Srivastava, Ashok Kumar and S.R.Pandey


The stability problem of structures subjected to various types of loadings is studied using finite element method computer programming. In many circumstances the structures are found to be exposed to in-plane loading. Aircraft wing skin panels, which are made of thin sheets, are usually subjected to non-uniform in-plane  stresses. Large number of references in the published literature deals with the buckling, vibration behaviour of structures and its computer programming but no where the actual logic and flow chart available. The purpose of the present work is to deal with the computer logic for solving any structures problems. 

Evaluation of Ecological Parameters of the Benthic Fauna of Shkumbini River during Year 2010

Bledar Pepa and Anila Paparisto


Biological monitoring is a useful mean of detecting anthropogenic impacts to the aquatic community. River ecosystems are essential parts of human life in many ways, which need to be more recognized. During our survey Shkumbini River (Albania) was considered as important and adequate water course for the evaluation of ecological parameters of macro invertebrates. During our investigation based on the collection of samples in 5 different stations we identified out of 1125 specimens, 27 species. Class Insecta, order Ephemeroptera was present with 4 species, order Trichoptera with 6 species, order Diptera with 7 species and order Plecoptera with 3 species. The group of insects known as EPT (Ephemeroptera - Plecoptera - Trichoptera) constitutes 91.3% of the total number of individuals. We note that the species of EPT-group have although the highest value of Dominance and Constants in ecological analyses. 

A Prudent Approach to Civil Engineering: Nano Materials

Vipul Thakur and Dheeraj Mandloi


Use of very small particles of material either by themselves or by their manipulation to create new large scale materials is the pith of nano technology. The properties of the material actually become affected, the size of the particles is very important at the length scale of nanometre, 10-9m. The precise size at which these changes are evinced varies between materials, but is usually 100 mm or less. Nanotechnology is an extension of the science and technologies that have already been in development for many years and it is the logical concatenation of the work that has been done to examine the nature of world at a very minuscule scale. A nanometre is a billionth of a metre. Recent developments in the study and manipulation of materials and processes at the nanoscale offer the alluring anticipation of producing new macro materials, properties and products. An inevitable beneficiary of this nanotechnology is construction commercial enterprise; in fact it is already in the fields of concrete, steel and glass. Concrete has been made more durable, stronger and more easily placed, steel is much more rugged and glass has been delineated self-cleaning properties. Increased strength and durability are the major attributes of construction materials these days among the efficient usage of resources. This is achieved both prior to the construction process by a reduction in pollution during the production of materials (e.g. cement) and also in service, through efficient use of energy due to advancements in insulation. Many other effects of nanotechnology on the industry are also discussed in the paper. Two nano-sized particles that stand out in their application to construction materials are titanium dioxide (TiO2); and carbon nanotubes (CNT’s). The former is being used for its ability to break down dirt or pollution and then allow it to be washed off by rain water on everything from  concrete to glass and the latter is being used to strengthen and overseer concrete. CNT’s though, have many more properties, apart from exceptional strength, that are being researched in computing, aerospace and other areas as well. Cost and the relatively small number of practical applications, for now, hold back much of the prospects for nanotechnology. Materials though, as mentioned above, are construction’s core business and the prospects for more changes are significant in the not too distant future, in fact, the researchers surveyed predicted that many advances would arrive within five years. In order to capitalize on the effects of nanotechnology on the business, increased interdisciplinary working between researchers and communication between those researchers and industry is entailed. If nothing else, changes outside the immediate scope of construction (e.g. demographic or environmental) will drive the need for innovation in the industry.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Its Applications in Telecommunications

Jeremiah Chukwu and Agwu Joy Nneka


We live in the age of information. The development and proliferation of electronically communicated information has accelerated economic and social change across all areas of human activity worldwide and it continues to do so at a rapid pace. While the use of information and communications technology (ICT) and telecommunication remains concentrated largely in the developed world, ICT and telecommunication diffusion is beginning to reach developing countries, including poor rural areas, bringing with it high hopes of positive development outcomes. Yet although technological innovations, such as cellular telephones and wireless broadband access, are playing an important role in building ICT and telecommunication levels globally, strong inequality still remains. The rapid growth of ICTs and telecommunication in developing countries is partly a result of very low initial access, and therefore in absolute terms developing countries are still well behind the developed world in access to ICTs and telecommunication. Statistics shows that total telephone access in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa grew by an average of 22 and 17 percent per year, respectively, from 1990 to 2003, but their current levels of access are still just 6.2 and 5.8 percent. Inequality of access is even greater within developing countries, especially between urban and rural areas, where the digital divide continues to widen. 

A Report on Application of Power Electronics on Renewable Energy System

Virendra Kumar Maurya, Rituraj Jalan, Dharmendra Pal, Abhishek Milliand Siddratha, Bhupendra Singh,


Power electronics is having blended use in renewable energy in wind and photovoltaic system. Power electronics is now developing in the area of efficiency and reduction of installation cost. Wind turbine now uses inverter with improved efficiency and regulation